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Marketing Mix

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广东外语外贸大学 商务英语本科学位论文
( 2007 届 )

论文题目 The Grammatical Features in English Business (英文) Correspondence
论文题目 商务函电英语的语法特点 (中文)

继教(公开)学院 商务英语 自考

The grammatical Features in English Business Correspondence

Abstract: As a variety of English, English of business correspondence has its unique grammatical features. This paper discusses the grammatical features in English business correspondence from sentence types, sentence structures, the location of adverbial phrases, tense, aspect, subjunctive mood , compound words, modal verbs and passive voice.
Key words: grammar; feature; business correspondence.

摘要: 商务函电英语作为一种有自己特点的英语,有其独特的语法特点。本文从句子类型、句子结构、状语的位置、时与体、虚拟语气、复合词、情态动词和被动语态八个方面探讨了商务函电英语的语法特点。


1. Introduction 1

2. Sentence types of English of business correspondence 1

2.1 Declarative sentences 1

2.2 Imperative sentences 2

2.3 Interrogative sentences 2

3. Sentence structure of English of business correspondence 3

4. The locations of adverbials of English of business correspondence 4

5. The use of tense and aspect of English of business correspondence 5

6. The use of subjunctive mood of English of business correspondence 5

7. The extensive use of compound words of hereby category in English of business correspondence 6

8 The use of modal verb in English of business correspondence 7

9. The use of passive voice in English of business correspondence 7

10. Conclusion 7

Works cited 8

The Grammatical Features in English Business Correspondence
Guangdong University of Foreign Studies 2007 Huangjin
Tutor: Professor Guo Guihang

1. Introduction

The English in business correspondence refers to the English used in correspondence of business and trading. It is not totally different from other specific forms of English, such as English for science and technology, or journalistic English. Except for some specific vocabulary used in English business correspondence, the vocabulary used in English business correspondence is almost the same as the vocabulary used in daily English. English of business correspondence has no independent grammar rules. Basic vocabulary and grammar rules are still used in English of business correspondence. With the globalization of business and the development of economy of the world, especially the development of foreign trade, the grammatical features in English business correspondence can not be ignored for two reason: a) Knowing the grammatical features in English business correspondence help writers write a well-written English business correspondence because after knowing the grammatical features in English business correspondence, the writers will be able to use these grammatical features to make the English business correspondence more polite. And polite English business correspondence is sure to create a favorable image in the customers whereas an ill-written one is spoil the image the company wants to convey, and ever worse it may induce unfavorable or negative effect among the readers. Just because knowing grammatical features in English business correspondence can help writers write well-written English business correspondence, it is necessary to know grammatical features in English business correspondence. b) Knowing grammatical features in English business correspondence help writers write correspondence which are rigorous and objective. Rigorous and objective are very important for English business correspondence. If we know the grammatical features in English business correspondence.,every sentence written by us will look rigorous and objective and we will never use improper sentence types such as exclamatory sentences in our English business correspondence. If we know the grammatical features in English business correspondence, we will use many compound sentences and a few simple sentences. If we know the grammatical features in English business correspondence, we will place longer adverbials between subject and predicate. If we know the grammatical features in English business correspondence, we will tend to use attitudinal past in our English business correspondence. If we know the grammatical features in English business correspondence, we always use compound words which combine “here、there or where” with preposition such as “in,on,after”. And all of these can make the English correspondence look more rigorous, objective and polite.

The difference between business English and daily English is that English in business correspondence has formed some special features of language style. This paper discusses English grammar features in business correspondence from sentence types, sentence structure, the location of adverbial, tense and aspect, subjunctive mood, compound words, the use of modal verb and the use of passive voice.

2. Sentence types of English of business correspondence

English sentence can be divided into four types by purpose of using. They are declarative sentences, interrogative sentences, imperative sentences and exclamatory sentences. Since these four kinds of sentences differ in functions, when we write English business correspondences and choose one kind of the four, we should place extra emphasis on it. English business correspondence is relating to the documents of offer, counter offer, the opening of letters of credit, insurance, transport and so on. Once these documents signed by both parties, they have the force of law, binding on both sides. Therefore, English business correspondence should be worded carefully and require clarity.

