Free Essay


In: Business and Management

Submitted By Debbiedeaux
Words 22067
Pages 89

Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428

Progress in Tourism Management

Event tourism: Definition, evolution, and research
Donald GetzÃ
Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, 2500 University Ave. N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4 Received 24 April 2007; accepted 31 July 2007

Abstract This article reviews ‘event tourism’ as both professional practice and a field of academic study. The origins and evolution of research on event tourism are pinpointed through both chronological and thematic literature reviews. A conceptual model of the core phenomenon and key themes in event tourism studies is provided as a framework for spurring theoretical advancement, identifying research gaps, and assisting professional practice. Conclusions are in two parts: a discussion of implications for the practice of event management and tourism, and implications are drawn for advancing theory in event tourism. r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Event tourism; Definitions; Theory; Research

1. Introduction Events are an important motivator of tourism, and figure prominently in the development and marketing plans of most destinations. The roles and impacts of planned events within tourism have been well documented, and are of increasing importance for destination competitiveness. Yet it was only a few decades ago that ‘event tourism’ became established in both the tourism industry and in the research community, so that subsequent growth of this sector can only be described as spectacular. Equally, ‘event management’ is a fast growing professional field in which tourists constitute a potential market for planned events and the tourism industry has become a vital stakeholder in their success and attractiveness. But not all events need to be tourism oriented, and some fear the potential negative impacts associated with adopting marketing orientation. As well, events have other important roles to play, from community-building to urban renewal, cultural development to fostering national identities—tourism is not the only partner or proponent. In this paper the nature, evolution and future development of ‘event tourism’ are discussed, pertaining to both theory and professional practice. Emphasis is placed on
ÃTel.: +1 403 220 7158; fax: +1 403 282 0095.

E-mail address: 0261-5177/$ - see front matter r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2007.07.017

research and publication trends, and on a critical evaluation of knowledge creation, theory building, and future directions. The perspective taken is primarily that of destinations and the tourism industry, although other viewpoints are discussed. Five main sections are subsequently presented. The first is entitled The Event Perspective; it starts with a typology of what constitutes the ‘planned events’ sector (Fig. 1). ‘Event management’ as a profession is defined, and ‘event studies’ is discussed as an emerging academic field. In the second section, The Tourism Perspective, ‘event tourism’ is defined from both a demand and supply perspective, then its goals are examined. Fig. 2 is presented to illustrate the interrelationships between events and tourism. A number of event tourism career paths are identified (Fig. 3), then within a discussion of the destination perspective an event portfolio model is examined (Fig. 4). This strategic approach can help shape evaluation, planning, and policy for events. Event Tourism in the Research Literature constitutes the third section, with the review first presented chronologically, showing the origins and evolution of event tourism within the context of both tourism and event management. A thematic approach is then taken to review the three general types of event (i.e., business, sport, festivals) that have attracted the most attention from researchers and practitioners. Also covered in more detail are the ‘mega’ events that have generated their own research lines.

404 D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428

Section four, entitled A Framework for Knowledge Creation and Theory Development in Event Tourism, is shaped by a model (Fig. 5) of the event tourism system. The core phenomenon (event experiences and meanings) is discussed first, then antecedents and choices (including motivation research), planning and managing event tourism, patterns and processes (including spatial, temporal, policy making and knowledge creation), outcomes and the impacted. Figs. 6–10 provide a set of key research questions and possible research methods for each of these elements of the event tourism system, together constituting a research agenda. Conclusions are in two parts, the first being a discussion of implications for the practice of event management and tourism. Finally, implications are drawn for advancing theory in event tourism, and this includes a short note on the event-tourism discourse that has been dominated by the tourism and economic perspectives.

2. The event perspective Planned events are spatial–temporal phenomenon, and each is unique because of interactions among the setting, people, and management systems—including design elements and the program. Much of the appeal of events is that they are never the same, and you have to ‘be there’ to enjoy the unique experience fully; if you miss it, it’s a lost opportunity. In addition, ‘virtual events’, communicated through various media, also offer something of interest and value to consumers and the tourism industry; they are different kinds of event experiences. Planned events are all created for a purpose, and what was once the realm of individual and community initiatives has largely become the realm of professionals and entrepreneurs. The reasons are obvious: events are too

important, satisfying numerous strategic goals—and often too risky—to be left to amateurs. Event management is the applied field of study and area of professional practice devoted to the design, production and management of planned events, encompassing festivals and other celebrations, entertainment, recreation, political and state, scientific, sport and arts events, those in the domain of business and corporate affairs (including meetings, conventions, fairs, and exhibitions), and those in the private domain (including rites of passage such as weddings and parties, and social events for affinity groups). Fig. 1 provides a typology of the main categories of planned events based primarily on their form—that is, obvious differences in their purpose and program. Some are for public celebration (this category includes so-called ‘community festivals’ which typically contain a large variety in their programming and aim to foster civic pride and cohesion), while others are planned for purposes of competition, fun, entertainment, business or socializing. Often they require special-purpose facilities, and the managers of those facilities (like convention centers and sport arenas) target specific types of events. Professional associations and career paths have traditionally been linked to these event types. 2.1. Event management as a profession A quick look at the main event-related professional associations reveals them to be very well established, but also divided on the basis of event form. In 1885, the International Association of Fairs and Expositions (IAFE) began with a half dozen fairs, while the International Association for Exhibition Management was organized in 1928 as the National Association of Exposition Managers to represent the interests of tradeshow and exposition managers. The International Festivals and

CULTURAL CELEBRATIONS -festivals -carnivals -commemorations -religious events POLITICAL AND STATE -summits -royal occasions -political events -VIP visits ARTS AND ENTERTAINMENT -concerts -award ceremonies

BUSINES AND TRADE -meetings, conventions -consumer and trade shows -fairs, markets EDUCATIONAL AND SCIENTIFIC -conferences -seminars -clinics

SPORT COMPETITION -amateur/professional -specator/particpant RECREATIONAL -sport or games for fun

PRIVATE EVENTS -weddings -parties -socials

Fig. 1. Typology of planned events (Source: Getz, 2005).

D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428 405

Events Association celebrated its 50th year in 2005, and its orientation appeals to community festivals and other celebrations. Established in 1972, Meeting Professionals International (MPI) is the (self-proclaimed) leading global community committed to shaping and defining the future of the meeting and event industry. The International Special Events Society (ISES) was founded in 1987 and embraces both event designers/producers and their numerous suppliers. As well, there are associations for carnivals, and many arts and sports-specific associations that deal with events, and they organize at local, national and international levels. It will be difficult to change this well-established pattern of professionalization, that is to evolve from specializations based on the form of event (such as ‘festival manager’, ‘exhibition designer’, or ‘convention planner’) to a generic ‘event management’ profession. No doubt the professional associations will continue to compete for members and prestige, although there are signs that some of the associations have been broadening their scope and appeal. The evolution towards generic event management will also be facilitated by educational institutions offering professional event management degrees, and by employers who will increasingly want adaptable professionals. Historically, there were few if any academic programs in event management prior to the 1990s. Since then the literature on events has exploded, accompanying a global move to establish diploma and degree programs. There are a growing number of Masters programs in event management, and numerous individual courses offered in tourism, leisure, sport and hospitality programs. In the United Kingdom, the Association for Events Management Education (AEME) was established in 2004 ‘‘yin order to support and raise the profile of the events discipline through the sharing of education and best practice’’ ( Several research journals are devoted to this field, starting with Festival Management and Event Tourism in 1993, later renamed Event Management. Convention and Exhibition Management was recently renamed Convention and Event Tourism, and an online journal of Event Management research has been established. The World Journal of Managing Events is the latest addition. 2.2. Event studies New academic fields such as tourism, leisure or hospitality studies generally arise from professional practice that justifies courses or degree programs at universities and colleges. When a critical mass of students, programs, and teachers is reached, research and publications in research journals follow. The academics who teach, do research and publish within the emerging field typically need to elevate the status of their work from that of purely applied to something more theoretical and at the same time academically credible. This describes the evolution of

tourism management with tourism studies, and recreation management with leisure studies, so we can similarly justify the relationships between ‘event management’ and ‘event studies’. The study of events has long existed within several disciplines, manifested in research and theory development on (for example) the anthropology, geography or economics of events, but the term ‘event studies’ appears to have been coined in 2000, and then only in passing in Getz’s speech in the Events Beyond 2000 (Sydney) conference. In a 2002 article in Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management Getz explicitly discussed event studies and event management, questioning their possible status as disciplines or fields (Getz, 1998, 1999, 2002). Event studies was an unnecessary and perhaps irrelevant idea until academics doing event-related teaching and research had published a critical mass of papers and books, met at event-specific research conferences, established event-specific journals, and generated sufficient interest in theory. In terms of events-related education the majority of programs appear to be at either the practical, hands-on level (encompassing ‘event design’) or those with emphasis on applying management theory and methods to events and event-producing organizations. Event tourism is generally covered within tourism degree programs as a topic or a single course. 3. The tourism perspective The term ‘event(s) tourism’ was not widely used, if at all, prior to 1987 when The New Zealand Tourist and Publicity Department (1987) reported: ‘‘Event tourism is an important and rapidly growing segment of international tourismy’’. An article by Getz in 1989 in Tourism Management (‘Special Events: Defining the Product’) developed a framework for planning ‘events tourism’. Prior to this it was normal to speak of special events, hallmark events, mega events and specific types of events. Now ‘event tourism’ is generally recognized as being inclusive of all planned events in an integrated approach to development and marketing. As with all forms of special-interest travel, event tourism must be viewed from both demand and supply sides. A consumer perspective requires determining who travels for events and why, and also who attends events while traveling. We also want to know what ‘event tourists’ do and spend. Included in this demand-side approach is assessment of the value of events in promoting a positive destination image, place marketing in general, and cobranding with destinations. On the supply side, destinations develop, facilitate and promote events of all kinds to meet multiple goals: to attract tourists (especially in the off-peak seasons), serve as a catalyst (for urban renewal, and for increasing the infrastructure and tourism capacity of the destination), to foster a positive destination image and contribute to general place marketing (including contributions to

