Free Essay

Marketing Mix

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Huangjin
Words 3242
Pages 13
广东外语外贸大学 商务英语本科学位论文
( 2007 届 )

论文题目 The Grammatical Features in English Business (英文) Correspondence
论文题目 商务函电英语的语法特点 (中文)

继教(公开)学院 商务英语 自考

The grammatical Features in English Business Correspondence

Abstract: As a variety of English, English of business correspondence has its unique grammatical features. This paper discusses the grammatical features in English business correspondence from sentence types, sentence structures, the location of adverbial phrases, tense, aspect, subjunctive mood , compound words, modal verbs and passive voice.
Key words: grammar; feature; business correspondence.

商务函电英语的语法特点
摘要: 商务函电英语作为一种有自己特点的英语,有其独特的语法特点。本文从句子类型、句子结构、状语的位置、时与体、虚拟语气、复合词、情态动词和被动语态八个方面探讨了商务函电英语的语法特点。
关键词:语法;特点;商务函电

Contents

1. Introduction 1

2. Sentence types of English of business correspondence 1

2.1 Declarative sentences 1

2.2 Imperative sentences 2

2.3 Interrogative sentences 2

3. Sentence structure of English of business correspondence 3

4. The locations of adverbials of English of business correspondence 4

5. The use of tense and aspect of English of business correspondence 5

6. The use of subjunctive mood of English of business correspondence 5

7. The extensive use of compound words of hereby category in English of business correspondence 6

8 The use of modal verb in English of business correspondence 7

9. The use of passive voice in English of business correspondence 7

10. Conclusion 7

Works cited 8

The Grammatical Features in English Business Correspondence
Guangdong University of Foreign Studies 2007 Huangjin
Tutor: Professor Guo Guihang

1. Introduction

The English in business correspondence refers to the English used in correspondence of business and trading. It is not totally different from other specific forms of English, such as English for science and technology, or journalistic English. Except for some specific vocabulary used in English business correspondence, the vocabulary used in English business correspondence is almost the same as the vocabulary used in daily English. English of business correspondence has no independent grammar rules. Basic vocabulary and grammar rules are still used in English of business correspondence. With the globalization of business and the development of economy of the world, especially the development of foreign trade, the grammatical features in English business correspondence can not be ignored for two reason: a) Knowing the grammatical features in English business correspondence help writers write a well-written English business correspondence because after knowing the grammatical features in English business correspondence, the writers will be able to use these grammatical features to make the English business correspondence more polite. And polite English business correspondence is sure to create a favorable image in the customers whereas an ill-written one is spoil the image the company wants to convey, and ever worse it may induce unfavorable or negative effect among the readers. Just because knowing grammatical features in English business correspondence can help writers write well-written English business correspondence, it is necessary to know grammatical features in English business correspondence. b) Knowing grammatical features in English business correspondence help writers write correspondence which are rigorous and objective. Rigorous and objective are very important for English business correspondence. If we know the grammatical features in English business correspondence.,every sentence written by us will look rigorous and objective and we will never use improper sentence types such as exclamatory sentences in our English business correspondence. If we know the grammatical features in English business correspondence, we will use many compound sentences and a few simple sentences. If we know the grammatical features in English business correspondence, we will place longer adverbials between subject and predicate. If we know the grammatical features in English business correspondence, we will tend to use attitudinal past in our English business correspondence. If we know the grammatical features in English business correspondence, we always use compound words which combine “here、there or where” with preposition such as “in,on,after”. And all of these can make the English correspondence look more rigorous, objective and polite.

The difference between business English and daily English is that English in business correspondence has formed some special features of language style. This paper discusses English grammar features in business correspondence from sentence types, sentence structure, the location of adverbial, tense and aspect, subjunctive mood, compound words, the use of modal verb and the use of passive voice.

2. Sentence types of English of business correspondence

English sentence can be divided into four types by purpose of using. They are declarative sentences, interrogative sentences, imperative sentences and exclamatory sentences. Since these four kinds of sentences differ in functions, when we write English business correspondences and choose one kind of the four, we should place extra emphasis on it. English business correspondence is relating to the documents of offer, counter offer, the opening of letters of credit, insurance, transport and so on. Once these documents signed by both parties, they have the force of law, binding on both sides. Therefore, English business correspondence should be worded carefully and require clarity.

