Free Essay

Marine Environmental Impact and Energy Use

In: Business and Management

Submitted By cheekychalmers
Words 2136
Pages 9
Marine environmental impact and energy use

Bridging the environmental gap in shipping

Faced with current and anticipated legislation, increasing customer environmental awareness among cargo owners and passengers plus fuel cost rises, there has never been a better time for the senior management of shipping companies to rationalise their company’s energy use. Stuart Melling, manager for marine and crane service at ABB Ltd., examines some of the options.

From emissions reduction, improved fuel use through to the environmental impact of new builds, the shipping industry faces a challenging future.

Emissions reduction
In 2007 the global shipping industry is estimated to have emitted 1,046 million tonnes of CO2, which is some 3.3 percent of total global emissions. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) predicts a 250 percent rise in emission levels as a result of expanding sea transport, if suitable energy efficiency policies are not implemented.

Yet legislation has in many respects by-passed the shipping sector as reflected by its exclusion from international agreements such as the Kyoto protocol. Even though shipping is recognised as the cleanest form of transporting goods, with the least damage per tonne of cargo, ship exhaust emissions are regarded as the industry's biggest polluter.

So although the marine industry has consistently resisted taking any significant measures to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, it now looks like it will finally bow to pressure, as many governments now want to include shipping in future agreements. As such IMO is implementing, by 2015, new sulphur emission targets for marine fuel oil. IMO has also demonstrated a potential to reduce CO2 emissions by 25 to 75 percent for newbuilds, as well as for ships already operational, simply through an increased focus on energy efficiency.

Improved fuel use
An important environmental driver for the shipping sector is fuel. Bunker fuel accounts for some 50 percent of the total transport costs of a tanker company. With its direct connection to crude oil prices, it can only get more expensive. Fuel costs are further compounded for those vessels that generate emissions while docked in port by running their auxiliary engines to create onboard electric power. In ports with heavy ship traffic, this practice creates emissions and negative health and environmental impact to the local surrounding communities.

A shore-to-ship electric power supply can help eliminate pollution problems such as carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and particle discharge as well as noise and vibration from ships in port. With shore-to-ship power, ships can shut down their engines while berthed and plug into an onshore power source. The ship´s power load is seamlessly transferred to the shoreside power supply without disruption to onboard services, eliminating emissions to the local environment.

ABB offers a complete, seamlessly integrated shore-to-ship power solution for safe and reliable power transfer from the public electric power grid to the ship while in port. This complies with international standards laid out by the relevant professional bodies.

Environmental impact of new builds
To further reduce emissions, IMO agreed to adopt mandatory energy efficiency design standards for new ships. The regulations will require the use of an Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for new ships, stipulating a specific level of energy efficiency to be attained, and a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) for all ships.

The amendments to the MARPOL regulations, which are expected to come into force in January 2013, will apply to all ships of 400 gross tonnage and above. Ships built between 2015 and 2019 will have to be 10 percent more efficient, rising to 20 percent between 2020 and 2024 and 30 percent thereafter. But new ships already contracted or under construction in developing nations when the new regulations come into force may be exempt from the scheme.

So there are plenty reasons why environmental issues and energy efficiency are now high on the agenda.

But why wait for the legislation?
Working now with energy efficiency can prepare the path for this inevitable environmental legislation. Some cargo owners are already considering the environmental performance of their transport providers based on voluntarily submitted environmental data. As part of the EEDI and SEEMP, IMO is also considering the idea of vessels displaying their energy performance through theses design and operation indices.

Away from these initiatives, shipping companies can take some straightforward action ranging from speed control of pumps and fans through to recycling heat.

Energy-saving variable-speed drives
A major cruise liner company worked with ABB to install ABB’s market leading variable-speed drives (VSDs) on large onboard fans and blowers throughout its fleet. VSD control ensures that the fans always run at the optimum speed which significantly reduces emissions and fuel costs through reduction in energy use. The first two ships saved 1,820 tons of bunker fuel and reduced emissions by 5,732 tons during the 12 months following the upgrade.

