Premium Essay

Mangement Accounting

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Divyesh123
Words 1595
Pages 7
Introduction
Managerial accounting is concerned with providing information to managers- that is, to those who are inside an organization and who direct and control its operations. Managerial accounting can be contrasted with financial accounting, which is concerned with providing information to stockholders, creditors and others who are outside an organization (Garrison and Noreen, 1999).

Managerial accounting information includes: * Information on the costs of an organization’s products and services.
For Example, managers can use product costs to guide the setting of selling prices. In addition, these product costs are used for inventory valuation and income determination (Horngren and Foster, pp. 2). * Budgets:
A budget is a quantitative expression of a plan. * Performance reports:
These reports often consist of comparisons of budgets with actual results. The deviations of actual results from budget are called variances (Horngren and Foster, pp. 3) * Other information which assist managers in their planning and control activities.
Examples are information on revenues of an organization’s products and services, sales back logs, unit quantities and demands on capacity resources (Kaplan and Atkinson, pp. 1).

Managerial Accounting Practices around the World

Traditional managerial accounting systems are mainly designed to measure the efficiency of internal processes. In the 1980’s, traditional managerial accounting practitioners were heavily criticized on the grounds that their practices had changed little over the preceding 60 years, despite radical changes in the business environment.

The last decade’s new managerial accounting practices such as activity-based-costing, the balanced scorecard and bottleneck accounting were developed.

Unlike traditional managerial accounting, activity-based-costing...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Dr Manger

...Organizational Theory, Design, and Change Jones 6th Edition Test Bank Click here to download the solutions manual / test bank INSTANTLY!!! http://solutionsmanualtestbanks.blogspot.com/2011/10/organizational-theory-d esign-and-change_18.html ----------------------------------------------------------------------Organizational Organizational Organizational Organizational Theory, Theory, Theory, Theory, Design, Design, Design, Design, and and and and Change Change Change Change Jones Jones Jones Jones 6th 6th 6th 6th Edition Edition Edition Edition Test Test Test Test Bank Bank Bank Bank -------------------------------------------------------------------------***THIS IS NOT THE ACTUAL BOOK. YOU ARE BUYING the Test Bank in e-version of the following book*** Name: Organizational Theory, Design, and Change Author: Jones Edition: 6th ISBN-10: 0136087310 Type: Test Bank - The test bank is what most professors use an a reference when making exams for their students, which means there’s a very high chance that you will see a very similar, if not exact the exact, question in the test! - The file is either in .doc, .pdf, excel, or zipped in the package and can easily be read on PCs and Macs. - Delivery is INSTANT. You can download the files IMMEDIATELY once payment is done. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact us. Our response is the fastest. All questions will always be answered in 6 hours. This is the quality of service we are providing and we hope to be your...

Words: 29834 - Pages: 120

Premium Essay

Management Accounting

...Handbook of Management Accounting Research Volume 3 Edited by CHRISTOPHER S. CHAPMAN Imperial College London, UK ANTHONY G. HOPWOOD University of Oxford, UK MICHAEL D. SHIELDS Michigan State University, USA AMSTERDAM – BOSTON – HEIDELBERG – LONDON – NEW YORK – OXFORD PARIS – SAN DIEGO – SAN FRANCISCO – SINGAPORE – SYDNEY – TOKYO Elsevier The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, UK First edition 2009 Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone ( 44) (0) 1865 843830; fax ( 44) (0) 1865 853333; email: permissions@elsevier.com. Alternatively visit the Science and Technology Books website at www.elsevierdirect.com/rights for further information Notice No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record......