2.1 Declarative Sentences

Declarative sentence explains a statement of facts or the views of speaking. They are used much more frequently in English of business correspondence than used in the general style. For example, documents of offers, complaints and tender contracts almost use declarative sentence totally. The following complaint letter is the example. This letter uses declarative sentence totally.
Dear Sirs, We thank you for your promptness in delivering the coffee we ordered on 30th July.The quantity of coffee delivered by your carrier this morning was 160 bags whereas the quantity in our order was only 120 bags. Unfortunately ,our demand is full and as we cannot beat the use of the forty bags sent in excess of order,we have put them in our storehouse to be held for you until we receive your instructions.(高嘉勇 1)

2.2 Imperative Sentences

Imperative sentences express request, advice, orders, etc. If you use certain words to request others to do something, your way of expression will be stiff, inflexible and too direct. You can use imperative sentences in this situation. Imperative sentences are politer than declarative sentence in the aspect of tone. Eg1:Please look into the matter at once and let US have your definite reply by cable without any further delay. Eg2: Please note that our counter offer will be kept open for two weeks from the date of this letter.

2.3 Interrogative Sentences

When you express your views and suggestions to others in the letter, you can use interrogative sentences except for imperative sentences. What’s more, on the degree of polite expressing, interrogative sentences can give the other side greater left room than imperative sentences can give. And interrogative sentences are politer than imperative sentences in the aspect of tone. Therefore, interrogative sentences are used relatively more often than imperative sentences in English of business correspondence. The following sentences are the examples. Eg1 Would you please send us a copy of your catalogue? Eg2 May I know what products you are interested in?
2.4 Exclamatory Sentences of English of business correspondence Exclamatory sentences can reinforce the expressional function. However, exclamatory sentences are little used in English of business correspondence because exclamatory sentences don’t match objective, rigorous style of English of business correspondence.

3. Sentence structure of English of business correspondence

Sentences in English business correspondence combines compound sentences with simple sentences and let compound sentences dominates .Sentences can be divided into the following three types by sentence structure: simple sentences, concatenation sentences and complex sentences. Some kind of language such as British ads language, News English and so on .Informal style of English are used to using series of simple sentences organically combined by various means such as adverb and punctuation. Compared with the above-mentioned stylistic, sentence structure of correspondence English has very prominent characteristics. Substantial concatenation sentences and complex sentences are used in English business correspondence. Letters in business contacts written by the hand and the fax could be reached an effective component of the contracts. Therefore, sentences in business letters and telegrams require sophisticated tight logical. To ensure that such features, letters and telegrams are often required for English phrases into an independent master-slave complex sentences or concatenation sentences. E.g.1:The credit could cover 85% 0f the local expense if they are made under the responsibility of the British Contractor and within the limit of the down payments paid on the Contract.. The sentence is the master-slave complex sentences. Adverbial clause guided by subordinator if includes two preconditions, making the scope of the conduct of the main sentence subject to strict restrictions. So we can see the sentences of strict logic and there is no loophole in them. E.g 2: In the event the buyer does not furnish the seller with shipping instruction on or before December 25,2000,the seller may at his option cancel this contract and demand the buyer to pay any damages he has sustained on account of such failure of the buyer to give such instruction. Complex sentences are widely used in English of business correspondence, because English of business correspondence involve the terms of the contract and the terms of delivery. Therefore, logical relations must be strict and accurate, and should not be vague. The structure of complex sentence is complicated and the expression is complete well. Simple sentences have simple structures. They are clear to understand. English of business correspondence requires rigorous and concise characteristics, aimed at the pursuit of accurate wind rigorous language. Although the use of complex sentences is very common, it does not exclude the use of simple sentences. Comparing with the informal style such as advertisement English and news English, the more prominent feature of English of business correspondence is that it has many complex sentences. Parallel structure is commonly used in English business correspondence. Synonyms or near-synonym parallel structure are commonly used in English of business correspondence. The “and” and “or” are used commonly to guide the parallel structure. The purpose of this kind of parataxis is through the complement of each other (the meaning of the expression) to make the meaning more precise. Specifically, using the parallel structure with "and" can make the business correspondence accurate. Please look at the following examples. Eg. 1: This Contract is made by and between the two parties. Eg. 2:The Seller agrees to sell and the Buyer agrees to purchase the under—mentioned commodities according to the following terms and conditions. .In addition, using the selective coordination with "or" can make the content of the correspondence describe more rigorous without any rips. E.g.: Any dispute arising from the execution of the contract or in the connection with the agreement,shall be settled through friendly consultations between the two parties. There are synonyms which are commonly used in English of business correspondence: amendments to or alterations of force and effect, fulfill and provide, make and enter into obligations and responsibilities.