The biggest commercial benefit of energy saving is that it directly results in profit. Take a shipping company where 50 percent of costs are fuel and profits are 10 percent of turnover, then a 10 percent decrease in fuel consumption would increase profit by 45 percent.

The reality for the marine industry is that cost-efficient technology to save energy exists; it is just not being implemented rapidly enough. The result is that the industry faces an energy-efficiency gap. Researchers have found the reasons for the slow uptake of new technology are organisational failure, lack of time and shortage of competence. There is often no long term energy strategy with energy issues being given low priority.

Yet the payback for many of today’s energy-saving technologies – most notably drives and motors – can be within months. It is a case of identifying many applications that offer a small saving from energy-efficiency measures, yet collectively they add up to a significant total saving.

Marine energy appraisal service
To help the shipping industry find the applications that can most benefit from energy-saving technologies, ABB has devised a marine energy appraisal service that aims to identify the motor-driven applications that can benefit from the use of variable-speed drives, with payback often under two years.

Marine energy appraisal – What’s involved 1. ABB surveys the vessel to identify motor-driven applications that can benefit from energy saving technology. 2. Input data and documentation are collected during an on-board survey including: a. Ship’s heat balance calculation b. Air balance calculation c. Layout of the systems d. Machinery datasheet e. Schedule of ship’s route f. Current system management g. Survey on board h. Vessel operational profile 3. The energy appraisal is undertaken to find comparison between power consumption and demand. 4. A final report verifies the results including a return on investment. Typical findings may include: i. Vessel has been designed for worst climate condition j. Motors of fans and pumps run only at fixed speed k. The current cooling or pumping system is wasting up to 70 percent of energy

5. A cost proposal for implementing improvements is presented showing investment costs, payback and environmental improvements 6. If accepted an installation site survey is carried out 7. The results are verified to confirm the actual saving.

Among the large energy consumers on board vessels, are seawater cooling pumps, chilled water pumps and engine room ventilation fans. These applications are often over-dimensioned to handle the most extreme conditions. In addition they typically operate at full capacity even when demand is not high. Any flow control is often through mechanical devices such as bypass valves and dampers which are inefficient in that they effectively waste energy.

Utilising variable-speed drives to adjust the speed of the motors according to demand, can very often reduce the energy consumed by about 50 percent with payback on equipment and installation, from fuel savings alone, in less than one year.

Lowering energy consumption helps to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions because of reduced load on the vessels diesel generators. A single average size seawater cooling pump can save $29,000 and 117 tons of CO2 per year. When applied ship-wide and fleet-wide these savings can be tremendous.

There is a large potential for retrofitting existing ships with new fuel-reducing technologies. For example, only around 2 percent of the global fleet is currently equipped with variable-speed drives for their seawater cooling pumps, which means that 98 percent of the fleet is missing an opportunity for high fuel savings, environmental and commercial rewards.

The energy saving measures are not confined to one part of the shipping industry. They are relevant to most market sectors, single ships or entire fleets, planned newbuilds as well as operating old vessels.

Energy Management System
From the very start, senior management needs to be engaged in environmental and energy efficiency issues. They should appoint an energy champion with agreed key targets, responsibilities and authority and provide the resources necessary to deal efficiently with the company’s energy issues. This is essential to avoid the “when everyone is responsible, often no one is responsible” scenario. The champion then needs to develop an in-depth understanding of the company’s present and expected energy consumption. Only then can accurate measurements, comparisons and follow-ups be implemented. As the old adage goes, “you can’t manage what you don’t measure.”

Companies should consider an Energy Management System (EMS) which recognises that proper procedures for measuring and following-up results are as important as being able to plan and implement. The aim of an EMS is to maximise profits, while minimising costs and increase the company’s competitiveness. For example, it addresses all aspects such as bringing together employees that affect energy performance. Often such employees are physically and organisationally far apart from those making decisions on investments - one may be stationed on a vessel while the other is located in an office somewhere else in the world. A ‘top down’ communication of energy management commitment as part of the desired organisational culture can help galvanise support.