406 D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428

fostering a better place in which to live, work and invest), and to animate specific attractions or areas. There is no real justification for considering event tourism as a separate field of studies. The constraint is that both tourism and event studies are necessary to understand this kind of experience. As well, there are subareas like sport and cultural tourism (in which intrinsic motivations prevail) and business travel (mostly extrinsically motivated) that also focus on the event tourism experience. In a similar vein, Deery, Jago, and Fredline (2004) asked if sport tourism and event tourism are the same thing. Their conceptualization showed sport tourism as being at the nexus of event tourism and sport, with both sport tourism and event tourism being sub-sets of tourism in general. Indeed, there is almost limitless potential for sub-dividing tourism studies and management in this manner. Fig. 2 depicts the set of interrelationships occurring at the nexus of tourism and event studies, consisting of both

the marketing of events to tourists and the development and marketing of events for tourism and economic development purposes. Event tourism is not usually recognized as a separate professional field. Mostly it is seen as an application of, or specialty within national tourism offices (NTOs) and destination marketing/management organizations (DMOs). Event development agencies (as opposed to agencies focused on protocol, arts and culture which also deal with planned events) embody event tourism completely, and there are a growing number of associated career paths or technical jobs, as illustrated in Fig. 3. And there is a growing body of research and practical literature devoted to most of these functions—as revealed in the ensuing literature review. 3.1. The destination perspective on event tourism From the tourism industry’s perspective, typically through the eyes of a DMO or event development agency, events are highly valued as attractions, catalysts, animators, place marketers, and image-makers. The specific role of a DMO is generally to promote tourism to a destination, both business and leisure travel. Conventions are considered business travel and participation sport events or festivals are part of leisure travel. In a study of Canadian visitor and convention bureaus (Getz, Anderson, & Sheehan, 1998), events were revealed to be one of the few areas of product development engaged in by DMOs; typically their membership (often dominated by commercial accommodation operators and attractions) want visitor demand all year round. Existing events might be viewed as resources to exploit, which can be problematic from a social and cultural perspective. Taking a comprehensive portfolio approach
TASKS; AREAS OF EXPERTISE -work with events in the destination to help realize their tourism potential (funding, advice, marketing) -liaison with convention/exhibition centres and other venues -liaison with sport and other organizations that produce events -create and produce events specifically for their tourism value -stakeholder management (with numerous event partners) -develop a strategy for the destination -integrate events with product development and image making/branding -work with policy makers to facilitate event tourism -conduct research (e.g., feasibility studies, demand forecasting, impact assessments and performance evaluations) -bid on events -develop relationships leading to winning events for the destination -provide essential and special services to events (e.g., travel and logistics; accommodation and venue bookings; supplier contacts)

TOURISM MANAGEMENT AND TOURISM Event STUDIES Tourism -Developing and -a market for promoting event managers -destination tourism development -Understanding travel and tourists, through events including event tourists

EVENT MANAGEMENT AND EVENT STUDIES -Design, production, and management of events -Understanding planned event experiences and the meanings attached

Fig. 2. Event tourism at the nexus of tourism and event studies.

EVENT TOURISM CAREER PATHS Event Facilitator/Coordinator

Tourism Event Producer

Event Tourism Planner Event Tourism Policy Analyst and Researcher

Event Bidding Event Services

Fig. 3. Event tourism career paths.

D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428 407

POSSIBLE MEASURES OF “VALUE” • growth potential • market share • quality • image enhancement • community support • environmental value • economic benefits • sustainability • appropriateness

OCCASIONAL MEGA-EVENTS High Tourist Demand and High Value PERIODIC HALLMARK EVENTS High Tourist Demand and High Value REGIONAL EVENTS (Periodic and one-time) Medium Tourist Demand LOCAL EVENTS (Periodic and one-time) Low Demand Low Demand and Low Value

Fig. 4. The portfolio approach to event tourism strategy-making and evaluation (Source: Getz, 2005).

leads to greater emphasis on creating new events and attracting them through competitive bidding. The portfolio approach (see Fig. 4) is similar to how a company strategically evaluates and develops its line of products and services. It is goal-driven, and value-based. Destinations must decide what they want from events (the benefits), and how they will measure their value. In this destination context economic values have always prevailed, and this preoccupation might very well constitute a limitation on the sustainability of events. Stakeholders, encompassing the organizations that produce events, the community at large, and the beneficiaries of event tourism in the service sector, are likely to stress different aims and concerns. Within the jargon of event tourism, and figuring prominently in the illustrated portfolio model, two terms stand out. ‘Mega events’ have long been defined and analyzed in terms of their tourist attractiveness and related image-making or developmental roles. Indeed, this was the subject of an AIEST conference in 1987. The perceived successes of mega events, including the Brisbane World’s Fair and America’s Cup Defense in Perth, Australia, definitely spurred creation of event development agencies, research, and event management programs of study in that country, helping position Australia as a world leader. A similar consequence of staging major events has been observed in other countries as well, including New Zealand (Gnoth & Anwar, 2000). The other notable term is ‘hallmark event’ which has various meanings. Ritchie (1984, p. 2) published the first general discussion of their impacts and referred to them as

‘‘Major one-time or recurring events of limited duration, developed primarily to enhance the awareness, appeal and profitability of a tourism destinationy’’. Getz (2005, p. 16) used the term in a manner more specifically tied to imagemaking, place marketing and destination branding: ‘‘y‘hallmark’ describes an event that possesses such significance, in terms of tradition, attractiveness, quality, or publicity, that the event provides the host venue, community, or destination with a competitive advantage. Over time, the event and destination can become inextricably linked, such as Mardi Gras and New Orleans.’’ ‘Local’ and ‘regional’ events, occupying the base levels of the portfolio pyramid, are problematic from a tourism perspective. Some of them have tourism potential that can be developed, requiring investment, and some are not interested in tourism—perhaps even feeling threatened by it. If local events are primarily community or culturally oriented there is a good argument to be made for not exploiting them. Certainly the issue of preserving cultural authenticity and local control emerges whenever tourism goals are attached to local and regional events. When contemplating generic event development strategies, some destinations appear to over-emphasize mega events to the detriment of a more balanced portfolio, while others pursue the promotion of one or more events as destination hallmarks to signify both quality and other brand values. A related strategy is to deliberately seek to elevate existing events into those with hallmark status, a process that can be said to ‘institutionalize’ events. A more recent trend is for DMOs and event development agencies

408 D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428

to create and produce their own major events as part of a sophisticated branding strategy. Note that the typology of events in the portfolio model is based on functionality, that is the degree to which certain economic, tourism or political goals can be met through hosting and marketing events. As such it represents a discourse dominated by specific developmental and political assumptions that might run counter to an events strategy based on fostering community development, culture, sport, leisure, health or other aims. Furthermore, it is also possible to classify events on the basis of their place attachment, being the degree to which they are associated with, or institutionalized in a particular community or destination. Mega events are typically global in their orientation and require a competitive bid to ‘win’ them as a one-time event for a particular place. By contrast, ‘hallmark events’ cannot exist independently of their host community, and ‘local’ or ‘regional’ events are by definition rooted in one place and appeal mostly to residents. The event development agencies that exist in every state in Australia seem to represent the state of the art in event tourism. For example, EventsCorp Western Australia and Queensland Events Corp, have strategies, policies and programs for attracting, bidding, developing and assisting events primarily to foster tourism. Getz (1997, 2005) profiled the Queensland agency, while Getz and Fairley (2004) examined media management issues surrounding the state agency’s two major ‘owned’ events in Gold Coast. As an example of Event Tourism developed for strategic purposes, note the mission of The Canadian Sport Tourism Alliance which seeks to ‘‘yincrease Canadian capacity and competitiveness to attract and host sport events’’ ( While there are social and sport-specific reasons for hosting these events, the tourism driver is obviously paramount because most Canadian sport tourism agencies or personnel are located within city DMOs. A substantial part of the Event Tourism business of DMOs and event development agencies is bidding on events that have owners. This process has been described as a special-purpose marketplace by Getz (2004b) who studied the event bidding goals, methods and attributed success factors of Canadian DMOs. Bidding has also been studied by Emery (2001), Persson (2002), and Westerbeek, Turner, and Ingerson (2002). Gnoth and Anwar (2000) examined New Zealand’s Event Tourism initiatives and offered a framework for developing an effective strategy. Although it is obvious that resources have to be committed, perhaps a more important issue was determining how to measure the country’s return on investment and to coordinate the various stakeholders necessary to become competitive. Getz (2003) provided specific advice on planning and developing sport event tourism, including a case study from Seminole County, Florida, to illustrate supply, demand and process issues. The book Sport Tourism Destinations (Higham, 2005) is

an excellent source of practical planning and marketing advice. To be most effective, the DMO or event agency has to establish relationships with the event sector and individual events, hence a network approach is useful. Whitford’s (2004a, 2004b) research in Australia documented the development of event tourism policies and programs, particularly as a tool in regional development. In one region she found the policies did not give much recognition to the roles of events in fostering regional growth, but they were largely socio-cultural in nature. This revealed a gap between local authority policies and those of states and the nation that aggressively pursued event tourism for its economic benefits. Stokes (2004) studied the Australian event development agencies from the perspective of stakeholder networks, collaboration, and strategy making, and specifically looked at the relevance of the concept of knowledge networks. Her analysis revealed the dominance of a corporate orientation in which event-related strategy and decisions were made at the state level. A ‘soft’ or informal network of stakeholders existed, dominated by a core of influential governmental agencies which varied depending on whether the agency was engaged in event bidding, development or marketing. This approach contrasted with the community orientation found at the regional-authority level, where more formal networking occurred between public agencies and private organizations for the purpose of actually producing events. 3.2. An event-centric perspective on event tourism Many planned events are produced with little or no thought given to their tourism appeal or potential. Sometimes this is due to the organizers’ specific aims, and sometimes there is simply no relationship established between events and tourism. In Calgary, case study research (Getz, Andersson, & Larson, 2007) found that seven festivals were basically ignored by the DMO that had limited or no interest in their tourism potential. This situation had evidently arisen because of the absence of both a tourism plan and a comprehensive events policy. As well, it appeared that the long-standing promotion of one hallmark event, the annual Calgary Exhibition and Stampede, results in small festivals being perceived as insignificant, overshadowed in the media, and somewhat deprived of sponsorship—according to the festival managers. On the other hand, Calgary has been aggressively pursuing events under a sport tourism strategy, facilitated greatly by a new staff position within the DMO called Manager, Sports and Major Events. This initiative has generated both an increase in bidding on sport and other events and higher profile for the city that results in better relationships with event owners and requests to host events in the city. Festivals and events desiring the support or cooperation of tourism agencies, or simply looking for increased