4. The locations of adverbials in English of business correspondence

In accordance with the general rules of English writing, longer adverbials should not be placed between subject and predicate. Besides, predicate should not be placed between conjunctions such as “if” “when” and “in case” and main body of clause in adverbial clause of general style but can be placed between them in English of business correspondence. E.g.:If after 30 days from the beginning of such informal consultations,the parties fail to resolve amicably a contract dispute,either party hereto may requite that the dispute should be submitted to arbitration for resolution.

5. The use of tense and aspect in English of business correspondence

There are some English verbs which can express the attitude: hope,think,wonder,want and so on. The past tense of them is called “attitudinal past”. They have test functions, can indirectly express a request, suggestions, advice and other speech act, and reduce the potential to make each other's possible embarrassment. Thus their past appears more tactful and polite than present.
E.g.:
“Do you want to accept the return of the defective pens?” is less polite and tactful than “Did you want to accept the return of the defective pens?” Progressive form of English can express the tone of euphemism. Progressive form of some words (hope,think,wonder,want and so on) are more polite.
E.g.:
(1)1 wonder if you could allow transshipment. (2)I am wondering if you could allow transshipment. (3)I were wondering if you could allow transshipment. Among the above three, the attitude of the preceding sentence is less humble and polite than the sentence after it. Therefore, proper use of English tense and aspect can help to make the wording of English of business correspondence more euphemistic, avoid damage of faces of both parties and achieve better communication effects.

6. The use of subjunctive mood in English of business correspondence

In English, what we call "the tone" is that the different forms in the verb which reflects the differences of talkers` purpose. There are three types of tone in English: the Indicative Mood, the Imperative Mood and the Subjunctive Mood. The subjunctive mood can not only express subjective wishes and hypothesis which is not realistic but also have an important use of expressing request and command gently, expressing suggestion and advice and showing hope. Using subjunctive mood in business English of correspondences allow people to write the tone more politely and tactfully. If people make the proposal in the Indicative Mood, it would be too sure, and sometimes seems self-righteous. Therefore, in order to make the tone even more polite and euphemistic. We often use the subjunctive mood to express polite euphemism. At this time predicate is composed by should/would/could/might and verb prototype. When we request to each other, it is more appropriate to use this form to express what you want to request.
E.g.:
(a).We would like you to hasten shipment upon receipt of this letter. (b).We want you to hasten shipment upon receipt of this letter. (c) Had you contacted us earlier we could have complied with your request to be the full. (d). Would you advise by e-mail when the above mentioned goods have been shipped. From the above examples, the reader is not difficult to find that sentence (a) seems more polite than the sentence (b) from the perspective of grammar.

7. The extensive use of compound words of hereby category in English of business correspondence

The compound words composed by here/there/where and in/after are often seen in English business correspondence. We always use compound words which combine “here、there or where” with preposition such as “in,on,after”.It is hard that we understand these compound words with the corresponding meanings in Chinese. However, if you understand the link between their meaning and constitution, you can be easy to understand them. For these compound words, "here" should be interpreted as "this"; "there" should be interpreted as "that"; "where" should be interpreted as "which”.Thus,”hereafter" should be interpreted as "after this"; "wherein" should be interpreted as "of that"; "whereby" should be interpreted as "by which”. Therefore hereafter should be interpreted as after this, wherein should be interpreted as of that, whereby to be understood as by which. Eg. 1:We hereby acknowledge with thanks receipt of the captioned L/C for the amount of US$2OOO covering your Order No.15 for coffee. Eg. 2:Further to our last discussions in Melbourne and the faxes exchanged thereafter on joint venture in Australia,we are very pleased to receive your letter of December12 with detailed information about the subject. Eg. 3:With the view to expanding Chinese textiles export to Australia,BUNGE(hereinafter referred to Party A)and CHINATEX(hereinafter referred to Party B)have a to set up joint venture in Australia.