2.1 Declarative Sentences

Declarative sentence explains a statement of facts or the views of speaking. They are used much more frequently in English of business correspondence than used in the general style. For example, documents of offers, complaints and tender contracts almost use declarative sentence totally. The following complaint letter is the example. This letter uses declarative sentence totally.
Dear Sirs, We thank you for your promptness in delivering the coffee we ordered on 30th July.The quantity of coffee delivered by your carrier this morning was 160 bags whereas the quantity in our order was only 120 bags. Unfortunately ,our demand is full and as we cannot beat the use of the forty bags sent in excess of order,we have put them in our storehouse to be held for you until we receive your instructions.(高嘉勇 1)

2.2 Imperative Sentences

Imperative sentences express request, advice, orders, etc. If you use certain words to request others to do something, your way of expression will be stiff, inflexible and too direct. You can use imperative sentences in this situation. Imperative sentences are politer than declarative sentence in the aspect of tone. Eg1:Please look into the matter at once and let US have your definite reply by cable without any further delay. Eg2: Please note that our counter offer will be kept open for two weeks from the date of this letter.

2.3 Interrogative Sentences

When you express your views and suggestions to others in the letter, you can use interrogative sentences except for imperative sentences. What’s more, on the degree of polite expressing, interrogative sentences can give the other side greater left room than imperative sentences can give. And interrogative sentences are politer than imperative sentences in the aspect of tone. Therefore, interrogative sentences are used relatively more often than imperative sentences in English of business correspondence. The following sentences are the examples. Eg1 Would you please send us a copy of your catalogue? Eg2 May I know what products you are interested in?
2.4 Exclamatory Sentences of English of business correspondence Exclamatory sentences can reinforce the expressional function. However, exclamatory sentences are little used in English of business correspondence because exclamatory sentences don’t match objective, rigorous style of English of business correspondence.

3. Sentence structure of English of business correspondence

Sentences in English business correspondence combines compound sentences with simple sentences and let compound sentences dominates .Sentences can be divided into the following three types by sentence structure: simple sentences, concatenation sentences and complex sentences. Some kind of language such as British ads language, News English and so on .Informal style of English are used to using series of simple sentences organically combined by various means such as adverb and punctuation. Compared with the above-mentioned stylistic, sentence structure of correspondence English has very prominent characteristics. Substantial concatenation sentences and complex sentences are used in English business correspondence. Letters in business contacts written by the hand and the fax could be reached an effective component of the contracts. Therefore, sentences in business letters and telegrams require sophisticated tight logical. To ensure that such features, letters and telegrams are often required for English phrases into an independent master-slave complex sentences or concatenation sentences. E.g.1:The credit could cover 85% 0f the local expense if they are made under the responsibility of the British Contractor and within the limit of the down payments paid on the Contract.. The sentence is the master-slave complex sentences. Adverbial clause guided by subordinator if includes two preconditions, making the scope of the conduct of the main sentence subject to strict restrictions. So we can see the sentences of strict logic and there is no loophole in them. E.g 2: In the event the buyer does not furnish the seller with shipping instruction on or before December 25,2000,the seller may at his option cancel this contract and demand the buyer to pay any damages he has sustained on account of such failure of the buyer to give such instruction. Complex sentences are widely used in English of business correspondence, because English of business correspondence involve the terms of the contract and the terms of delivery. Therefore, logical relations must be strict and accurate, and should not be vague. The structure of complex sentence is complicated and the expression is complete well. Simple sentences have simple structures. They are clear to understand. English of business correspondence requires rigorous and concise characteristics, aimed at the pursuit of accurate wind rigorous language. Although the use of complex sentences is very common, it does not exclude the use of simple sentences. Comparing with the informal style such as advertisement English and news English, the more prominent feature of English of business correspondence is that it has many complex sentences. Parallel structure is commonly used in English business correspondence. Synonyms or near-synonym parallel structure are commonly used in English of business correspondence. The “and” and “or” are used commonly to guide the parallel structure. The purpose of this kind of parataxis is through the complement of each other (the meaning of the expression) to make the meaning more precise. Specifically, using the parallel structure with "and" can make the business correspondence accurate. Please look at the following examples. Eg. 1: This Contract is made by and between the two parties. Eg. 2:The Seller agrees to sell and the Buyer agrees to purchase the under—mentioned commodities according to the following terms and conditions. .In addition, using the selective coordination with "or" can make the content of the correspondence describe more rigorous without any rips. E.g.: Any dispute arising from the execution of the contract or in the connection with the agreement,shall be settled through friendly consultations between the two parties. There are synonyms which are commonly used in English of business correspondence: amendments to or alterations of force and effect, fulfill and provide, make and enter into obligations and responsibilities.