D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428 409

respect, tend to conduct tourism and economic impact studies to ‘prove’ their value in economic terms. Their strategy might be to first become a tourist attraction, then use that positioning to gain legitimacy or foster growth. In the context of stakeholder and resource dependency theory, events must secure tangible resources and political support to become sustainable, giving up a degree of independence in the process. Most texts on event management do not cover tourism in any detail, although numerous research articles published in the event-specific journals focus on Event Tourism, mostly its marketing or economic impacts. General event management texts include those by Tassiopoulos (2000), Shone and Parry (2001), Allen, O’Toole, McDonnell, and Harris (2002), Goldblatt (2007), Silvers (2004), Van der Wagen (2004), Getz (2005), and Bowdin, Allen, O’Toole, Harris, and McDonnell (2006). A number of books are devoted to managing specific types of events, including those by Morrow (1997) on exhibitions (trade and consumer show), Rogers (2003) on conventions, Supovitz and Goldblatt (2004) on sports events. Regarding event management functions, the following specialty books are available: event design (Berridge, 2006); marketing and communications (Hoyle, 2002; Masterman & Wood, 2006); project planning (O’Toole & Mikolaitis, 2002); operations (Tum, Norton, & Wright, 2006); risk management (Berlonghi, 1990; Tarlow, 2002); human resources (Van der Wagen, 2006); evaluation and impact assessment (Jago & Dwyer, 2006; Mossberg, 2000a); and sponsorship (Skinner & Rukavina, 2003). The text by Getz (2005) is the only one to combine event management and event tourism. Several books are available on specific types of events and tourism, and these are mentioned later. 4. Event tourism in the research literature The ensuing literature review aims to be systematically comprehensive and critical, leading to identification of theoretical and research themes and gaps. First a chronological review is provided, showing how this sub-field originated and evolved. Then a thematic review is undertaken, looking specifically at types of events and ‘megaevents’. Of necessity, this review covers both event management and event tourism, mainly because the overlaps are considerable, and also owing to the fact that there are no separate event-tourism periodicals. Together with the books cited in this article, earlier literature reviews have been consulted. These include reviews of research in the event management field by Formica (1998), Getz (2000b), and Harris, Jago, Allen, and Huyskens (2001). Hede, Jago, and Deery (2002, 2003) reviewed special events research for the period of 1990–2002. Also, Sherwood’s doctoral dissertation (2007) entailed a large-scale review of pertinent literature and specifically examined 85 event economic impact studies prepared in Australia.

4.1. A chronological review of the event tourism literature 4.1.1. The early years As confirmed by Formica (1998) there were few articles related to events management or tourism published in the 1970s—he found a total of four in Annals of Tourism Research and Journal of Travel Research. Events were not yet ‘attractions’ within the tourism system of Gunn’s landmark book, Tourism Planning (1979), although in passing he did mention ‘places for festivals and conventions’. In the 1960s and 1970s the events sector was not recognized as an area of separate study within leisure, tourism or recreation, all of which were rapidly growing in the academic community and in professional practice. Boorstin (1961), an historian, first drew attention to the phenomenon of ‘pseudo events’ created for publicity and political purposes. Attention was paid to festivals as anthropology, sociology and art. For example, Greenwood’s (1972) study of a Basque festival from an anthropological perspective lamented the negative influence of tourism on authentic cultural celebrations. The authenticity of events, their social–cultural impacts, and effects of tourism on events remain enduring themes. J.R.B. Ritchie and Beliveau published the first article specifically about event tourism in JTR in 1974, the topic being how ‘hallmark events’ could combat seasonality of tourism demand. They examined the Quebec Winter Carnival and included citation of an unpublished study of the economic impacts of the Quebec Winter Carnival dated 1962, which is perhaps the earliest such study recorded in the research literature. Most of the pioneering published studies were event economic impact assessments, notably Della Bitta, Loudon, Booth, and Weeks (1978) who reported in JTR on a Tall Ships event. Another early study of the economic impacts of event tourism was conducted by Vaughan in Edinburgh in 1979, where the Tourism Recreation Research Unit at the University of Edinburgh had recently been established. 4.1.2. The 1980s Event Tourism expanded dramatically as a research topic in the 1980s. A number of extension studies at Texas A&M focused on events and tourism including the Gunn and Wicks (1982) report on visitors to a festival in Galveston. Two notable research articles from early in this decade include those by Gartner and Holecek (1983) on the economic impact of an annual tourism industry exposition, and J.R.B. Ritchie’s (1984) treatise on the nature of impacts from hallmark events, which remains a classic in terms of citations and influence. A major study of festival visitors and the economic impacts of multiple festivals in Canada’s National Capital region was conducted in the latter part of this decade (Coopers and Lybrand Consulting Group, 1989), followed by a similar major study in Edinburgh (Scotinform Ltd., 1991). These remain landmarks in terms of their scope and cross-event comparisons.

410 D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428

By mid-decade Mill and Morrison’s (1985) USA-based text The Tourism System explicitly recognized the power of events. The 1985 TTRA Canada Chapter conference was themed ‘International Events: The Real Tourism Impact’ (Travel and Tourism Research Association & Canada Chapter (TTRA), 1986), with the impetus coming from the planned 1986 Vancouver World’s Fair and the 1988 Calgary Winter Olympics. Internationally, the AIEST (1987) conference produced a notable collection of material on the general subject of mega events. Australian scholars were involved with Event Tourism very early and their influence has continued, especially with substantial research funding from the Cooperative Research Centre program in Sustainable Tourism. Prior to the America’s Cup Defence in Perth in 1988, the People and Physical Environment Research Conference, 1987, was held under the theme of the Effects of Hallmark Events on Cities. Soutar and McLeod (1993) later published research on residents’ perceptions of that major event. One of the most influential research projects of that period was the comprehensive assessment of impacts from the first Adelaide Grand Prix (Burns, Hatch, & Mules, 1986; Burns & Mules, 1989). At the end of the 1980s, Syme, Shaw, Fenton, and Mueller (1989) published a book entitled The Planning and Evaluation of Hallmark Events, and Hall (1989) wrote an article on the definition and analysis of hallmark tourist events which noted the need for greater attention to social and cultural impacts. 4.1.3. The 1990s 1990 was a landmark year in the event management literature. Goldblatt’s book Special Events: The Art and Science of Celebration was published, followed by Festivals, Special Events and Tourism (Getz, 1991) and a year later Hallmark Tourist Events by C.M. Hall (1992). In the early 1990s academics were clearly leading the way, as at that time there were few if any degree programs, and few courses available anywhere, that featured event management or tourism. In the USA George Washington University pioneered event management education, leading Hawkins and Goldblatt (1995), in a journal article, to address the need for event management education. They also asked how events should be treated within a tourism curriculum. The mid-to-late-1990s were the ‘take-off’ years for academic institutionalization of event management, and with it a more legitimized advancement of scholarship on event tourism and event studies. This process has been roughly 25–30-years behind the equivalent for tourism, hospitality and leisure. There is also no doubt that leisure, tourism and hospitality provided a large part of the foundation, by having adapted discipline-based theory and methodology, supporting event-specific courses, and by spinning off event management degree programs. Festival Management and Event Tourism (later renamed Event Management) started publishing in 1993, and many of its articles have advanced event tourism research and

theory. Uysal, Gahan, and Martin (1993) in the very first issue began an enduring discourse on why people attend and travel to festivals and events. Two other vital event tourism research themes were established early in this journal, including the article by Bos (1994) who examined the importance of mega-events in generating tourism demand, and Crompton and McKay’s (1994) article on measuring the economic impacts of events. Crompton’s (1999) related contributions also include his research-based book published by the National Parks and Recreation Association in 1999 entitled Measuring the Economic Impact of Visitors to Sport Tournaments and Special Events. A very large number of research projects were commenced in Australia in preparation for the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympic Games, and these have mostly been published in the current decade. Faulkner et al. (2000) reported on this impressive initiative and many papers have subsequently been published. 4.1.4. The current decade (2000s) As the 20th century closed the world celebrated with numerous special events. No doubt this gave a boost to the events sector and its tourism value. Several noteworthy articles were published right at the turn of the century, including state-of-the-art commentary and methodology for conducting event impact assessments by Dwyer, Mellor, Mistillis, and Mules (2000a, 2000b). These more or less laid to rest any debate on what needed to be done, and how to do it validly, although the Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism in Australia continues to release impact studies and models (notably Jago & Dwyer, 2006). With so much attention having been given previously to the economic dimensions of event tourism, it was to be expected that scholars would seek more balance. Although research on social and cultural impacts of events goes back to occasional anthropological studies like Greenwood (1972), the conceptual overview provided by Ritchie (1984), and a noteworthy piece of sociological research by Cunneen and Lynch (1988) who studied ritualized rioting at a sport event, it can be said that this current decade really ushered in a systematic and theoretically grounded line of comprehensive event impact research. These are examined later in a more theoretical context, but include Delamere (2001) and Delamere, Wankel, and Hinch (2001) on development of resident attitude scales as social impact indicators, and related research publications by Fredline and Faulkner (1998, 2002a, 2002b) and Xiao and Smith (2004) on resident perceptions of event impacts as well as Fredline, Jago, and Deery (2003) and Fredline (2006) on development of a social impact scale for events. The literature on events has now grown beyond anyone’s capability of reading it all, with a number of distinct specializations having emerged and gained recognition-including event tourism. In very practical terms, this