8 The use of modal verb in English of business correspondence

When we use modal verb in English business correspondence, we will use past tense of modal verb. Comparing with the general style of modal verb, the tone of past tense of modal verb such as could, should, would, might is milder. Past tense of modal verb can show polite attitude of the writers. When the readers read the sentences which have past tense of modal verb, they will feel the earnest and sincere which show the will of promoting the cooperation between two parties from the writers. a.Can you please forward this letter to a corporation in that region that may be interested in your marketing proposal? b.Could you please forward this letter to a corporation in that region that may be interested in your marketing proposal? From the above examples, the reader is not difficult to find that sentence (b) seems more acceptable than the sentence (a) .When the readers read sentence(b),they would love to meet the writers demand. What we should pay attention is that past tense of modal verb always appear with the verbs which express the attitude of sounding out such as wonder, doubt, hope in order to make the expression more euphemistic and indirect.
E.g.:I wondered if you would a11ow our partial payment

9. The use of passive voice in English of business correspondence

In most cases, we can use active voice to show our position and view clearly. However, when we want to express criticism, we should use passive voice to make the correspondences more polite. Using active voice to express criticism is less polite than using passive voice to express criticism. (a)For the past four years,you did not give us any suggestion. (b) For the past four years,no suggestion has been given to us. (c)You did not enclose the letter with your requirement. (d)The letter was not enclosed with your requirement. From the above examples, the reader is not difficult to find that sentence (b) seems more polite than the sentence (a) and sentence (d) seems more polite than the sentence (c).

10. Conclusion

I have summarized the grammatical features of English business correspondence from the above eight aspects. The eight aspects are sentence types of business English, sentence structure of business English, the locations of adverbials in business English, the use of tense and aspect in business English, the use of subjunctive mood in business English, the extensive use of compound words of hereby category in business English, the use of modal verbs and the use of passive voice. English business correspondence is not only the media of communication between two parties but also the bridge of good relationship between two parties. To attach great importance to grammatical features of English business correspondence can help us write successful English correspondence. Because these grammatical features can help the English business correspondence become more polite. If we know the grammatical features well, we can make these grammatical features appear in our English business correspondence. If these grammatical features appear in our English correspondence, our client will feel our honest and politeness and be willing to cooperate with us. Therefore, knowing these grammatical features can help us build a good relationship with our clients.

Of course, English business correspondence has other unique features in terms of discourse structure, vocabulary and so on. This article can serve our purpose to improve the ability of writing English business correspondence. The purpose of this paper is to help people reduce grammatical mistakes when they are writing English business correspondence. This article did not mention it only because the space is very limited.

Works cited

Quirk, R.S.et al. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English language. London and New York: Longman, 1985.
薄冰.高级英语语法.北京:世界知识出版社,2002.
李基安.现代英语语法.北京:外语教学与研究出版社,1998.
江运芳.外贸英语函电.重庆:重庆大学出版社,2007.
诸葛霖.English Business Letters [M].北京:对外经贸大学出版社.
高嘉勇 商务函电英语的语法特点[J].天津外国语学院学报 2001

-----------------------
专 业

学院

准考证号

班级

作者姓名

指导老师

完稿时间

成绩

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Marketing Mix

...Marketing Mix Janea’ Jackson MKT/421 Stephanie Jenson April 25, 2011 Introduction A marketing strategy provides an in depth look at what a company can do within the market. When creating a marketing strategy, the company must first identify the target audience and a related marketing mix. According to businessdictionary.com, the target audience is “a particular group of people, identified as the intended recipient of an advertisement or message.” The four P’s make up what is commonly referred to as the marketing mix, “a set of controllable tactical marketing tools - product, place, price and promotion - that the firm blends to produce the response it wants in the target market” (Armstrong & Kotler, pg. 51). Focusing on a specific audience can help a company develop a marketing mix that will satisfy the needs of this audience better than the competition. It is quite useful to reduce all of the elements in the marketing mix down to just these four basic marketing tools. These four tools are essential to the development of organizations' marketing strategies and tactics. This paper will describe the elements individually, as well as looking at an organization such as Wal-Mart, a national retailer, who individualizes the marketing mix to fit the company’s specific strategies and tactics. Breakdown of Elements So now let’s discuss the four Ps in further detail. The product tool is based upon the development of the right product. This product has to be appealing to......