Words: 187223 - Pages: 749

Premium Essay

Reporting Practices and Ethics Paper

...Reporting Practices and Ethics Paper Linda Flareau HCS/405 12/12/2011 Todd Brown Financial management of a medical care facility includes ethical standards and also reporting practices. The facilities have to report the financial information factually and fairly. With professional financial management and reporting practices, these facilities carry the high expectations to upholding ethical standards and behavior. The financial data helps to aid in the assessment of the timing, amounts, and uncertainties of flows of cash, and as well as furnishing data about the facilities economic resources, claims towards the resources, equity, and changes within the claims and resources. The manager’s most important challenge is to solving problems strategically. As to the development of a variety of academic disciplines, and to aid managers to responding to the challenge of developed problem solving, principles of management are categorized into a system of functions that are summarized as planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. * Planning is the function of which the management that includes setting goals and determines the course of action to achieving these goals. Planning requires that managers be good decision makers and it requires them to be aware of environmental conditions that the organization is facing as well as forecast future conditions. Strategic planning includes competitive threats and opportunities, along with the weaknesses and strengths within......

Words: 987 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

System Integrity and Validation

...A. Davis, Jr. ACC/542 October 21, 2013 Irene Branum Preface In the last few weeks the accounting firm, Team D has looked into characteristics of Kudler Fine Foods and provided recommendations to update and replace existing components of the IT system. These recommendations made can yield in the company’s increased productivity, profitability, and remove potential threats. Team D determined that industry specific software is useful in comparison to customized software. Four main modules such as payroll, account payable, accounts receivable, and inventory were developed as well as enhancement of each flowchart based on the appropriate system. Team D examined the database completeness at Kudler’s intranet and developed a pivot table; therefore, making the decision-making process easy. External and internal risks were analyzed and internal control points were developed by incorporating both risks and controls into a flowchart. Team D also showed why findings and recommendations are more useful to the company in comparison to SAS70 and SAS94 audits. The team identified events that will lessen the dependence on auditing through computer and showed a brief description how the audit should be conducted. System Integrity and Validation Kudler Finer Foods has looked for recommendations regarding the company, to include computer information system, automated process of an accounting information system, data table analysis, internal control and risk evaluation, and auditing......

Words: 1182 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Royal Mint

...I. Introduction The Royal Mint has a unique manufacturing operation in the United Kingdom and also designated as an executive agency responsible to the treasury to the “Her Majesty's” Government. Its objective is to provide the government with coinage at a competitive price and its manufacturing requirement ranges from high volumes of standard coinage to individual service medals or commemorative coins. In the case of the Royal Mint, they follow a unique cost ceiling that their cost base must always be less than the face value of the coins being produced. In order to follow that unique cost ceiling, the researchers follow the concept of simultaneous design by being involved in initiatives to improve materials being used in both coins and dies. Then due to high inflation rate, the face value of the coin is exceeding the cost base of the raw material and with the help of using the concept of simultaneous design, the Royal Mint quickly mitigated the risk by changing the composition of the 2 Pound and 1 Pound coins to a steal core with an electroplated copper outer layer and has significantly reduced the unit cost and it added expected lifetime by using a less expensive metal base. II. Background The Royal Mint has a cost ceiling that the cost base of the material must be less than the face value of the coin being produced. In order to follow that unique cost ceiling, the Royal Mint implemented the Concept of Simultaneous Design to research on how to further......

Words: 931 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Johnson

...CHAPTER 17 PROCESS COSTING 17-1 Industries using process costing in their manufacturing area include chemical processing, oil refining, pharmaceuticals, plastics, brick and tile manufacturing, semiconductor chips, beverages, and breakfast cereals. 17-2 Process costing systems separate costs into cost categories according to the timing of when costs are introduced into the process. Often, only two cost classifications, direct materials and conversion costs, are necessary. Direct materials are frequently added at one point in time, often the start or the end of the process. All conversion costs are added at about the same time, but in a pattern different from direct materials costs. Conversion costs are often added throughout the process, which can of any length of time, lasting from seconds to several months. 17-3 Equivalent units is a derived amount of output units that takes the quantity of each input (factor of production) in units completed or in incomplete units in work in process, and converts the quantity of input into the amount of completed output units that could be made with that quantity of input. Each equivalent unit is comprised of the physical quantities of direct materials or conversion costs inputs necessary to produce output of one fully completed unit. Equivalent unit measures are necessary since all physical units are not completed to the same extent at the same time. 17-4 The accuracy of the estimates of completion depends on the care and skill of the......