D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428 411

probably defines ‘maturity’. The long-standing divisions based on types of events remain (especially sport events, conventions, and festivals), the Olympics will always attract its own scholarship, while world’s fairs and other mega-events retain an allure. Emerging sub-areas include the various divisions of events-related impacts (environmental, economic, social/cultural), policy and planning, business and management. Indeed it is probable that every disciplinary approach will find its niche, and tourism issues can be part of all of them. Numerous undergraduate and some graduate degree programs have been established, and it remains a hot growth area in universities and colleges around the world. While generic event management degrees are now being awarded, there are also specialized programs of study available: festivals, and convention management are particularly popular. Event-specific research conferences for academics and practitioners are being held regularly in Australia and the UK. Without doubt a certain amount of this evolution is faddish, paralleling what happened earlier in the fields of leisure and tourism, but there can also be little doubt about the sustainability of event management as a profession and academic field. Planned events are universally important for many cultural, strategic and political reasons, and the demand for event professionals cannot be met by crossover from other fields. 4.2. Literature on event tourism by event types Although all types of planned events have tourism potential, even the smallest wedding or reunion, larger events dominate in the literature and in event tourism development. In this section specific attention is given to the three event types that are most frequently discussed. The semantic and epistemological debate in the sport tourism literature (e.g., Weed, 2005) applies to all such intersecting fields of study, asking these key question: is there something unique at the nexus which justifies separate theory (or curriculum), or are they simply convenient research partnerships? 4.2.1. Business events and tourism Interest in the tourism value of business events, including meetings, conventions, and exhibitions (both trade and consumer shows) has been intense for so long that almost all major cities now possess impressive convention and exhibition facilities, along with agencies devoted to selling the space and bidding on events. The first convention bureau in the USA was established as far back as 1896 (Spiller, 2002) and the International Association of Convention Bureaus was founded in 1914. Weber and Chon (2002) have assessed this sector in their book Convention Tourism: International Research and Industry perspectives. Weber and Ladkin (2004) explored trends in the convention industry including government’s increasing

awareness of economic benefits of the so-called MICE industry (that is, meetings, incentives, conventions and events/exhibitions). Two recent review articles cover convention tourism research (Yoo & Weber, 2005) and convention and meeting management research (Lee & Back, 2005) including the tourism dimension. These reviews revealed a substantial amount of literature pertaining to the various business event markets, including association, corporate and affinity-group meetings, locational and site selection criteria and processes, and economic impacts. A defining element in business event tourism is the dominance of extrinsic motivators in explaining travel—it is necessitated to do business, to advance one’s career, or because it is required by one’s job. On the other hand, business events and pleasure travel do mix, and the connection has been examined by Davidson (2003). This mixed-motive phenomenon points to the need for generic event tourism theory. The Journal of Convention and Event Tourism (founded in 1999) as the Journal of Convention and Exhibition Management) is the most pertinent for researchers. While the early volumes were primarily oriented to event management, it has repositioned to fully embrace tourism topics, such as Mackellar’s (2006a) paper on local networks for developing event tourism. 4.2.2. Sport events and tourism Sports as ‘big business’ is an enduring theme. For example, Rozin (2000) described Indianapolis as a ‘classic case’ of how sports can generate a civic turnaround. Sports Business Market Research Inc. (2000, p. 167) observed that in the 1980s and 1990s American cities ‘‘yput heavy emphasis on sports, entertainment and tourism as a source of revenue for the cities.’’ Gratton and Kokolakakis (1997) believed that in the UK sports events had become the main platform for economic regeneration in many cities. Carlsen and Taylor (2003) looked at the ways in which Manchester used the Commonwealth Games to heighten the city’s profile, give impetus to urban renewal through sport and commercial developments, and create a social legacy through cultural and educational programming. Across North America almost every city now has a sport tourism initiative, often with dedicated personnel and agencies, and global competition to bid on events and attract the sport event tourist is fierce. In 1992 the US National Association of Sport Commissions was established, with the well-publicized experience of Indianapolis leading the way. The Tourism Industry Association of America in 1997 conducted a survey that examined sportrelated travel, providing vastly improved understanding of this market (Travel Industry Association of America (TIA), 1999). The Canadian Sport Tourism Alliance was formed in 2001, is industry led and market driven. It is mostly a network of city-based DMOs like Tourism Calgary. CTC provided some money under its product club program. Its

412 D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428

aims include facilitating communication between sports and tourism, sharing best practices, intelligence gathering, building investment, establishing targets. As a research topic, sport event tourism became firmly established in the 1990s and has been expanding explosively since 2000. An early published contribution came from Rooney’s (1988) classic geographical studies of sport, specifically in the form of a paper on mega sport events as tourist attractions at the 1988 TTRA Montreal conference. The journal of Sport and Tourism was founded in 1993 (after 7 years in electronic format) as the Journal of Sport Tourism and edited by Joseph Kurtzman as an initiative of the new Sports Tourism International Council. Gibson (1998) provided the first assessment of sport tourism research and Weed (2006) reviewed the literature from 2000 to 2004. In addition to an ongoing discourse on what exactly is sport tourism and its place in academia, as well as the commonplace economic impact assessments, a number of other important themes can be identified. These are reviewed later within the context of the theoretical framework. A growing number of books are available on the topic of sport tourism, both theoretical and applied in nature, and sport events figure prominently in all of them (see Gammon & Kurtzman, 2002; Gibson, 2006; Higham, 2005; Hinch & Higham, 2003; Hudson, 2002; Ritchie & Adair, 2004; Standeven & De Knop, 1999; Turco, Riley, & Swart, 2002; Weed & Bull, 2004). The intersection of sport management and sport studies with tourism deals with two major themes: sport events as attractions (for participants and fans), and more active forms of sport participation that require travel such as skiing. Just about every form of organized sport will generate planned events, and they tend to evolve from local to international in attractiveness. This gives rise to event travel careers that evolve and can last a lifetime. 4.2.3. Festivals and other cultural celebrations Cultural celebrations, including festivals, carnivals, religious events and the arts and entertainment in general (mainly concerts and theatrical productions) are often subsumed in the literature on cultural tourism (e.g., McKercher & du Cros, 2002; Richards, 1996, 2007). Festivals in particular have been examined in the context of place marketing, urban development, tourism and more recently social change (e.g., Picard & Robinson, 2006a). ‘Festival tourism’ has been the subject of quite a few research papers (e.g., Anwar & Sohail, 2004; Donovan & Debres, 2006; Formica & Uysal, 1998; McKercher, Mei, & Tse, 2006; Nurse, 2004; Robinson, Picard, & Long, 2004; Saleh & Ryan, 1993). Occasionally art exhibitions and tourism have been examined (e.g., Mihalik & WingVogelbacher, 1992). A major study in the USA by the Travel Industry Association of America and Smithsonian Magazine (2003) profiled the cultural–historic tourist, including cultural events as attractions and activities.

Several researchers have sought to determine the marketing orientation of festivals (Mayfield & Crompton, 1995; Mehmetoglu & Ellingsen, 2005; Tomljenovic & Weber, 2004). It has often been observed, and the research tends to confirm this suspicion, that arts festivals in particular display a lack of concern for tourism and take a product orientation that tends to ignore customer needs and commercial realities. Carlsen and Getz (2006) provided a strategic planning approach for enhancing the tourism orientation of a regional wine festival, but perhaps wine and tourism make more natural partners. Although arts and tourism linkages have been advocated by many, and certainly exist with regard to festivals, concerts and staged performances, there will always remain tension between these sectors. The anthropological literature on cultural celebrations is vast, with tourism sometimes being viewed as an agent of change, such as giving rise to declining cultural authenticity. Along these lines, festival tourism and ‘festivalization’ has become issue in cultural studies (Quinn, 2006). Prentice and Andersen (2003) assessed festivals in Edinburgh, looking at their role in image creation and tourism generation, and it is that kind of emphasis that has led to the evident backlash. 4.3. Olympics, world’s fairs, and other mega events Historically, a great deal of attention has been paid by researchers and theorists to the Olympics. Their magnitude, political and economic importance, prominence in the media and frequent controversy surrounding the IOC and the Games make them popular subjects. However, they are hardly typical of planned events or event tourism. Olympics-related literature is huge, fuelled in part by Olympic research centers around the world. Numerous themes are covered in the Olympics literature, including their economic costs and impacts (e.g., Cicarelli & Kowarsky, 1973; Glos, 2005; Kasimati, 2003; Taylor & Gratton, 1988). Tourism markets for Olympics have been explored by Pyo, Cook, and Howell (1988), tourism and urban regeneration issues by Hughes (1993), and tourism impacts of the Olympics by Kang and Perdue (1994), Teigland (1996), and Faulkner et al. (2000). Tourism marketing and Olympics was studied by Leibold and van Zyl (1994). Other topics include Olympic bids, politics, and urban boosterism (Hiller, 2000a); the Olympic legacy (Ritchie, 2000); host population perceptions of Olympics (Mihalik, 2001; Ritchie & Smith, 1991); sponsorship and Olympic impacts (Brown, 2002) and business leveraging surrounding the Olympics (O’Brien, 2006). Toohey and Veal (2007) took a general social science perspective to Olympic studies, and a critical evaluation of the Olympics has been provided by Waitt (2004). Without doubt the Olympics are a fertile ground for research, but this has tended to overshadow other mega events like world’s fairs and international sport championships.

D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428 413

Mega-events in general were the subject of an AIEST conference in 1987, and a conference with subsequent book edited by Andersson, Persson, Sahlberg, and Strom (1999). Roche (2000, 2006) has studied both the Olympics and mega events in general in the context of globalization. Hiller (2000b) took an urban sociological perspective on mega events, while Carlsen and Taylor (2003) looked at mega events and urban renewal. World’s fairs and their tourism connections have been examined by Mendell, MacBeth, and Solomon (1983), Dungan (1984), Lee (1987), Hatten (1987), Dimanche (1996), and de Groote (2005). 5. A framework for knowledge creation and theory development in event tourism Fig. 5 provides a framework for systematically studying and creating knowledge about event tourism, or by extension to planned events in general. It is used in the following sub-sections to identify knowledge gaps and

productive lines of research and theory development. Figs. 6–9 summarize key research questions and theoretical gaps under each of these themes, with the overall purpose of suggesting ways to advance event tourism studies. 5.1. The core phenomenon: event tourism experiences and meanings ´ It is now almost a cliche to say that tourism and hospitality are key players in the ‘experience economy’ popularized by Pine and Gilmore (1999), yet the nature of planned event experiences in general, and event tourism experiences in particular, has been given little research attention. As well, the meanings attached to travel and event combinations have not been fully explored. Both the event and the travel experience have to be understood in concert. Attending an event in one’s own home community is experientially different from traveling to an event, both where travel is a necessary condition (i.e., the event motivates travel, and the costs/risks of travel

A FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING AND CREATING KNOWLEDGE ABOUT EVENT TOURISM PERSONAL ANTECEDENTS and CHOICES • Needs, motives, preferences • Leisure and work contexts • Barriers and Constraints • Cultural and community influences

Temporal Patterns

Spatial Patterns

PLANNING AND MANAGING EVENT TOURISM • Stakeholders and Organizations • Goals and strategies • Resources used • Professionalism

NATURE AND MEANINGS OF EVENT TOURISM EXPERIENCES • The travel and event experience (for visitors, participants, organizers) • Meanings attached to Event Tourism

OUTCOMES AND THE IMPACTED • Personal • Societal, Political • Cultural • Economic • Environmental

Policy PATTERNS AND PROCESSES • Spatial and temporal patterns • Policy • Knowledge creation

Knowledge Creation

Fig. 5. A framework for understanding and creating knowledge about evebt tourism (Source: adapted from Getz, 2007).