Words: 1187 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Marketing Mix

...Marketing mix The Marketing mix is generally accepted as the use and specification of the "four P's" describing the strategic position of a product in the marketplace. One version of the marketing mix originated in 1948 when James Culliton said that a marketing decision should be a result of something similar to a recipe. This version was used in 1953 when Neil Borden, in his American Marketing Association presidential address, took the recipe idea one step further and coined the term "Marketing-Mix". A prominent marketer, E. Jerome McCarthy, proposed a 4 P classification in 1960, which has seen wide use. The four Ps concept is explained in most marketing textbooks and classes. Definition A"Marketing Mix" is the set of controllable, tactical marketing tools that work together to achieve company's objectives, they are: product, price, promotion and place: o Product - A tangible object or an intangible service that is mass produced or manufactured on a large scale with a specific volume of units. Intangible products are often service based like the tourism industry & the hotel industry. Typical examples of a mass produced tangible object are the motor car and the disposable razor. A less obvious but ubiquitous mass produced service is a computer operating system. o Price – The price is the amount a customer pays for the product. It is determined by a number of factors including market share, competition, material costs, product identity and the customer's...

Words: 1063 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Marketing Mix

...THE APPLICATION OF THE MARKETING MIX AND EXTENDED MARKETING MIX FOR SERVICES IN A BUSINESS ORGANIZATION OF YOUR CHOICE The marketing mix refers to variables that a marketing manager can control to influence a brand’s sales or market share (Ellis, 2006). The marketer E. Jerome McCarthy proposed the four Ps classification in 1960, which has since been used by marketers throughout the world (Wikipedia, 2014). These variables are summarized as: product, price, promotion, and place (distribution). The 4P’s are also known as product marketing mix because their application is traditionally for marketing of products. Robert F. Lauterborn proposed a four Cs classification in 1990 which is a more consumer-oriented version of the four Ps (Wikipedia, 2014). They are: consumer, cost, communication and convenience. In this discussion we concentrate on McCarthy’s 4P’s. The extended marketing mix is, as the name suggests, an extension of the marketing mix which was traditionally for products (Bhasin, 2014). As services came more into the picture it was seen that the 4p’s could not justify the marketing mix. Bhasin further reports that the extended marketing mix was brought forward by adding the following 3 elements: Process, Physical evidence and People to make the 7P’s. These 3 more elements were necessary to explain the marketing of services. Therefore this extended marketing mix is also known as the service marketing mix. The marketing mix and extended marketing mix can be......

Words: 2792 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Marketing Mix

...SUMMARY AVIVAH RAHMANINGTYAS. 105040100111070. 7p Marketing Mix of Banyuwangi Traditional Food Bagiak Ardial’s Merk. Dibawah bimbingan Ir. Heru Santoso, SU sebagai Pembimbing Utama Basically, one of the goals set up agro-industries are to benefit. Profits earned if the company can attract consumers to buy its products. Thus, the marketing strategy became a thing to think about. Currently, the marketing mix is one of the marketing strategies that generally applied to companies. With critical thinking of publics, traditional marketing mix consists of 4P before, now became 7P. The 7P are product, price, place, promotion, process, people, and physical evidence. UD Siardial Mubarok is one example of the agro-industries that implement the 7P. Eventhough with increasing the competition among food manufacture of bagiak in Banyuwangi, UD Siardial Mubarok with Ardial brand is able to prove its stability with the implementation of the strategy. To understand the marketing strategy of UD Siardial Mubarok, student internship follow all the activities there. These activities are follow the production process of various Ardial product, do the packaging, labeling, pressing, serving consumers, arrange products in store , and also discussed with owners. Of these activities, students can understand the 7P strategies. The 7P marketing mix strategies were applied UD Siardial Mubarok are: Product  bagiak has a variety of flavors and packaging Prices  more cheaper and variation than......

