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Manifesto

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Find out what the Communist Manifesto is. Learn the main ideas of each chapter of the Manifesto, and the points of communism's political platform. Read the lesson, then take a quiz to test your new knowledge.

We also recommend watching Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels: The Communist Manifesto and Balcony Scene in Romeo and Juliet: Summary, Analysis & Quiz

The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto is a brief publication that declares the arguments and platform of the communist party. It was was written in 1847 by political theorists Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, and was commissioned by the Communist League, a political party based in England.

Summary
The Communist Manifesto was published in 1848, and consists of a preamble and four chapters, which are summarized below:

Bourgeois and Proletarians
In this chapter, Marx famously states 'The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles'. The chapter lays out the position that the bourgeois, through competition and private ownership of land, are forever exploiting and oppressing the proletariat (working class). Marx then states that the system always results in class conflict and revolution, and should be replaced by communism -- a society without class distinctions.

Proletarians and Communists
This chapter explains the relationship between the communist party and other working parties, stating that the communist parties would not organize against them. The chapter also declares the intention of the party to focus on the interests of the proletariat as whole, and not any particular group. This section of the manifesto also clarifies the main points of the communist platform, which includes the following ten short term demands:

Abolishing ownership of all private property,
Establishing system of heavy taxation
Abolishing the right to inherit
Centralizing credit and...

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