Words: 13645 - Pages: 55

Free Essay

Memo of Law

...Memo of law Question/Issue Presented What evidence can be found during a legal discovery and how does this affect the record-keeping policy of a business organization? Applicable Law and Ethical Standards Newby v. Enron Corp. , 2002 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 28397 (S.D. Tex. May 1, 2002) Newby v. Enron Corp. (In re Enron Cor... , 2003 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 1668, Fed. Sec. L. Rep. (CCH) P92404 (S.D. Tex. Jan. 28, 2003) United States v. Arthur Andersen LLP , 2002 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 26870 (S.D. Tex. May 24, 2002) 18 USCS § 1512 Discussion/Analysis (of Law and Facts) During a legal discovery which includes the procedures of Deposition, Interrogatories and Production of Documents there can be different evidence found depending on the area of work the business organization is involved in. An example could be that a company tried to create false documents with the intent to seem like a good investment or to avoid paying taxes. During a deposition evidence can be found that people questioned tell conflicting stories. It is crucial to be able to deliver the right documents requested during a discovery. Therefore, it is important to have an organized record-keeping policy for any organization. Furthermore, a business should keep its records as correct as possible and not be tempted to give in to fraud, changing documents or destroying important documents. A company should follow the law to keep the required documents. It would be a crime to hide, destroy and/or withhold......

Words: 345 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Toolbox

...TOOLBOX: 1) Inventory Management - Inventory Turnover Ratio = Costs of Goods Sold/ Inventory If inventory turns over 6 times, how many days does it stay on the shelves or in the warehouse? These are annual figures: 365/7 = 60 days on the shelves. Need a better specific Mission Statement. 2) Costs that do no change with volume of output are called -Fixed Costs Costs that change when volume changes are called -Variable Costs 3) Fishbone Analysis 4) Low Urg/Low Impt – Low Urg/High Imp High Urg/Low Impt – High Urg/High Imp 5) Present Value and Future Value PV x C^n = FV When comparing investments....pick the one that has a larger present value. 6) PORTER 5 Porter 5 does not cover the opportunities part of the SWOT ad Market Growth Potential. 7) HILO METHOD: Finds Slope (FC, VC) [(Total Cost From Later Year - Total Cost from Year Before Later)] / [(Units from Later Year /-Units from Year Before Later)] = VC FC = Total Cost – (VC)(UNITS) 2012 Units: 800 Total costs: 7000 2011 Units: 500 Total costs : 6100 [7000/6100] / [800/500] = $3/unit ( VC 3(800) 2400 ... 7000-2400 FC= 4600 8) BREAKEVEN POINT BE = [FC/[P-VC] BE ( Given a total profit ) = [FC+TP]/[P-VC] QUESTION: How many units must you sell to earn $100 000 in profit 4600+ 100 000/ [5-3] = 104600/2 = 52 300 9) FINANCIAL STATEMENT BALANCE SHEET - ASSETS = LIABILITIES + EQUITY INCOME STATEMENT- NET INCOME = REVENUE MINUS EXPENSES CASH FLOW......