414 D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428

might deter attendance) and where travel to an event is an integral part of a pleasurable experience. Application of theory and methods from psychology and anthropology are particularly required. Theorists, relying heavily on social psychology, have provided many of the insights we need, at least with regard to intrinsically motivated event tourism behavior. Much less is known about extrinsically motivated event and travel experiences. The range of potential event experiences is quite broad, from the fun and revelry of entertainment, carnival and party, to the solemn spirituality of religious pilgrimage and celebratory rituals. Many events are all about learning, while others foster commerce. Sport for participants is all about challenge, yet sport events encompass sub-cultural identity as well as nostalgia on the part of fans. Pilgrimage is a journey by definition, and generally entails a visit to a sacred site plus a special event. Other forms of event tourism can take on the form of secular pilgrimages, with events or places of high symbolic value and personal meaning becoming destinations. For example, cities that host mega events have, like Barcelona and the Olympics, turned event venues into places of pilgrimage. In the discourse pertaining to pilgrimage and event tourism, so-called ‘secular pilgrimages’ (e.g., Gammon, 2004) are sometimes contrasted with religious and spiritual pilgrimages (e.g., Singh, 2006; Timothy & Olsen, 2006), raising the issue of authenticity. 5.1.1. Theory on event experiences and meanings Experiences should be conceptualized and studied in terms of three inter-related dimensions: what people are doing, or behavior (the ‘conative’ dimension), their emotions, moods, or attitudes (the ‘affective’ dimension), and cognition (awareness, perception, understanding). And we want to understand the event tourism experience holistically, from the needs, motivations, attitudes and expectations brought to the event, through the actual living experience (the ‘doing’, or ‘being there’) all the way to reflections on the event-including meanings attached to it and influences on future behavior. A starting point can be the classical work of anthropologists van Gennep (1909) and Turner (1969, 1974, 1982) who advanced the concept of ‘liminality’. This has been found to be relevant to both travel and event experiences (Ryan, 2002). In terms of one’s involvement in rituals this state is characterized by humility, seclusion, tests, sexual ambiguity and ‘communitas’ (everyone becoming the same). ‘Liminoid’ described the same state but in profane rather than sacred terms, so that it might apply to carnivals and festivals, emphasizing the notion of separation, loss of identity and social status, and role reversals. In this state people are more relaxed, uninhibited, and open to new ideas. Jafar Jarai’s model of ‘tourist culture’ is based on socioanthropological theory concerning liminality, plus Falassi’s (1987) notion of festivity as a time that is ‘out of ordinary time’. Essentially, people willingly travel to, or enter into

an event-specific place for defined periods of time, to engage in activities that are out of the ordinary and to have experiences that transcend the ordinary—experiences only available to the traveler or the event-goer. As well, Csikszentmihalyi (1990) and Csikszentmihalyi and Csikszentmihalyi’s (1988) concept of ‘flow’ or peak experiences, from leisure studies, fits well into this model. Facilitating ‘flow’ might be something the event designer wants to achieve, for maximum engagement, and something the highly ‘involved’ might be more inclined to experience because of their predispositions. Research supports the existence and importance of ‘communitas’ at events. Hannam and Halewood (2006) in a study of participants in Viking festivals, concluded that group identity was fostered, even to the point of establishing a ‘neo-tribal’ community. Green and Chalip’s (1998) study of women athletes determined that the event was a celebration of sub-cultural values. Fairley and Gammon (2006) identified the importance of sport fan communities, while Pitts (1999) studied lesbian and gay sports tourism niche markets. The meanings attached to planned events and event tourism experiences are both an integral part of the experience and are antecedents to future event tourism behavior. To the extent that event tourism experiences are transforming, that is they change beliefs, values or attitudes, then individuals will likely adopt new behaviors in the future. It may be that multiple event experiences are required for transformation, or it might occur as part of a social bonding (i.e., ‘communitas’). Meanings are given to events by social groups, communities and society as a whole. Individuals are affected by these meanings, but are also able to make their own interpretations of events. Event types or forms, as previously discussed, are to a large extent ‘social constructs’, with collectively assigned and generally recognized meanings. Roche (2000, p. 7, see also 2006) saw events, like the global Millennium celebrations, acting as ‘‘yimportant elements in the orientation of national societies to international or global society.’’ Indeed, many countries have used mega events to gain legitimacy and prestige, draw attention to their accomplishments, foster trade and tourism, or to help open their countries to global influences. This is much more than place marketing—it is more like national identity building. And Whitson and Macintosh (1996, p. 279) said countries and cities compete for mega sport events to demonstrate their ‘modernity and economic dynamism’. Russell (2004) examined the political meanings attached to the National Eisteddfod of Wales, which has a tradition dating back to 1176. She found this annual competition of music and poetry is simultaneously an arena for performing arts, a forum for preserving the Welsh language, a tourist attraction, a trade fair, and a platform for political acts of Welsh significance. ‘‘As an arts and cultural festivalythe Eisteddfod also delivers the wider range of

D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428 415

economic and socio-linguistic benefits which embrace the interests of the Wales Tourist Board, the Arts Council of Wales, the Welsh Language Board, local authorities and others’’. There exists an ongoing discourse on the cultural ‘authenticity’ of events, often with the particular concern that tourism commodifies events and corrupts their authenticity, but also that many events are created for commercial and exploitive reasons (see, for example, Boorstin, 1961; Getz (2000a, 2000b); Greenwood, 1972; Picard & Robinson, 2006a, 2006b; Ray, McCain, Davis, & Melin, 2006; Sofield, 1991; Xie, 2003, 2004). However, an alternative view is that tourism helps preserve traditions and meanings, with festivals and other cultural celebrations being prime examples. Fig. 6 provides a list of key research questions on event tourism experiences and meanings, together with possible research methods. While traditional consumer research is still relevant, there is clearly a need to look deeper into the experiential realm through anthropological methods like participant observation (as employed by Getz, O’Neill, & Carlsen, 2001, at a surfing event), phenomenology (Chen, 2006 on event sport tourists) and to use experiential sampling as employed in leisure studies (Hektner & Csikszentmihalyi, 2002; Larson & Csikszentmihalyi, 1983). 5.2. Antecedents to event tourism Many personal, social and cultural factors will affect event tourism behavior, and although there is a substantial body of literature on leisure and travel in general, the various factors specifically affecting event tourism have not

been well explored. Both leisure and work-related factors have to be examined. A singular study of personal values and event tourism was conducted by Hede, Jago, and Deery (2004) and Kay (2004) conducted one of only a few cross-cultural studies of events and tourism. There are both generic benefits to be gained from event tourism experiences (i.e., those that can be realized through attending any events or pursuing other forms of leisure and travel), and there are specific benefits related to the match between what the event tourist seeks and the event specifically offers. Researchers have only recently turned their attention from general motivational studies concerning travel and events to the issue of targeted benefits. Mackellar’s (2006b) research specifically addressed the differences between special-interest and general motivations in attracting people to travel to events. This progress follows from established lines of leisure and lifestyle research, and of necessity utilizes and adapts their theoretical constructs and methodologies. In particular, the constructs of serious leisure (Jones & Green, 2006; Stebbins, 1982, 1992, 2001, 2006), recreation specialization (Bryan, 1977, 2000; Burr & Scott, 2004), and ego-involvement (Dann, 1977; Havitz & Dimanche, 1999; Kim, Scott, & Crompton, 1997; Ryan & Lockyer, 2002) have considerable potential. Also of importance is leisure constraints theory (Hinch, Jackson, Hudson, & Walker, 2006; Jackson, 2005; Jackson, Crawford, & Godbey, 1992) which examines generic categories of constraints including the intrapersonal (one’s perceptions and attitudes), interpersonal (such as a lack of leisure partners), and structural (time, money, supply and accessibility).

KEY RESEARCH QUESTIONS in EVENT TOURISM: The Planned Event Experience and Meanings -How do people describe, explain and assign meaning to various event tourism experiences? within each of these dimensions: conative (behaviour); affective (emotional) and cognitive. -Describe and explain the formation of personal and social constructs regarding event tourism experiences. -How does level of involvement or engagement affect the event tourism experience? -Examine 'arousal' and 'flow' within different event settings. -What makes event tourism experiences memorable and transforming? -How does 'communitas' form at events? Can it be facilitated? -Systematically compare different event experiences (for all stakeholders, from paying customers and guests to the general public, and between types of event, from sport to carnival)
Fig. 6.


-hermeneutics (analysis of texts; self-reporting) -phenomenology (e.g., in-depth interviews at events) -direct and participant observation -experiential sampling (diary or time-sampling with standard questions)

416 D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428

Demand for events is notoriously difficult to predict (Pyo, Cook, & Howell, 1988; Mules & McDonald, 1994; Spilling, 1998; Teigland, 1996). Major events use long-term tracking studies and market penetration estimates to forecast attendance, but there have been notable failures including the New Orleans World’s Fair (Dimanche, 1996). Lee and Kim (1998) examined event forecasting, and Xiao and Smith’s (2004) study of world’s fair attendance forecasting concluded with an improved approach. A rare study that examined why people do NOT attend events was conducted in Melbourne and reported by Miller, Jago, and Deery (2004). Boo and Busser (2006) particularly looked at how image enhancement from events can induce tourist demand to destinations. 5.2.1. Motivation research Motivational research in the events sector is very well established (e.g., Backman, Backman, Uysal, & Sunshine, 1995; Crompton & McKay, 1997; Formica & Murrmann, 1998; Getz & Cheyne, 2002; Gibson, 2004; Lee, Lee, & Wicks, 2004; Mohr, Backman, Gahan, & Backman, 1993; Nogawa, Yamaguchi, & Hagi, 1996; Raybould, 1998; Robinson & Gammon, 2004; Scott, 1996; Thrane, 2002). Li and Petrick (2006) reviewed the literature pertaining to festival and event motivations and concluded from many studies that the seeking and escaping theory (Iso-Ahola, 1980, 1983) is largely confirmed. These are ‘intrinsic motivators’, with the event being a desired leisure pursuit. Researchers have demonstrated that escapism leads people to events for the generic benefits of entertainment and diversion, socializing, learning and doing something new, i.e., novelty seeking, and just plain getting away from it all. The pull or seeking factors apply more to those with special interests who want a specific set of benefits offered by the event. For example, highly involved runners need events to compete in (McGehee, Yoon, and Cardenas 2003) and professionals have to attend certain conferences because of their educational content or the unique networking possibilities (Severt, Wang, Chen, & Breiter, 2007). The exact balance between generic (escapist) and specific (seeking) benefits obtained at any given event will depend on many personal factors including motives, expectations, mood and the experiences obtained. Nicholson and Pearce (2001) studied motivations to attend four quite different events in New Zealand: an air show, award ceremony, wild food festival, and a wine, food and music festival. They concluded that multiple motivations were the norm, and that while socialization was common to them all, it varied in its nature. Event-specific reasons were tied to the novelty or uniqueness of each event. When examining why people attend particular events, considerable theoretical power stems from Pearce’s ‘‘Travel Career Trajectory’’ (2005). From it, a hypothetical ‘event travel career’ is suggested. For example, there is reason to believe that business and professional practice leads to a ‘career’ of necessary and/or desirable meetings and