Another aspect of an EMS is to map and analyse energy usage. This provides data to assess measures and decide on goals for energy efficiency that are challenging but still achievable. Yet it all depends on having a structure in place.

For those companies – and there are many – who are still working on their energy strategy, ABB has come up with a very attractive answer. ABB’s projects and consulting service provides retrofit options that enhance productivity, safety, energy efficiency and environmental impact. ABB has the skills and resource for consulting, implementing and overseeing the complete modernisation project.

Energy monitoring and management tool
Supporting the ABB projects and consulting services are a series of management services, one of which is an energy monitoring and management (EMMA) tool which can have a big impact on fuel cost reduction. EMMA has been developed specifically for marine companies to operate a ship, several ships or a whole fleet with best possible energy efficiency and environmental responsibility. It puts energy on the agenda throughout the company and makes it possible to optimise energy-related processes, practices and decisions, all the way from the engine room to the board room.

For the ship owner, EMMA represents a key element of an energy management program for improving profitability and reducing the company's overall environmental footprint. Whether a single ship or an entire fleet, the monitoring software gives almost complete visibility to energy production and consumption performance. ABB's trained consultants support the staff onboard and onshore to interpret the information, identify improvement areas, set targets, and coach the staff in running the vessel more efficiently. The management onshore receives consulting and benchmarking services in running the fleet more efficiently in order to optimize the return-on-investment. Owners can expect a payback for the service package, consisting of a license and management fee, within 12 months.

EMMA is not a technically complex system, but highly developed software running on ordinary PCs onboard and ashore. The system’s users include crew members with specific responsibilities for energy consumption onboard and personnel with responsibility for the fleet’s overall energy costs, emissions and competitiveness.

In many shipping companies energy use is not transparent. Even when relevant information is logged, the data is often not understood, interpreted or used correctly. Lack of meaningful performance data can make it difficult to assess the implemented measures, which in turn could hinder continued investments in energy efficiency or the acknowledgement of any successes.

The current challenges facing the shipping industry are immense, from environmental regulation, rising fuel prices and international bodies imposing tougher environmental requirements. But at least with services such as ABB’s shore-to-ship power supply, marine energy appraisal scheme and EMMA, the voyage to energy efficiency just a became a lot easier to navigate.

-ends-

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Energy Use

...Personal Energy Use My current energy usage consists of many forms of energy, mainly fossil fuels. In the home I use natural gas for cooking, and electricity for heat, hot water, and appliance usage. There is one other form of energy I use in the home and that is wood, a biofuel, as fuel to burn in the fireplace to help heat the house in the winter. On my way to work I use gasoline, another fossil fuel, as energy for transportation. While at work there is a large amount of energy usage, from powering the computer monitors all the way to supplying the power for ventilators so patients can breathe. My energy needs fluctuate throughout the year, as the summers and winters in Pennsylvania can be at the extremes. My energy usage in the summer is much lower than the winter. I rarely use my central air for cooling in the summer as I find opening the windows or spending time in the basement just as comforting. The days are longer which limits the amount of electricity I use for lighting. I do spend quite a bit of time traveling to the beach in the summer which uses a lot of gasoline. In the winter my energy consumption rises as the temperature drops. Electricity increases as the house needs to be heated and the days grow shorter increasing the light needed. The energy sources I rely on come mainly from fossil fuels, a non-renewable form of energy. Fossil fuels include coal, petroleum, oil and make up approximately 82% of the United States energy demand ( Institute for......

Words: 979 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Environmental Energies and Building Form

...traditional historical techniques and elements that revive the energy efficient design solutions from the traditions. The revivalist approach rejects the technological solutions toward sustainability and depends on only traditional techniques. An example of a very well known traditional sustainable strategy is including the courtyard as a primary element in the houses that allows for having an outdoor shaded private area. The courtyard also allows for more ventilation within the houses. In addition, the traditional louvers that are used on the openings as shading devices eliminate heat gain and minimize the need for air conditioning. In my point of view, the most significant point of the revivalist approach is that it suggests solutions that deal with each region as a separate case that provides solutions according to the local resources, climate and cultures. On the other hand, the second adopted approach contributes to the sustainable development through a progressive approach. The progressive approach seeks solutions from technological transformation and ignores the traditional aspects of the region. This approach withdraws the efforts to achieve comfort through excluding traditional solution strategies but creates new modern strategic technologies that eliminate the wide range of human comfort. The new technologies rely on the dynamic modeling and the management of the complex modeling to control the environmental impact of the buildings and the operating costs.......