Words: 277 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Marketing Mix

...Marketing Mix University of Phoenix MKT/421 MARKETING Introduction Marketing mix is important for every company to choose which direction to go. The four p’s of marketing mix are product, price, place, and promotion. An evaluation mix of the four elements allows the company to achieve the expectations between the targeted customers and the organizational buyers. Elements of Marketing mix: • Product – The products or services offered to your customer: Their physical attributes what they do, how they differ from your competitors and what benefits they provide. • Price – How you price your product or service so that your price remains competitive but allows you to make a good profit. • Place (Also referred to as Distribution) – Where your business sells its products or services and how it gets those products or services to your customers. • Promotion – The methods used to communicate the features and benefits of your products or services to your target customers (About.com). Product Product is anything that a company may produce or a service that occurs to fix a specific problem. Companies that produce multiple products have an advantage in gaining the trust of customers. With each product a company produces a marketing plan must be in place for that item to secure the trust. If one product does not work properly, the customers would not think the other products the company produces are trustworthy. There are different products made by......

Words: 1458 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Marketing Mix

...The Marketing Mix Name Institution Date of Submission Introduction The marketing is an essential business tool used by marketing professionals in determining a brand’s offering. It is normally described as the four P’s of marketing; the product, price, place, and promotion. However, in some cases, the four P’s have been expanded to incorporate other elements thus making them five or seven P’s with some scholars. The four P’s of marketing will be discussed. Product Product is anything that satisfies a need or wants and can be offered in an exchange in its tangible (good) or intangible (service). The product may either generate a functional or a linking relationship with the prospect. The functional relationship refers to the value of using the product. The product’s value is crucial in the purchasing decision process. The link with the product may be defined by the complementarity between the client and the product. It is the basis of individuals’ interests in the product. If the perceived link lacks in a product, no interest may be derived in the product. The product has several dimensions such as a support system, attributes, and benefits. The support system entails features such as the sales force, advertising, warranty, delivery, promotion systems, and reputation. Attributes include features such as the ingredients, style, quality, brand, and package. There are several benefits that may be derived from a product and such entail functional,......

Words: 765 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Marketing Mix

...Competition, Marketing Mix, and Pricing goes hand in hand with the services of the healthcare provider i choose. Througout this paper you I'll analyze the competitive environment of health s ervices. You will also see the diferent tools of the marketing mix that available. Although many any other healthcare providers have different purposes in objectives. Key Charactics of Services There are four distinctive characteristics of services. According to Koltler and Shalowitz those four are intangibility, inseparability, variability, and perishability. Intangibility is when services cannot be seen tasted, felt, heard, or smelled before the are brought. Inseparability is when services are produced and consumed simultaneously. Variability is when services are highly variable because the depend on who provides them and when and where they are provided. The last one is Pershisability, you cannot store services, you can only build capacity to perform them when they are needed. (Lotler, Phillip, Shalowitz, Joel and Stevens, Robert 1st Edition (2008)) Pinnacle Orthopedics falls under the characteristicsc of Intangibilty and Variable. The service provider has to follow certain things to improve the confidence of the client: The provider can try to increase the tangibility of services. For example, by showing the patients models of Lumbar (spine) and Cervical (neck) of what to expect after surgery. This......

Words: 254 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Marketing Mix Paper

...Marketing Mix Paper Piña MKT/421 June 6, 2011 Carlyn Carmichael Marketing Mix Paper To achieve the marketing objectives the strategy must include different elements – that is the different parts of the marketing mix. In this reading, the elements of the marketing mix which is product, place, price, and promotion will be defined and explained. McDonald’s will be used in this reading to describe how each one of the four elements of the marketing mix affects the development, marketing strategy and tactics. Marketing is having a great product, being sold at the right price at the right place while utilizing the appropriate promotion. Sounds simple but a lot of hard work goes into these simple steps. A company has to go to great lengths to find what the customer likes, where they shop, and what they consider a good value. This is where the marketing mix comes in. The marketing mix was intended to recommend that you have a well-adjusted mix of marketing activities within your marketing plan. Reviewing these steps can help through the plans and avoid faults. The marketing mix as identified by McCarthy consists of the 4 Ps; product, price, promotion and place; and is a good way in outlining the marketing mix. Product – this element defines the characteristics of your product or service that will meet your customers’ needs. Price – this portion refers to the price of the product or service, including the strategy that is used. It is important to test numerous......