4. The locations of adverbials in English of business correspondence

In accordance with the general rules of English writing, longer adverbials should not be placed between subject and predicate. Besides, predicate should not be placed between conjunctions such as “if” “when” and “in case” and main body of clause in adverbial clause of general style but can be placed between them in English of business correspondence. E.g.:If after 30 days from the beginning of such informal consultations,the parties fail to resolve amicably a contract dispute,either party hereto may requite that the dispute should be submitted to arbitration for resolution.

5. The use of tense and aspect in English of business correspondence

There are some English verbs which can express the attitude: hope,think,wonder,want and so on. The past tense of them is called “attitudinal past”. They have test functions, can indirectly express a request, suggestions, advice and other speech act, and reduce the potential to make each other's possible embarrassment. Thus their past appears more tactful and polite than present.
“Do you want to accept the return of the defective pens?” is less polite and tactful than “Did you want to accept the return of the defective pens?” Progressive form of English can express the tone of euphemism. Progressive form of some words (hope,think,wonder,want and so on) are more polite.
(1)1 wonder if you could allow transshipment. (2)I am wondering if you could allow transshipment. (3)I were wondering if you could allow transshipment. Among the above three, the attitude of the preceding sentence is less humble and polite than the sentence after it. Therefore, proper use of English tense and aspect can help to make the wording of English of business correspondence more euphemistic, avoid damage of faces of both parties and achieve better communication effects.

6. The use of subjunctive mood in English of business correspondence

In English, what we call "the tone" is that the different forms in the verb which reflects the differences of talkers` purpose. There are three types of tone in English: the Indicative Mood, the Imperative Mood and the Subjunctive Mood. The subjunctive mood can not only express subjective wishes and hypothesis which is not realistic but also have an important use of expressing request and command gently, expressing suggestion and advice and showing hope. Using subjunctive mood in business English of correspondences allow people to write the tone more politely and tactfully. If people make the proposal in the Indicative Mood, it would be too sure, and sometimes seems self-righteous. Therefore, in order to make the tone even more polite and euphemistic. We often use the subjunctive mood to express polite euphemism. At this time predicate is composed by should/would/could/might and verb prototype. When we request to each other, it is more appropriate to use this form to express what you want to request.
(a).We would like you to hasten shipment upon receipt of this letter. (b).We want you to hasten shipment upon receipt of this letter. (c) Had you contacted us earlier we could have complied with your request to be the full. (d). Would you advise by e-mail when the above mentioned goods have been shipped. From the above examples, the reader is not difficult to find that sentence (a) seems more polite than the sentence (b) from the perspective of grammar.