Words: 329 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Andre's Hair Styling

...ACCT310 - 1304B – 07 Andre’s Hair Styling American Intercontinental University Online December 1, 2013 ABSTRACT The following information is going to contain information from Andre’s hair styling. The information is going to detail the contribution margin, the annual break-even point, as well as the operating income. Fixed costs consist of the barbers so to figure that out we must take their nine dollars and ninety cents an hour that they are paid and multiply that by the barbers forty hour work week and then multiply that by the fifty weeks that they work a year and then again multiply by the five different barbers that are working at Andre’s Hair Styling; we then get ninety-nine thousand dollars as the outcome. ($9.90*40 hours a week*50 weeks a year* 5 barbers) = $99,000 which added together is one hundred and twenty thousand dollars. Other expenses for Andre’s Hair Styling consists of the remaining fixed costs per month which is one thousand seven hundred and fifty and then multiply that by twelve months and we get twenty-one thousand dollars a year for other fixed expenses. ($1,750 fixed expenses * 12 months in a year) = $ 21,000 Now that we have done all of that calculations to begin answering the questions at hand we will go from 1-4. 1. The first task is to find the contribution margin per hair cut at the same time assuming that the barber’s compensation is a fixed cost. So we take the following in mind. Andre’s hair styling is charging twelve......

Words: 894 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Acc Cost, Volume, and Profit Formulas

...Assignment: Cost, Volume, and Profit Formulas ACC220 February 19, 2012 Assignment: Cost, Volume, and Profit Formulas In a business, it is profit that ultimately determines whether a business succeeds or fails a financial year. To aid in forming decisions, managers depend on information presented in Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) analysis. In a CVP analysis, information is built on the interrelation of five general components. By understanding these components and how they relate to one-another, managers and accountants can also determine the contribution margin ratio. With these factors in hand, managers can predict the contribution ratios necessary to balance expenses and maximize profits. For managers to make successful decisions in business, they need to understand the components, the factors, and how they relate to one-another. Creating a CVP analysis requires knowledge of five general components: The volume of a business’ activities, the selling prices of individual units, the variable and fixed costs of producing each unit, and the net total of multiple types of units sold. The volume of business’ activities generally refers to the total units of any specific merchandise sold, which is multiplied with selling prices. Following the income of sales, the variable costs (costs to produce each unit) is subtracted to determine the contribution margin. Finally, the fixed costs (supporting budget) are subtracted from the contributions margin to determine the net income in a......

Words: 961 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Publix

...Running Head: PUBLIX CMT Contemporary Management Technique for Publix Target Costing Rationale Publix Super Markets, Inc. is a primarily Florida established grocery store chain which employees over 120,000. Currently, Publix serves over one million customers each day and is also one of the largest employee-owned businesses in the world. Moreover, the company is one of Florida’s leading supermarkets and has tailored to most cultural trends in the grocery industry-organic foods; health foods, natural foods, prepared meals, ethnic ingredients, etc. Publix grocery has benefited from great success in the industry and has expanded out of primary market, Florida. However, with the arrival of globalization impacting margins in almost every industry, the food retailing/supermarket industry has now joined the trend. International and domestic food retailers around the globe have started to internationalize at a brisk rate and open operations around the globe (Mujtaba & Franklin, 2007). The right product pricing is one of the most important matters concerning the growth of companies’ financial performance. Prices should be low enough to draw in customers; however, simultaneously high enough to cover all costs and anticipated profits. Research in the supermarket industry indicates that nine percent of customers leave and shop elsewhere because they think prices are too high. The supermarket business is becoming more and more concentrated as large regional chains such......

Words: 3649 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Kudler Accounting System

...Kudler Accounting System Derek Gleaves UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX BSA/310 Frank Skowron December 18, 2011 Kudler Accounting System Kudler wants to incorporate an SQL database that contains the fields found in the company's Chart of Accounts. Add a balance field and create a query that will display all of the fields of the database and run a report totaling the balance field using test data added to the database. Kudler's Chart of Accounts is currently a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and they want the Chart of Accounts upgraded to the SQL database. The new database will be used to facilitate decision making at the store and department levels. The processes of Kudler Fine Foods include inventory, payroll, accounts payable and accounts receivable. Using a new accounting information systems, will improve these processes from the old system. Key features Intergrading the new accounting system at Kudler Fine Foods has made the company gain new key features along with adding the old key features, such as; It allows the company to keep track of customer purchases. Each time a customer creates a purchase it will register to the new accounting system main computer, and shows what items were purchased along with the price paid. This new system shows the accounts receivables, this show the money being received, and the money going out. The current system at Kudler could be improved through the automation. The objective of accounts payable processing is to pay vendors at......