Words: 1504 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Oldtown Marketing Mix

...Product In marketing, the term “product” refers to tangible, physical products as well as service such as brand name, functionality, styling, quality, safety, packaging, repairs and support, warranty, accessories and services. In OldTown White Coffee, the product refers to local foods and products offered to consumers. OldTown White Coffee used its own uniquely Malaysian taste (the authentic Ipoh White Coffee) to introduce a product to the market in Malaysia. In Malaysia, the OldTown White Coffee set its base at Ipoh, Perak. In mere time span of 5 years, OldTown White Coffee has grown up to over 176 outlets since the first outlet in 2005 in Malaysia. OldTown White Coffee has became the first largest kopitiam restaurant chain in Malaysia OldTown White Coffee‟s products include tangible elements. Tangible elements are the things that customers are able to see, touch, feel, taste, and smell. These all tangible elements OldTown White Coffee were done as perfectly and completely. To satisfy the palate of local population in country, OldTown White Coffee uses the localized version of its product. In other words, OldTown Coffee offers local foods and meals in Malaysia. For example, the meals included Nasi Lemak Special, Prawn Noodles, Kaya or Butter Toast and Asam Laksa. While, hot and cold beverages included, Hazelnut White Coffee, Old Town White Coffee Signature Freeze, Old Town White Coffee, and Old Town Nanyang O. With the intention to provide quality white coffee to......

Words: 1582 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Benetton Marketing Mix

...Compiled by: Gerard Perry Topic: UCB Marketing Mix United Colors of Benetton is a global brand, and one of the most well known in the world, with an international style that combines color, energy and practicality. The womenswear, menswear, childrenswear and underwear collections offer a total look for everyday, for work and for leisure, in the city and outdoors. The brand is broadening its horizons, expanding into new areas of merchandise from Home Collection to baby products, travel bags and new perfumes. Considering the product range of UCB, the basic benefit from the core product would be body protection against external factors, whereas another benefit could be a desire to stands out and be admired. The core product is then turned into a tangible product by the use and development of such characteristics as branding, features, styling, packaging, and quality level. Under the global brand name UCB there is a mix of products. Each womenswear, menswear, childrenswear and underwear collections is accompanied by accessories and shoes collections to complete each look. In addition, the company publishes “Colors” magazine that echoes the entire UCB philosophy. The main product of UCB is the clothing line that has a strong Italian character in design and style, which combines bright and expressive colors and practicality. By buying Benetton brand customers can be seen as individuals with their own style as well as sensitive to social issues raised in Benetton’s campaigns...

Words: 1055 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Marketing Mix Case Study

...Marketing mix-the case of Aesop Serial number MEB1499 Student ID 26779595 Class PMD Table of contents Executive Summary 3 1.0 Background 4 2.0 Marketing Mix 4 2.1 Marketing mix theory 4 3.0 Aesop-a case study 5 3.1 Product in marketing mix 5 3.2 Price in marketing mix 6 3.3 Strengths and weaknesses in marketing mix 7 4.0 Conclusion and recommendations 8 Reference list 9 Executive Summary The purpose of this report is to evaluate how marketing mix elements are used in Aesop’s promotional strategy; how effective Aesop has been in the promotional strategy; and it provides some necessary recommendations. In this report, two marketing mix elements product and price are analyzed. By analyzing Aesop’s strategies of product and price, it is easy to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the company. The findings indicate that Aesop has made great progress in high-quality products and product orientation. What is more, price policy which based on the cost of production is reasonable. However, the capacity of the market still needs further expansion. This report gives some advice on expanding the market, and it will ensure that Aesop develops better in the future. 1.0 Background Aesop was founded by Dennis Paphitis in 1987 in Melbourne. The name originates from Aesop’s Fables. It is an organic herbal cosmetics company. Aesop devotes itself to natural skin care, body care and hair care, and it aims at providing the finest......