Words: 612 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Environmental Impact of the Gulf War

...Environmental Impact of the Gulf War The Gulf War of 1990-1991 seemed to have been a decisive victory from a militarily and tactical point of view. From an environmental point of view the Gulf War was a disaster that ravaged the local ecosystem that the conflict touched. Both the Iraqi aggressors and the allied forces committed crimes against the environment ranging from use of minerals such as depleted Uranium for weapons manufacturing, and deliberate dumping of oil into the Gulf. The dumped oil spills had a major impact on the ecosystem around the Gulf region and in the Gulf itself. The actions that were taken and not taken from both parties (Iraqi troops, and allied forces) had a negative implication on the resources, and ecosystem of the Gulf. There were three reasons as to why the Gulf war came about. First, Iraq had long claimed that Kuwait was a part of its own country. This claim led to many confrontations and hostility between the two countries. Along with Saddam Hussein’s defeated invasion attempt of Iran, it can be argued that he sought to find a weaker foe in order to conquer which happened to be Kuwait. Second, rich deposits of crude oil had straddled the borders of the ill-defined desert area, and Iraq claimed that Kuwaiti oil riggers were illegally tapping this rich reserve that was claimed to be part of Iraqi fields. The Middle Eastern deserts make it so that border differences between local countries are hard to distinguish, thus leading to conflicts.......

Words: 2764 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Energy Uses

... The Future of Energy | Energy Alternatives | | Courtney BrownKaplan UniversityBig Ideas in Science: From Methods to Mutation | 2/26/2013 | | The amount of money spent on one person for energy is $3,460, according to a 2009 study done by EIA State Energy Data. In that 2009 study in the state of Pennsylvania, where I currently reside, Pennsylvania spent $3,437.40 per person. This number is a difference of $23.32 from the US average. Pennsylvania stands at a rank of 31 out of the 50 states. Can you guess what the state that takes the number one spot? Alaska. Alaska spent $7,684.06 per person in the year 2009. This number makes a difference of $4,223.33 from the US average (EIA, 2009). Every day from the minute you wake up to the minute you go to bed you are using some sort of energy. For the past couple of days I have really tried to look at all the different types of energy that I have used. The first source of energy that I noticed I use a lot of is electrical energy. We use this energy for basically everything that we come in contact with; cell phone chargers, laptops, television, lamps, refrigerators and even your car’s battery. Even though you will always use this energy every day, the amount of the energy can vary. In 12 days we will be turning our clocks for daylight savings, and in this case this is help us save on energy because it will stay daylight out longer so you will not need to turn on the lights so early. Another way energy usage can......

Words: 1680 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Environmental Impacts

...Environment 1 Environmental Impacts John Martinez International Business Week 2 Assignment Instructor Mark Lewis Environment 2 Environmental Impacts In my project I have chosen to market the iPhone 4, an Apple product, in the country of Mexico. With this type of technology venture, there would be huge ramifications in regards to the impact on the environment of Mexico. First and foremost, if the iPhone 4 were to be sold in Mexico that would mean that the quality of Mexico’s cellular networks would have to be upgraded. Apple would have to invest and perhaps help with the strategy in upgrading Mexico’s data network so that it would be able to handle the increased amount of data traffic over the air. This would mean more cell phone towers and hub stations that help increase the data bandwidth and enable more users to use a Smartphone device, such as the iPhone 4. Many people do not realize that the cost to build a cell phone tower can be rather expensive plus that facts that you need to have zoning rights to put a tower in an area where some people do not want it. Especially in tourist areas where the landscape is beautiful, it can be an eye sore to have a huge tower built right in the middle of it. Luckily there are many designs today where these towers can be created in an inconspicuous manner and are hidden from the public view. Another challenge to this obstacle would be getting permission to build these towers and having to deal with a......