Words: 800 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Worldcom Financial Fraud

...Final Paper: Case Study of WorldCom Financial Statement Fraud Introduction This paper will discuss the financial statement fraud committed by WorldCom by examining what led up to the fraud, who committed it and why, and the impact it caused on various stakeholders and the economy. WorldCom applied aggressive and undisclosed accounting tactics to provide financial statements that reflected a $10 billion profit for the years 2000 and 2001, rather than the actual combined loss of $73.7 billion that occurred (Romar, 2006). Opportunity, pressure, and rationalization were all present in this severe example of financial statement fraud which had a devastating impact on stakeholders globally. Basis for Understanding Financial Statement Fraud Prior to taking a deep dive into this specific example, it is important to first understand what constitutes financial statement fraud. Financial statement fraud can be defined as “deliberate misstatements or omissions of amounts or disclosures of financial statements to deceive financial statement users, particularly investors and creditors” (Wells, 2011, p. 299). Financial statement frauds can be broken down into five distinct categories: fictitious revenues, improper asset valuations, concealed liabilities and expenses, timing differences, and improper disclosures” (Wells, 2011, p. 292). The History of WorldCom “WorldCom began in Mississippi as a small provider of long distance telephone services” (Lyke, 2002). However, due to......

Words: 3888 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Human Assets and Balance Sheet

...the business success due to their knowledge, skills and creativity. They represent a valuable resource and should be placed on the left side of the balance sheet. The benefit of treating employee as valuable assets is that companies which invest in their employees create a positive environment so that they can work and perform better financially. One example of an organization that has done this is Infosys (The Commerce Pedia, 2012), the giant Info Technology services firm in India. The entire workforce within the firm was assigned a value using an accounting model that calculates all of its employees’ collective worth. By doing this, Infosys has a significant commitment to investing in employees across all functions and levels of experience and the firm can take managerial decisions based on the availability and the necessity of human resources. After considering the influence of the human capital investment, the accounting equation should be revised as “assets = liabilities + owners' equity”, where the assets include human assets and material assets. With the recognition of the importance of human resource, it will be incorporated into the company's external financial reports to provide more reliable information. Reference: The Commerce Pedia, 2012,...

Words: 344 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

1. Why Would Any Customer, Let Alone Large Advertising Agencies and Departmental Stores, Go to Colorscope Rather Than Go to the Large Printers Listed in Exhibit 3?

...Seyhun Shikhaliyev CASE STUDY COLORSCOPE 1. Why would any customer, let alone large advertising agencies and departmental stores, go to Colorscope rather than go to the large printers listed in Exhibit 3? The main line from the colorscope inc background are the corporate was found in march 1976, the first target customers is local customers (small agencies), and after that colorscope growth significantly that thing can be proved in 1988 sales colorscope over than USD 5 Milion and they served Big Customer, since growth they invest capital expenditure in order to improve services. In 1990 when the overall technology growth rapidly and there are more competitor than before, this situation make the condition under pressure, the first impact from this condition is price war, so the market pressure forced him to reduce his own price. After all finally in 1994 , colorscope loss signifant & long term client ( where the client omset is 80 % of his business). If colorscope want to survive in this business they must reevaluate the industry from the operation to his pricing policy. Direct Competitor 1. Larger, more technically savvy printing companies with professional salespeople pushing bundled pricing, integrating pre-press services with printing in a single package, such as R.R. Donnelley & Sons Co. and Quad Graphics. 2. Companies that competed in several different submarkets beyond catalogs, e.g. insert, comic syndications, and coupons, such as American Color......

Words: 1649 - Pages: 7