Words: 1624 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Marketing Mix

...MKT/421 University of Phoenix Marketing Mix Marketing mix is when the right product is put in the right place, at the right time, and at the right price. When an organization or company creates a product that attracts individuals and put it on sale or offer it to individuals it should may be place at a price in which it matches the value of the product and is worth what the consumers or individuals get out of it. The 4 Ps of marketing and the marketing mix are sometimes used as synonyms for one another because they are close to being the same thing. The 4 Ps of marketing mix are product, place, price, and promotion. Each component of the marketing mix has some type of importance and are given an equal abundance of importance. In the marketing mix the customer is the most important piece of the marketing strategy however it is not included because all the components are aimed toward the target. A company that I think would represent for a good marketing mix is Apple. They are about pleasing their customers and making sure that they are aware of the products that they have to offer. Prices are adjusted to make sure that things are affordable and sometimes to bring in new customers. Surveys are completed at times to see what it is that the customer wants and what satisfies the customer. The customers have a say so in the product and the company value their opinion. The product- The product is...

Words: 1380 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Marketing Mix

...Marketing Mix MKT/421 February 11, 2013 Ron Stripe Marketing takes a day to learn. Unfortunately it takes a lifetime to master – Phil Kolter. Marketing involves so much more than simply selling a product or service. It involves planning and preparations that requires an organization to connect with their customers on a much deeper level. A marketing mix is one of the most valuable tools an organization can utilize to create such a connection. The marketing of an organization includes so many variables; therefore, it is necessary to categorize these variables by product, price, place, and promotion, which are the 4P’s of the marketing mix. These categories are the framework for just about every successful organization in today’s market. An organization like Fisher-Price understands how important a marketing mix is to compete in a market that is saturated with developing young minds; which in fact, was the driving force behind their refreshing new approach to stay connected with today’s moms. The Marketing Mix What is a marketing mix and how does it affect an organization? The answer to this question is what all business owners and managers need to know to contend in the highly competitive market of this day and age. The term "marketing-mix," was first coined by Neil Borden, the president of the American Marketing Association in 1953. It is still used today to make important decisions that lead to the execution of a marketing plan. The various approaches that are......

Words: 1483 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Marketing Mix

...Marketing Mix Latasha Edwards University of Phoenix MKT/421 Stuart Ringer July 07, 2012 Abstract This essay will describe the elements of the marketing mix. Starbucks is the organization that will allow a description of how all four elements affect developmental marketing strategy. An explanation of how each part of the marketing mix is implemented and what industry that Starbucks exist is present. Marketing Mix Starbucks originated in 1971 in Seattle. Today there are over 17,000 stores across 55 countries all over the world. The mission; “inspire and nurture the human spirit one person and one cup at a time” (Starbucks Company Profile, 2011, p. 1). Starbucks got its name from a story; Moby Dick and logo is a Greek mythology siren. This company views employees as partners. Products include coffee; more than 30 blends, handcrafted beverages; such as Frappuccino’s and ice coffee, merchandise; cups, mugs, music, books, fresh food; cookies, salads, and sandwiches. Marketing mix A plan, that is controlled, including four elements; product, price, place, and promotion. The company makes adjustments of these four elements until the right combination meets consumer needs. The ultimate goal, when using this tool, is to make a profit (Marketing Mix, 2012). Product is the central part of the marketing mix. One has to figure out how to make it, how the product line is going to run and set it up. One also has to decide......

Words: 708 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Marketing Mix

...developing a marketing strategy, the four P's of marketing must be addressed. These are product, price, placement, and promotion. These all work together to help reach maximum potential in a marketing strategy. Product is anything that is marketable. This can be a service, physical item or an idea. It is important to define what the product is in order to define the target market. Without a definite product, no other part of the marketing strategy can be implemented. Price does play an important part in the marketing mix, but it should not rule the business. Price should be in line with a customer's perception of value. Price must also match the quality of the product being offered. Knowing what the breakeven point is also is important. Without this information, the price may not be enough to cover the costs of selling the product. Placement and distribution is the third element of the marketing mix. This includes the physical placement such as location, inventory, transport, and coverage. It also covers the channels used to market the product. Channels can change over time as businesses grow and evolve. Promotion is the final element of the marketing mix. Promotion includes the communication of information about the product. The goal is to create a positive customer response. Marketing communication includes advertising, promotions, public relations, publicity, sales force or team, and promotional strategy. Furthermore, every organization uses the marketing......

Words: 555 - Pages: 3