Words: 453 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Environmental Impact

...2007 Symposium , 5-8 June 2007 Post-spill environmental impact assessment: approaches & needs Ivan Calvez & Loïc Kerambrun Cedre, France ntre for ocumentation, esearch and xperimentations on accidental water pollutions • Non profit organisation in charge of : – Documentation – Training – Research & Development – Contingency planning – Advice and expertise More info at www.cedre.fr Post-spill environmental impact assessment: approaches & needs. INTRODUCTION • Each major oil spill → ecological impact assessment (EIA) • Studies may differ (targets, methods, duration…) from one accident to another: - Pollution features (e.g. meteo oceanic conditions…); - Ecological concerns (sensitivity, special interest…); - Type of oil (crude vs. fuel); - Research team availability; - Fundings; - Socio-economic concerns; - ... • different context priorities... different motivations, different Post-spill environmental impact assessment: approaches & needs. INTRODUCTION What is required to assess accurately the environmental impact of oil spill: No loss of time, no loss of information • set-up the framework defining initial measures and research that can be implemented as realistically as possible in terms of human, technical and financial resources quickly decide and implement the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) programme What should be surveyed, how and to what end? • Post-spill environmental impact assessment: approaches &......

Words: 2185 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Impact of Sonar on Marine Mammals

...The U.S. Navy has been working to advance its ability to detect enemy submarines for decades. The Navy’s low-frequency sonar system has been a topic of controversy among environmental advocates for years. This system, known as Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LAF) allows the Navy to detect enemy submarines with enough time to react and defend themselves. During the course of developing and testing the SURTASS LFA system, environmental interest groups raised concerns that the system may cause harm to marine mammals. Whales use sound for communication, navigation, orientation, and in locating food. This is known as echolocation. The Navy’s mid-frequency sonar can cause whales to dive deeper into the ocean, or rise quickly. Like humans, whales can get the bends from these types of underwater movements. The loud noises created by the Navy’s sonar system are believed to interrupt their ability to communicate, navigate and look for food. These disruptions are believed to harm the whales physically and cause state of panic which often leads to strandings and collisions (Drumm). Active sonar utilizes sound in order to find objects in the water. A pulse is sent through the water, and then reflects off an object. This is called an echo. The receiver will convert the echoes into electrical signals which are digitally displayed on board the vessel. The high tech computers will be able to extract information such as distance and direction of the......

Words: 1293 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Impacts of an Energy Plan

...Impacts of an Energy Resource Plan Holly Regan SCI/275 September 14, 2014 Stacy Murphy Impacts of an Energy Resource Plan My dearest great-great grand-children: The finding of this letter explaining the best option for a long-term energy sustainability plan is no accident, and if you have opened a time capsule as directed, this letter is one hundred years old and the year is two-thousand and fourteen (2014). The nation’s current energy situation is in bad shape. We have nearly depleted the planets resources of fossil fuels that are non-renewable. Energy4Me.org defines nonrenewable resources as are energy sources like petroleum, propane, natural gas, coal and nuclear power. These resources have taken millions of years to produce and cannot rejuvenate in shorter lengths of time. What I mean is there needs to be another form of renewable energy that is sustainable for your generation and your children's and grand-children's generation. Our lives are so dependent on the supply of nonrenewable resources that our daily routines require its use. We need petroleum to run our factories, for personal and public transportation vehicles, for many pharmaceutical products and plastics. Energy production has come a long way since the 1800's and 1900's when wood was the predominant fuel of the times. In this era, there are many more energy options, but the U.S. relies mostly on three fossil fuels: coal, oil, and natural gas. Six years ago fossil fuels accounted for......