7. The extensive use of compound words of hereby category in English of business correspondence

The compound words composed by here/there/where and in/after are often seen in English business correspondence. We always use compound words which combine “here、there or where” with preposition such as “in,on,after”.It is hard that we understand these compound words with the corresponding meanings in Chinese. However, if you understand the link between their meaning and constitution, you can be easy to understand them. For these compound words, "here" should be interpreted as "this"; "there" should be interpreted as "that"; "where" should be interpreted as "which”.Thus,”hereafter" should be interpreted as "after this"; "wherein" should be interpreted as "of that"; "whereby" should be interpreted as "by which”. Therefore hereafter should be interpreted as after this, wherein should be interpreted as of that, whereby to be understood as by which. Eg. 1:We hereby acknowledge with thanks receipt of the captioned L/C for the amount of US$2OOO covering your Order No.15 for coffee. Eg. 2:Further to our last discussions in Melbourne and the faxes exchanged thereafter on joint venture in Australia,we are very pleased to receive your letter of December12 with detailed information about the subject. Eg. 3:With the view to expanding Chinese textiles export to Australia,BUNGE(hereinafter referred to Party A)and CHINATEX(hereinafter referred to Party B)have a to set up joint venture in Australia.

8 The use of modal verb in English of business correspondence

When we use modal verb in English business correspondence, we will use past tense of modal verb. Comparing with the general style of modal verb, the tone of past tense of modal verb such as could, should, would, might is milder. Past tense of modal verb can show polite attitude of the writers. When the readers read the sentences which have past tense of modal verb, they will feel the earnest and sincere which show the will of promoting the cooperation between two parties from the writers. a.Can you please forward this letter to a corporation in that region that may be interested in your marketing proposal? b.Could you please forward this letter to a corporation in that region that may be interested in your marketing proposal? From the above examples, the reader is not difficult to find that sentence (b) seems more acceptable than the sentence (a) .When the readers read sentence(b),they would love to meet the writers demand. What we should pay attention is that past tense of modal verb always appear with the verbs which express the attitude of sounding out such as wonder, doubt, hope in order to make the expression more euphemistic and indirect.
E.g.:I wondered if you would a11ow our partial payment

9. The use of passive voice in English of business correspondence

In most cases, we can use active voice to show our position and view clearly. However, when we want to express criticism, we should use passive voice to make the correspondences more polite. Using active voice to express criticism is less polite than using passive voice to express criticism. (a)For the past four years,you did not give us any suggestion. (b) For the past four years,no suggestion has been given to us. (c)You did not enclose the letter with your requirement. (d)The letter was not enclosed with your requirement. From the above examples, the reader is not difficult to find that sentence (b) seems more polite than the sentence (a) and sentence (d) seems more polite than the sentence (c).

10. Conclusion

I have summarized the grammatical features of English business correspondence from the above eight aspects. The eight aspects are sentence types of business English, sentence structure of business English, the locations of adverbials in business English, the use of tense and aspect in business English, the use of subjunctive mood in business English, the extensive use of compound words of hereby category in business English, the use of modal verbs and the use of passive voice. English business correspondence is not only the media of communication between two parties but also the bridge of good relationship between two parties. To attach great importance to grammatical features of English business correspondence can help us write successful English correspondence. Because these grammatical features can help the English business correspondence become more polite. If we know the grammatical features well, we can make these grammatical features appear in our English business correspondence. If these grammatical features appear in our English correspondence, our client will feel our honest and politeness and be willing to cooperate with us. Therefore, knowing these grammatical features can help us build a good relationship with our clients.

Of course, English business correspondence has other unique features in terms of discourse structure, vocabulary and so on. This article can serve our purpose to improve the ability of writing English business correspondence. The purpose of this paper is to help people reduce grammatical mistakes when they are writing English business correspondence. This article did not mention it only because the space is very limited.

Works cited

Quirk, al. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English language. London and New York: Longman, 1985.
诸葛霖.English Business Letters [M].北京:对外经贸大学出版社.
高嘉勇 商务函电英语的语法特点[J].天津外国语学院学报 2001