conventions, eventually resulting in a community of interest shared with others following similar career paths. The concepts of serious leisure, recreation specialization and ego-involvement suggest that many people will find intrinsic motivation to travel to events, such as amateur athletes and competitive events, or art lovers pursuing a career of volunteer experiences at music festivals. An ‘event travel career’ should be evident first in terms of motivations (i.e., the underlying drive to attend events), and precise motives (for specific event experiences and events). There should be a progression through time such as participation in more and different events, looking for higher-order benefits. Geographic preferences and patterns should emerge, and this is where destinations can directly influence the process, through bidding and developing iconic and hallmark events. Perhaps the event travel career will also be manifested in a progression from local to national and ultimately an international scale of travel. Evolving preferences for event characteristics and travel arrangements, and ultimately modified behavior are to be expected from the dedicated and experienced event tourist (e.g., higher-level competition; travel with family and friends versus alone; combining holidays with events; behaving differently during events). The nature of the sport tourism experience and motivation has received considerable attention. Active and passive sport tourists were identified by Gibson (1998, 2006), while Robinson and Gammon (2004) examined primary and secondary motives for sports-related travel. Nostalgia as a motivator has been examined by Fairley and Gammon (2006), and this ties in with the notion of community of interests or sub-cultures. Pertaining to the business event traveller, Rittichainuwat, Beck, and LaLopa (2001) studied motivations, inhibitors and facilitators for attending international conferences. Oppermann and Chon (1997) examined convention tourism from the perspectives of both association and attendees’ decision making including locational factors, intervening opportunities, personal and business factors, association and conference factors, experiences and their evaluation. Ngamsom and Beck (2000) researched motivations and inhibitors affecting event-travel decisions by association members. Fig. 7 outlines key research questions and possible methods pertaining to antecedents and choices. Little has been done to examine cultural differences in event tourism demand, and much more is needed on constraints related to event-motivated travel. Examining the event careers of highly involved amateur athletes will help, but this approach should also be applied to lifestyle and extrinsically motivated travel. 5.3. Planning and managing event tourism While published advice is available on event tourism planning, development and marketing (see Bramwell, 1977; Getz, 2003; Gnoth & Anwar, 2000; Higham, 2005),

D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428 417

-Personal Antecedents -Barriers and Constraints -DecisionMaking -Post-event evaluation and feedback

POSSIBLE RESEARCH METHODS -What are the main cultural variables affecting the perceived value -general consumer and market area and attractiveness of events and event tourism? surveys -Examine the relative importance and nature of generic versus -focus groups specific (targeted) needs, motives and benefits that are sought -social needs through different planned event tourism experiences. Develop evaluation marketing implications. -supply-demand -Do people believe they ‘need’events? To travel to events? assessment -How is economic demand for event tourism shaped by price, -in-depth interviews competition, substitution, policy and other factors? -How are event travel careers developed? Use ego-involvement, -time-budget studies recreation specialization and commitment theories -longitudinal studies of event careers and -In what ways does ‘serious leisure’ affect event tourism? constraint -What constraints are most important in shaping demand and negotiation attendance at different types of event? How are constraints negotiated for intrinsically and extrinsically motivated event attendance? -How do different segments use the internet and other media for searching and decision-making in the events sector? -Can planned events be substituted by other forms of entertainment and business practices?
Fig. 7.


it remains a relatively unexplored research theme. This line of inquiry will have to encompass the organizations involved, stakeholder networks, policy making, goals and strategies, impacts and evaluations. Getz et al. (1998) determined that events were one of the few common ‘products’ developed by convention and visitor bureaus in Canada. These DMOs are primarily marketing oriented, but found strong support for events development from their members, particularly hoteliers wanting to fill rooms in off-peak tourist seasons. Attention to event stakeholder management, partnerships and collaboration is increasing (e.g., Getz, Andersson, & Larson, 2007; Larson, 2002; Larson & Wikstrom, 2001; Long, 2000), with research by Whitford (2004a, 2004b) specifically taking a stakeholder perspective on Event Tourism policy making in Australia. Weed (2003) studied sport tourism policy in the context of stakeholder relationships, while the book by Weed and Bull (2004) further addresses these issues in sport tourism policy. Irrational event planning is a topic seldom addressed (see Armstrong, 1985; Bramwell, 1997). It relates to the notion of civic or tourism ‘boosterism’ and the exercise of power. The search for competitive advantages has not produced much research on strategy, but specific event tourism development and marketing tactics are being studied. Attention has been given to the image-enhancement potential of events and their media coverage, including how this might generate induced demand for the destination (Chalip, Green, & Hill, 2003; Getz & Fairley, 2004; Hede, 2005; Li & Vogelsong, 2005; Mossberg, 2000b; Ritchie, Sanders, & Mules, 2006; Shibli & the Sport Industry Research Centre, 2002; Smith, 2005). Co-branding events and destinations is a related topic (Chalip & Costa, 2006; Jago, Chalip, Brown, Mules, & Shameem, 2003). The ‘leveraging’ of events for additional benefits is a

growing concern (Chalip & Leyns, 2002; Chalip & McGuirty, 2004; Gratton, Dobson, & Shibli, 2000; Morse, 2001; O’Brien, 2006). These topics also connect to the goal of generating a lasting event ‘legacy’ (Dimanche, 1996; Hall, 1994; Mihalik, 1994; Ritchie, 2000). In Fig. 8 a number of key research questions are posed, and it is suggested that case studies and benchmarking are needed to determine what strategies and practices work best. 5.4. Patterns and processes 5.4.1. Spatial Event geography is not a well-developed theme, and few scholars have examined event tourism patterns. Getz (2004a) outlined the meaning and scope of event geography including its tourism-related themes. Janiskee’s (1994, 1996) groundbreaking contributions to event geography have to be acknowledged although his papers mostly examine the spatial and temporal distribution of festivals and what caused these patterns, not travel to events. He also addressed the question of whether or not a region or a time-spot could reach its capacity in terms of event numbers. Bohlin (2000) employed a classic technique, the distancedecay function, to determine how far people traveled to various festivals in Sweden, and what factors made the most difference. He determined that travel declined with distance, as expected. But well-established, recurring events had the greatest drawing power. Market potential for events was examined geographically by Wicks and Fesenmaier (1995). The market areas and tourist attractiveness of events have also been studied by Verhoven, Wall, and Cottrell (1998) employing demand mapping, and by Lee and Crompton (2003). Travel cost analysis as

418 D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428

KEY RESEARCH QUESTIONS: PLANNING and MANAGING EVENT TOURISM -What leadership, planning and decision-making styles and processes are most effective for event tourism development? -What strategies are most effective in achieving event tourism competitiveness and sustainability? -How can bidding on events be made more effective? -Which stakeholder management strategies work best for event tourism? -What forms of assistance should be given to events? -What are the main determinants of customer satisfaction at events?

POSSIBLE RESEARCH METHODS -Case studies and cross-case analysis of events and destinations -Benchmarking among destinations -Stakeholder input -Financial audits and ROI studies

Fig. 8.

a measure of an event’s economic value was addressed by Prabha, Rolfe, and Sinden (2006). Sherwood (2007) obtained data for mapping travel to events in order to assess an event’s ‘energy footprint’. 5.4.2. Temporal Seasonality of demand is the main temporal theme in event tourism, starting with the classic Ritchie and Beliveau (1974) research paper. Events are one important way in which destinations can combat low tourist demand, yet as revealed by Janiskee (1996), Ryan, Smee, Murphy, and Getz (1998), and others there is in most destinations a pronounced peaking of events in the high summer season, thereby presenting a challenge to the DMO. Yoon, Spencer, Holecek, and Kim (2000) did one of the few studies of the seasonality of the event tourism market, in Michigan. Displacement of residents and other tourists is an occasionally researched temporal/spatial issue in event tourism (e.g., Brannas & Nordstrom, 2006; Hultkrantz, 1998). This occurs when an event fills up available accommodation, or when publicity leads to the perception of crowding or high expense and this causes people to leave town or stay away. Obviously it is a major reason for bidding on or creating events in the off-peak tourist season. The event life cycle, both in terms of changing market appeal and long-term sustainability or institutionalization, is an important temporal theme that has received a little attention by researchers (see Beverland, Hoffman, & Rasmussen, 2001; Frisby & Getz, 1989; Getz, 1993, 2000a, 2000b; Getz & Frisby, 1988; Richards & Ryan, 2004; Sofield & Li, 1998; Sofield & Sivan, 2003; Walle, 1994). Within a portfolio approach some thought has to be given to the image and freshness of events appealing to specific market segments, and the attractiveness of the overall mix of events. This relates to population ecology theory in the sense that the health of the portfolio is probably more important than the sustainability or appeal of individual events—but only in a strategic marketing

sense, and not necessarily in terms of social and cultural factors. Time switching is an important issue in event tourism, being the propensity of people to alter the timing of their travel plans to take in an event. They are not necessarily attracted to travel because of the event and therefore their spending cannot be considered a benefit of the event (this is part of the general ‘attribution problem’ in event impact assessment; see for example Dwyer et al., 2000a, 2000b). 5.4.3. Policy for event tourism There have been only a few studies reported on the policy dimension. Hall and Rusher (2004, p. 229) concluded that ‘‘ythere still remains relatively little analysis of the political context of events and the means by which events come to be developed and hosted within communities.’’ A study by Whitford (2004a, 2004b, p. 81) in Queensland, Australia, is one of the few to address local authority policy towards events. She concluded that little recognition had been given to events ‘‘yas a vehicle to facilitate entrepreneurial enterprises and/or regional development’’ and that a ‘‘ymore whole of government, proactive entrepreneurial approach to the development of event public policy’’ is needed. Event tourism policy tends to be top-down (at least in Australia, as demonstrated by Whitford (2004a, 2004b), mainly because it is seen as legitimate economic development, but also because so much bidding on events is opportunistic. Only an inner circle of mostly government agencies is typically consulted. However, at the local and regional levels, particularly for producing events, there was observed much more collaboration and widespread stakeholder input. Weed’s (2003) research in the UK revealed tensions between the two ‘communities’ of sport and tourism including funding and resources, top-down policy-making, organization and professionalization, internal focus, and project-based liaison. Results showed how development of this policy network (i.e., sport plus tourism) can be made sustainable.