Words: 940 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Environmental Impact

...The environmental impact of paper is significant, which has led to changes in industry and behaviour at both business and personal levels. With the use of modern technology such as the printing press and the highly mechanised harvesting of wood, disposable paper has become a cheap commodity. This has led to a high level of consumption and waste. With the rise in environmental awareness due to the lobbying by environmental organizations and with increased government regulation there is now a trend towards sustainability in the pulp and paper industry. The production and use of paper has a number of adverse effects on the environment which are known collectively as paper pollution. Pulp mills contribute to air, water and land pollution. Discarded paper is a major component of many landfill sites, accounting for about 35 percent by weight of municipal solid waste (before recycling).[1] Even paper recycling can be a source of pollution due to the sludge produced during de-inking. According to a Canadian citizens organization, "People need paper products and we need sustainable, environmentally safe production." The amount of paper and paper products is enormous, so the environmental impact is also very significant. It has been estimated that by 2020 paper mills will produce almost 500,000,000 tons of paper and paperboard per year, so great efforts are needed to ensure that the environment is protected during the production, use and recycling/disposal of this enormous volume......

Words: 317 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Clean Up Marine Environmental Pollution

...Conventions to mitigate marine pollution Oil pollution: Oil tankers transport some 2,400 million tonnes of crude oil and oil products around the world by sea. Most of the time, oil is transported quietly and safely. Measures introduced by IMO have helped ensure that the majority of oil tankers are safely built and operated and are constructed to reduce the amount of oil spilled in the event of an accident. Operational pollution, such as from routine tank cleaning operations, has also been cut. The most important regulations for preventing pollution by oil from ships are contained in Annex I of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL), The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea  (SOLAS), 1974 also includes special requirements for tankers. Chemical pollution: * Chemicals carried in bulk Carriage of chemicals in bulk is covered by regulations in SOLAS Chapter VII - Carriage of dangerous goods and MARPOL Annex II - Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk. Both Conventions set out the international standards for the safe carriage, in bulk by sea, of dangerous chemicals and noxious liquid substances. The Code prescribes the design and a construction standard of ships involved in the transport of bulk liquid chemicals and identifies the equipment to be carried to minimize the risks to the ship, its crew and to the......

Words: 662 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Energy Impact Assessment of Sic

... Assessing the potential of renewable energy as a primary source for residential college campuses – Evidences from SIC1 PANKAJ CHOUDHARY1, MOHIT LAKHOTIA2, KRISHNAROOP DEY3 and VIRINDER GUPTA4 1Student, MBA, Symbiosis Centre for Management and human resource development (SCMHRD), pankaj_choudhary@scmhrd.edu 2Student, MBA, Symbiosis Centre for Management and human resource development (SCMHRD),, mohit_lakhotia@scmhrd.edu 3Student, MBA, Symbiosis Centre for Management and human resource development (SCMHRD),, krishnaroop_dey@scmhrd.edu 4Student, MBA, Symbiosis Centre for Management and human resource development (SCMHRD), virinder_gupta@scmhrd.edu ABSTRACT This exercise is being conducted at 1Symbiosis Infotech campus (SIC) located in Hinjewadi, Pune, India. The campus is pervaded by a sense of endless space and tranquillity, this picturesque campus is spread over five acres, boasts an academic block which is of international standards and separate hostels for boys and girls along with the accommodation for the faculty. The primary objective of this study is to understand the consumption patterns and identify potential areas for improvement in energy consumption within the residential campus. The study involves making a cost-benefit analysis of present energy sources with respect to renewable energy sources. This will include water electricity along with paper and gas consumption in the campus. This is to assess the potential of running a greener campus .The study......

Words: 1941 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Environmental Impact of a Foam Cup

...chemical transformation, distribution, retail, and disposal. Both the production and disposal of foam cups also have serious environmental impacts and its widespread use has generated significant recycling issues. Raw Material Extraction The lifecycle of a foam cup begins with the extraction of crude oil by oil rigs both on-shore and from beneath the sea floor in the Gulf of Mexico. These rigs require large amounts of manpower and energy and freshwater to operate, and pose a real threat for potential spills which can damage and harm marine ecology. Refining of Material Crude oil is unusable as it comes out of the ground. It must be purified and separated into its useful components, which is where the oil refinery comes in. The US Gulf Coast has the largest concentration of refineries in the world. It is from the refinery that we get transportation fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. It is also where we get raw materials for the chemical industry. For the production of plastics we get naphtha, which are 5 to 9 carbon chains that can be used as the raw material in a plant to make ethylene and benzene. Benzene and ethylene are subsequently reacted in another plant to make styrene. Refineries are large, energy-intensive plants which have a significant environmental impact. They generate greenhouse gases due to their high energy use, many refineries, particularly older ones, have had issues with hydrocarbon contamination of surrounding soil and......