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...MKT/421 University of Phoenix Marketing Mix Marketing mix is when the right product is put in the right place, at the right time, and at the right price. When an organization or company creates a product that attracts individuals and put it on sale or offer it to individuals it should may be place at a price in which it matches the value of the product and is worth what the consumers or individuals get out of it. The 4 Ps of marketing and the marketing mix are sometimes used as synonyms for one another because they are close to being the same thing. The 4 Ps of marketing mix are product, place, price, and promotion. Each component of the marketing mix has some type of importance and are given an equal abundance of importance. In the marketing mix the customer is the most important piece of the marketing strategy however it is not included because all the components are aimed toward the target. A company that I think would represent for a good marketing mix is Apple. They are about pleasing their customers and making sure that they are aware of the products that they have to offer. Prices are adjusted to make sure that things are affordable and sometimes to bring in new customers. Surveys are completed at times to see what it is that the customer wants and what satisfies the customer. The customers have a say so in the product and the company value their opinion. The product- The product is...

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Marketing Mix

...Marketing Mix MKT/421 February 11, 2013 Ron Stripe Marketing takes a day to learn. Unfortunately it takes a lifetime to master – Phil Kolter. Marketing involves so much more than simply selling a product or service. It involves planning and preparations that requires an organization to connect with their customers on a much deeper level. A marketing mix is one of the most valuable tools an organization can utilize to create such a connection. The marketing of an organization includes so many variables; therefore, it is necessary to categorize these variables by product, price, place, and promotion, which are the 4P’s of the marketing mix. These categories are the framework for just about every successful organization in today’s market. An organization like Fisher-Price understands how important a marketing mix is to compete in a market that is saturated with developing young minds; which in fact, was the driving force behind their refreshing new approach to stay connected with today’s moms. The Marketing Mix What is a marketing mix and how does it affect an organization? The answer to this question is what all business owners and managers need to know to contend in the highly competitive market of this day and age. The term "marketing-mix," was first coined by Neil Borden, the president of the American Marketing Association in 1953. It is still used today to make important decisions that lead to the execution of a marketing plan. The various approaches that are......

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Marketing Mix

...Marketing Mix Latasha Edwards University of Phoenix MKT/421 Stuart Ringer July 07, 2012 Abstract This essay will describe the elements of the marketing mix. Starbucks is the organization that will allow a description of how all four elements affect developmental marketing strategy. An explanation of how each part of the marketing mix is implemented and what industry that Starbucks exist is present. Marketing Mix Starbucks originated in 1971 in Seattle. Today there are over 17,000 stores across 55 countries all over the world. The mission; “inspire and nurture the human spirit one person and one cup at a time” (Starbucks Company Profile, 2011, p. 1). Starbucks got its name from a story; Moby Dick and logo is a Greek mythology siren. This company views employees as partners. Products include coffee; more than 30 blends, handcrafted beverages; such as Frappuccino’s and ice coffee, merchandise; cups, mugs, music, books, fresh food; cookies, salads, and sandwiches. Marketing mix A plan, that is controlled, including four elements; product, price, place, and promotion. The company makes adjustments of these four elements until the right combination meets consumer needs. The ultimate goal, when using this tool, is to make a profit (Marketing Mix, 2012). Product is the central part of the marketing mix. One has to figure out how to make it, how the product line is going to run and set it up. One also has to decide......

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Marketing Mix

...developing a marketing strategy, the four P's of marketing must be addressed. These are product, price, placement, and promotion. These all work together to help reach maximum potential in a marketing strategy. Product is anything that is marketable. This can be a service, physical item or an idea. It is important to define what the product is in order to define the target market. Without a definite product, no other part of the marketing strategy can be implemented. Price does play an important part in the marketing mix, but it should not rule the business. Price should be in line with a customer's perception of value. Price must also match the quality of the product being offered. Knowing what the breakeven point is also is important. Without this information, the price may not be enough to cover the costs of selling the product. Placement and distribution is the third element of the marketing mix. This includes the physical placement such as location, inventory, transport, and coverage. It also covers the channels used to market the product. Channels can change over time as businesses grow and evolve. Promotion is the final element of the marketing mix. Promotion includes the communication of information about the product. The goal is to create a positive customer response. Marketing communication includes advertising, promotions, public relations, publicity, sales force or team, and promotional strategy. Furthermore, every organization uses the marketing......

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