D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428 419

Pugh and Wood (2004) focused on the strategic use of events in UK local authorities, Reid (2006) looked at the politics of city imaging surrounding an event, and Thomas and Wood (2004) wrote about event based tourism and local government in the UK. In fact, there seems to be a broader discourse on event and tourism in general in the United Kingdom. Some work is being done on events in the urban studies and policy literature. For example, Gotham (2002), writing in Urban Studies, examined Mardi Gras in New Orleans from the perspective of place marketing, commodification, spectacle, globalization and political economy. 5.4.4. Knowledge creation Knowledge creation in this field has largely been ad hoc and fractionalized among diverse interest groups. Review articles like this one have as one of their main purposes the summarizing and integration of all the pertinent literature, as do the growing number of textbooks. However, research on the process and actors in knowledge creation for event tourism is largely absent. One closely related study by Stokes (2004) examined knowledge networks in the Australian events sector. In advancing knowledge a number of important actors have to be involved, and perhaps some new collaborative processes developed. Event and tourism studies, like other immature fields of inquiry, are mostly multi-disciplinary in nature, drawing theory, knowledge, methodologies and methods from many established disciplines. It is also accomplished indirectly, by drawing on closely related professional fields like leisure studies. When two or more disciplinary foundations are applied to the problem we enter the realm of interdisciplinary research, with the longterm goal being to establish unique, interdisciplinary theory and knowledge. Anyone doing research on events should view the established disciplinary perspectives as a legitimate starting

point. Even if the research problem is rooted in a policy or management need, it is highly possible that geography, economics, or another discipline already provides an answer or a solid foundation for doing the research. However, within these disciplines the study of events and tourism is often incidental to a broader issue or theoretical problem. Fig. 9 lists a number of key research questions on patterns and processes, and because these are all dynamic elements in the event tourism system, more longitudinal and retrospective research will be needed. 5.5. Outcomes and the impacted Event tourism is primarily driven by the goal of economic benefits, but we need to examine outcomes and impacts at the personal and societal levels, and also in terms of cultural and environmental change. Event tourism should be viewed in an open-system perspective, identifying ‘inputs’ (what it takes to make events happen, including the costs of bidding, facility development and marketing), ‘transforming processes’ (events as agents of change), and ‘outcomes’ (desired and undesired impacts, including externalities). Depending on one’s perspective, outcomes and change processes might be interpreted as a positive or negative impact. It has been clear for some time that there has been a preoccupation with the economic costs, roles and impacts of events. So much research and applied work has been devoted to this one theme that other outcomes have been neglected, as well as development of suitable and convincing measures of event impacts and value. However, social and cultural outcomes and indicators are being developed, and the environmental effects of events and tourism are finally being addressed through research. Carlsen, Getz, and Soutar (2001) sought to establish broader measures of event impacts, and Sherwood, Jago,

-History -Geography -Future Studies -Knowledge Creation -Policy

POSSIBLE RESEARCH METHODS -document review -Do events progress naturally through life cycles in terms of tourism appeal? What factors most shape their -interviews with people who shaped evolution? -Do communities or destinations reach event and event history -mapping tourism saturation? -Delphi panels -What explains different patterns of event tourism in -trends analysis time and space? -scenario making -What are the forces shaping the future of events and -policy reviews tourism? Can they be controlled? How do events adapt? -What are the ways in which stakeholders exercise power, and negotiate, to develop event tourism and related policy? Who gets excluded or marginalised? -How do we know when event tourism policies are effective and efficiently administered? -Which justifications for public involvement in event tourism are supported, and why? -What are the ideological foundations of event tourism policy? KEY RESEARCH QUESTIONS: PATTERNS AND PROCESSES

Fig. 9.

420 D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428

and Deery (2004, 2005) and Sherwood (2007) have advanced a triple bottom line approach to event sustainability. The challenge appears to be mostly political and attitudinal, in particular to overcome the economics bias inherent in event tourism. 5.5.1. Economic outcomes As noted in the chronological literature review, economic impacts were the first theme to be thoroughly studied. The earliest journal articles were by Della Bitta et al. (1978), and Davidson and Schaffer (1980). The first truly comprehensive event impact research was conducted on the Adelaide Grand Prix (see Burns et al., 1986). Since then, a number of scholars have lamented the lack of consistency used in event impact studies (Dwyer, Forsyth, & Spurr, 2005; Sherwood, 2007; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994), but there is now so much literature available that practitioners should be able to avoid the main pitfalls. Also, more methodological and analytical choices are becoming available. Research concerning the economic impacts of specific types of events is also well established. Grado, Strauss, and Lord (1998) examined conferences and conventions, and Dwyer (2002) provided an overview of convention tourism impacts. Solberg, Andersson, and Shibli, 2002 examined ‘business’ travelers to events, notably the media and officials. Impacts of events on the public sector have been studied (Andersson and Samuelson, 2000) and it is especially noteworthy that tax benefits for all levels of government constitute one of the biggest benefits of event tourism (Turco, 1995). Economic impacts are only a starting point, with a number of authors calling for more comprehensive cost and benefit evaluations (Burgan & Mules, 2001; Mules & Dwyer, 2006; Whitson & Horne, 2006). As early as 1973

Cicarelli and Kowarsky conducted a cost-benefit evaluation of the Olympics. Although income and value-added multipliers are typically used when converting direct (in-scope) event tourism spending into gross economic impacts, others have used econometric modeling and most recently economists have been recommending use of General Equilibrium Models (Dwyer, Forsyth, & Spurr, 2006). Laesser, Stettler, and Rutter (2003) developed economic impact coefficients called a ‘subsidy multiplier’ and a ‘regional share of direct in-scope expenditure’. 5.5.2. Social, cultural, political As event tourism gains momentum, perceived negative impacts will become more widespread and will generate more refined examination and criticism. Residents’ perceptions of, and attitudes towards events has already emerged as a major research and theoretical theme, although the tourism-specific dimensions have not been fully examined in this context. This line of research includes: Soutar and McLeod (1993), Delamere (1997, 2001), Delamere et al. (2001), Fredline and Faulkner (1998, 2000, 2002a, 2002b), Mihalik (2001), Fredline et al. (2003, 2005), Cegielski and Mules (2002), Ohmann, Jones, and Wilkes (2006), Xiao and Smith (2004), Gursoy and Kendall (2006), Lim and Lee (2006), and Fredline (2006). A number of theoretical perspectives are being taken, including exchange theory, to explain resident reactions to events. More focused social impact studies include Barker, Page, and Meyer’s (2002a, 2002b) papers on event-related crime and perceptions of safety during an event (2003). 5.5.3. Environmental Researchers in Australia have recently sought to develop a balanced (i.e., triple bottom line) set of event impact

-Personal Social, Cultural and Political -Economic -Environmental

POSSIBLE RESEARCH METHODS -How do people describe and explain why event tourism -focus groups experiences are satisfying, memorable or transforming? -in depth -What are the personal and social consequences of negative interviews event tourism experiences? -consumer and -What performance measures exist and are needed for the social, social surveys cultural and environmental policy domains? -media content -How does exchange theory influence various stakeholder analysis perceptions of event impacts? -stakeholder -How are social representations of events formed? consultations -How does the nature and extent of community involvement -ethnography influence event tourism success and outcomes? -comprehensive -Under what circumstances are events commodified and cost-benefit authenticity lost, versus traditions renewed and culture evaluations revitalized? -business surveys -How are the benefits and costs of events tourism distributed -market research through the population? What strategies work best for -environmental maximizing local economic benefits? audits and formal -Who are the high-yield event tourists, and how should they be impact attracted? assessments -How can events and event tourism be made more sustainable? -valuations -What are the cumulative impacts of an event and events in general, within a community or ecosystem? -What is the value of any given event?
Fig. 10.

D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428 421

indicators (Sherwood et al., 2004, 2005; Sherwood, 2007). Sherwood (2007) specifically examined 85 event economic impact studies prepared in Australia. He found that economic impact assessment was inconsistent but well established, and that social and cultural event impacts were being given more and more attention, but there was still a great need for advancing environmental impact assessment. According to Sherwood, only two published papers by May (1995) and Harris and Huyskens (2002) had dealt explicit with the environmental impacts of events, and only one of 85 event impact studies actually employed a triple bottom line approach. Fredline, Raybould, Jago, and Deery (2005) recommend use of the ‘event footprint’ as a concept of triple-bottomline accounting. This graphical technique plots scores from key indicators on three dimensions. Chernushenko’s books (2001) are relevant, along with Olympics environmental guidelines, programs by industry associations to encourage ‘green’ events, and the new environmental standards for events in the UK (British Standards, 2007). In Fig. 10, a number of key research questions pertaining to outcomes are suggested, and it is clear from the literature review that the greatest need is for more attention to environmental outcomes, leading to better environmental management. A broader (i.e., involving all stakeholders) and more systematic discourse will be needed to overcome the wellestablished economics bias. 6. Conclusions Event tourism is both a sub-field within established academic streams, in realty at the nexus of tourism and event studies, and an area of destination management application. Therefore, we need to draw implications for event and destination managers, and for the academic and research community interested in tourism and event studies. Fig. 5 provides a framework that can be used by managers and policy makers to shape their overall understanding and approach to event tourism, while at the same time generating many research questions for theory building. Figs. 6–10 ask both theoretical and practical questions and together constitute a fairly comprehensive research agenda. 6.1. Implications for management of events and event tourism Event managers interested in developing their tourism potential should ideally become committed stakeholders in the community’s or destination’s tourism planning process. By working together as a lobby and marketing consortium, events can seek to influence the destination’s positioning and brand, funding and development work, research and evaluation programs, all to further the cause of specific events and the event sector.