Words: 994 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Environmental Change and Renewable Energy

... Climate change, and by extension oil use, affects nations differently. In order to understand the reasons of resistance or acceptance from various nations of combating climate change, the effects of the change in procedure must be examined. Each nation is invested at different levels in the fight in climate change. Money or power, survival, and public outcry are major factors that may influence a nations stance and fervor on fighting climate change and the changes required by such a fight. It is obvious that a change in energy production habits results in a change in how a nation will provide energy to its people over time. As climate conscience nations move towards renewable energy sources, there is less reliability on oil imports to produce energy. Unfortunately, this reduced reliability does not translate into less oil consumption. As nations find new ways to produce additional energy, they also find new ways to use this additional energy (J. Varner, personal communication, March 5, 2014). Energy can directly relate to production, and then profit. An increase in energy production from renewable sources provides additional total energy that can be consumed. Such a change can be seen in the Netherlands' production and consumption of energy over a 30 year period between 1970 and 2010 (IEA, 2012). As new energy sources are added and additional energy is created, more energy is consumed. At no point does the rise of renewable energy translate into a reduction of oil or......

Words: 1939 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Energy Use

...addition, give greater visibility by means of stickers on the motors By encouraging the use of motors in the higher efficiency ‘band’ EFF1 , the European Commission expects to reduce significantly the consumption of electricity by industry. This in turn will lower the environmentally harmful emissions from power stations. Scheme benefits ... ... to motor users The use of higher efficiency motors is financially beneficial, almost by definition and regardless of any scheme: ● higher efficiency means lower losses resulting in lower running costs ● savings increase with motor use ● short pay-back periods ● helps combat the additional burden of the climate change levy ● opportunity to reduce your tax liability by claiming an enhanced capital allowance (ECA)1 ... to motor buyers You will now be able to class your own equipment into efficiency bands, dependent on the application or customer branch: ● simplifying motor selection procedures where efficiency is an issue ● using what will become a well know label, appearing on the motor ● adding value to certain ranges ● anticipating similar labelling schemes in the pipeline for fans, pumps, inverter drives etc ... to technicians The scheme provides a reference value, which has never existed before in this field, useful for: ● comparing different products from the same base ● establishing manufacturers’ guarantees within a band ● evaluating energy consumption using a common base The scheme offers simplification and the......

Words: 2162 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Environmental Impacts of Dams

...Environmental Impacts of Dams By Tania M. Brown Instructor: Timothy Butcher Environmental Site Assessment 10/27/2008 Throughout the past few years, the negative impacts of dams have become so well known that most countries have stopped building them altogether and are now forced to invest their money into fixing the problems created by existing dams. The environmental impacts of dams have come under renewed examination in recent years. Dam advocates have historically understood that dams largely improve the status of water-related energy and environmental issues by, for example, producing hydroelectric power and increasing the water supply for irrigation. The construction of large dams completely change the relationship of water and land, destroying the existing ecosystem balance which, in many cases, has taken thousands of years to create. Currently there are around 40,000 large dams which obstruct the world's rivers, completely changing their circulation systems: this is not going to occur without dire environmental impacts. . Dam advocates have historically understood that dams largely improve the status of water-related energy and environmental issues by, for example, producing hydroelectric power and increasing the water supply for irrigation. The damming of a river creates a reservoir upstream from the dam. The reservoir waters spill out into the surrounding environments, flooding the natural habitats that existed before the dam’s......

Words: 1270 - Pages: 6