Common issues include domination by a few ‘hallmark’ events that have become permanent institutions, the ignoring of local and regional festivals and events because of their perceived lack of tourism orientation or potential, and an over-emphasis on bidding on one-time mega events. Fostering a comprehensive portfolio approach to event tourism can benefit all stakeholders by ensuring that the potential contributions of all events are considered, and by establishing appropriate support mechanisms. By viewing event tourism as a system, as in Fig. 5, marketing research and evaluation can be integrated and made more effective. This will normally require the collaborative efforts of the event sector and DMO, as the necessary knowledge comes from both evaluation of specific events and from broader market research. For example, while an event manager has to conduct a visitor survey in order to profile their customers, the destination must gain an understanding of potential event tourist segments and match that with supply. DMOs looking for competitive advantage may seek to create new events for specific target segments or seek to modify the marketing mix of existing events. In the suggested research agenda (Figs. 6–10) one theme stands out in terms of its importance for event managers and event tourism strategists. Increasingly it will be necessary to ‘custom-design’ highly targeted event experiences, and this has to be based on greater knowledge of the planned event experience in all its dimensions (by type of event, setting and management systems). A variety of research approaches and many comparisons will be required, from evaluations of those attending events to qualitative studies of what people are looking for, meanings they attach to their experiences, and influences on future attitudes and behavior. 6.2. Implications for advancement of theory It can be concluded that event tourism studies and related research are still in the early stage of development and there is great scope for theoretical advances. Reviewing the literature on events, Formica (1998) identified economics or financial impacts, followed by marketing, profiles of events, sponsorship, management and trends/ forecasts as the most frequent topics in the journals Festival Management and Event Tourism plus three leading tourism journals. He argued that the emerging event management field needed more theoretical development, and hence more sophisticated and multiple research methods. Similarly, an assessment by Getz (2000a, 2000b), from a detailed analysis of articles only in Festival Management and Event Tourism (later Event Management), also concluded that the most frequently studied topics were economic development and impacts, then sponsorship and event marketing from the corporate perspective, other management topics, and general marketing including

422 D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428

motivation and segmentation. Getz outlined a research agenda on the key question of valuing events. Harris et al. (2001) also set out a research agenda, specifically for event research in Australia. They consulted practitioners, who preferred more research on event management topics including identification of consumer needs and motivations as well as market segmentation. Government officials wanted more done on why events fail, risk management factors and standardized research methods. Academics wanted more research on risk management strategy, valuing the events industry, and reasons for event failure. Hede et al. (2002, 2003) reviewed special events research for the 1990–2002 period. One major conclusions was to call far the use of a triple bottom line approach to event impact assessment. 6.2.1. Advancing the discourse ‘Event tourism’ represents a discourse with both academics and practitioners contributing from two main poles (tourism/ events) and many specific event types (conventions, sports, festivals, etc.). But the driving force is clearly tourism, because it is the travel dimension and tourism impacts that bring these otherwise diverse communicants to the same table. Accordingly, the themes and language used in the discourse are largely tourism-driven. Other parties interested include policy makers (e.g., city planning, environmental conservation, cultural development) and affected citizens. The first challenge is therefore to ensure some equality among the interests represented. The literature review makes it clear that the prevailing theme, the written substance of most of the event tourism discourse, concerns events as attractions and image-makers for destinations, plus some lesser roles (catalyst, place marketing, animator). Within the events literature, these two themes are also strong, but there is quite a separate interest in the design, production, management and marketing of events that does not directly connect to tourism and economic issues. The two fields can exist without each other, but find mutual benefit in advancing the events and tourism nexus. Events have increasingly been produced, bid on and fostered for strategic reasons, the dominant one being economic development. From a tourism and developmental perspective the big questions concern competitiveness (e.g., how to use events more effectively, or win more bids), return on investment (not all events have equal benefit, and different values have to be considered in the portfolio approach), or sustainability (will their popularity endure; can they become self sufficient?) and risk (what do they cost; what is the potential downside?) It has been recognized that environmental, social and cultural dimensions of event impacts have been neglected. From a cultural perspective, many voices have questioned whether tourism is good or appropriate for all events, and have coined the term ‘festivalization’ to describe how cities or destination exploit cultural events. From an environmental perspective there are two major issues, the first

being the costs and impacts of mega events, including making them ‘greener’, and the second applying to tourism in general as a huge consumer of energy and producer of pollution. The positivistic approaches standard to management, economics and other social sciences will continue to be useful, but it is necessary to employ both qualitative and quantitative methods. In particular, the experiential nature of travel and events requires phenomenological approaches, including hermeneutics (the interpretation of texts, which can be the event itself), direct and participant observation, in-depth interviews, and experiential sampling. Many more journals are carrying event tourism articles. Several are devoted to the subject, and all tourism journals are potential publishers. But interest from other disciplines is increasing the number of event tourism papers in sociology, economics, marketing, and other mainstream publications. A broad range of methodologies and methods drawn from foundation disciplines and closely related professional fields are appropriate and necessary for creating knowledge and developing theory in event tourism.

AIEST (1987). Editions AIEST. The role and impact of mega-events and attractions on regional and national tourism, Vol. 28. St. Gallen, Switzerland. Allen, J., O’Toole, W., McDonnell, I., & Harris, R. (2002). Festival and special event management (2nd ed.). Australia, Milton: Wiley. Andersson, T., Persson, C., Sahlberg, B., & Strom, L. (Eds.). (1999). The impact of mega events. Ostersund, Sweden: European Tourism Research Institute. Andersson, T., & Samuelson, L. (2000). Financial effects of events on the public sector. In L. Mossberg (Ed.), Evaluation of events: Scandinavian experiences (pp. 86–103). New York: Cognizant. Anwar, S., & Sohail, S. (2004). Festival tourism in the United Arab Emirates: First-time visitors versus repeat visitor perceptions. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10(2), 161–170. Armstrong, J. (1985). International events: The real tourism impact. In Conference proceedings of the Canada chapter (pp. 9–37). Edmonton: Travel and Tourism Research Association. Backman, K., Backman, S., Uysal, M., & Sunshine, K. (1995). Event tourism: An examination of motivations and activities. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 3(1), 15–24. Barker, M., Page, S., & Meyer, D. (2002a). Evaluating the impact of the 2002 America’s Cup on Auckland, New Zealand. Event Management, 7(2), 79–92. Barker, M., Page, S., & Meyer, D. (2002b). Modelling tourism crime: The 2000 America’s Cup. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(3), 762–782. Barker, M., Page, S., & Meyer, D. (2003). Urban visitor perceptions of safety during a special event. Journal of Travel Research, 41, 355–361. Berlonghi, A. (1990). The special event risk management manual. Selfpublished (A. Berlonghi, P.O. Box 3454 Dana Point, California 92629)—Vol. 2: Special event security management, loss prevention, and emergency services: The guide for planning and documentation by Alexander Berlonghi. Berridge, G. (2006). Event design. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Beverland, M., Hoffman, D., & Rasmussen, M. (2001). The evolution of events in the Australasian wine sector. Tourism Recreation Research, 26(2), 35–44.

D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428 Bohlin, M. (2000). Traveling to events. In L. Mossberg (Ed.), Evaluation of events: Scandinavian experiences (pp. 13–29). New York: Cognizant. Boo, S., & Busser, J. (2006). Impact analysis of a tourism festival on tourists’ destination images. Event Management, 9(4), 223–237. Boorstin, D. (1961). The image: A guide to pseudo-events in America. New York: Harper & Row. Bos, H. (1994). The importance of mega-events in the development of tourism demand. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 2(1), 55–58. Bowdin, G., Allen, J., O’Toole, W., Harris, R., & McDonnell, I. (2006). Events management (2nd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier. Bramwell, B. (1977). A sport mega-event as a sustainable tourism development strategy. Tourism Recreation Research, 22(2), 13–19. Bramwell, B. (1997). Strategic planning before and after a mega-event. Tourism Management, 18(3), 167–176. Brannas, K., & Nordstrom, J. (2006). Tourist accommodation effects of festivals. Tourism Economics, 12(2), 291–302. British Standards (2007). Sustainable Events Management System (draft), BS 8901. Brown, G. (2002). Taking the pulse of Olympic sponsorship. Event Management, 7(3), 187–196. Bryan, H. (1977). Leisure value systems and recreation specialization: The case of trout fisherman. Journal of Leisure Research, 9(3), 174–187. Bryan, H. (2000). Recreation specialization revisited. Journal of Leisure Research, 32(1), 18–21. Burgan, B., & Mules, T. (2001). Reconciling cost–benefit and economic impact assessment for event tourism. Tourism Economics, 7(4), 321–330. Burns, J., Hatch, J., & Mules, T. (Eds.). (1986). The Adelaide grand prix: The impact of a special event. Adelaide: The Centre for South Australian Economic Studies. Burns, J., & Mules, T. (1989). An Economic evaluation of the Adelaide grand prix. In G. Syme, B. Shaw, D. Fenton, & W. Mueller (Eds.), The planning and evaluation of Hallmark events (pp. 172–185). Aldershot: Gower Publishing Company. Burr, S., & Scott, D. (2004). Application of the recreational specialization framework to understanding visitors to the Great Salt Lake Bird Festival. Event Management, 9(1/2), 27–37. Canadian Sport Tourism Alliance /www.canadiansporttourism.comS. Carlsen, J., & Getz, D. (2006). Strategic planning for a regional wine festival: The Margaret river wine region festival. In J. Carlsen, & S. Charters (Eds.), Global wine tourism: Research, management and marketing (pp. 209–224). Wallingford: CABI. Carlsen, J., Getz, D., & Soutar, G. (2001). Event evaluation research. Event Management, 6(4), 247–257. Carlsen, J., & Taylor, A. (2003). Mega-events and urban renewal: The case of the Manchester 2002 Commonwealth Games. Event Management, 8(1), 15–22. Cegielski, M., & Mules, M. (2002). Aspects of residents’ perceptions of the GMC 400—Canberra’s V8 supercar race. Current Issues in Tourism, 591, 54–70. Chalip, L., & Costa, C. (2006). Building sport event tourism into the destination brand: Foundations for a general theory. In H. Gibson (Ed.), Sport tourism: Concepts and theories (pp. 86–105). London: Routledge. Chalip, L., Green, C., & Hill, B. (2003). Effects of sport media on destination image and intentions to visit. Journal of Sport Management, 17, 214–234. Chalip, L., & Leyns, A. (2002). Local business leveraging of a sport event: Managing an event for economic benefit. Journal of Sport Management, 16, 132–158. Chalip, L., & McGuirty, J. (2004). Bundling sport events with the host destination. Journal of Sport Tourism, 9(3), 267–282. Chen, P. (2006). The attributes, consequences, and values associated with event sport tourists’ behaviour: A means-end chain approach. Event Management, 10(1), 1–22. Chernushenko, D. (2001). Greening our games-running sports events and facilities that won’t cost the Earth. Ottawa: Centurion. 423 Cicarelli, J., & Kowarsky, D. (1973). The economics of the Olympic games. Business and Economic Dimensions, September/October, 1–5. Coopers and Lybrand Consulting Group. (1989). NCR 1988 festivals study final report, Vol. 1. Ottawa: Report for the Ottawa-Carleton Board of Trade. Crompton, J. (1999). Measuring the economic impact of visitors to sports tournaments and special events. Ashburn, Virgina: Division of Professional Services, National Recreation and Park Association. Crompton, J., & McKay, S. (1994). Measuring the economic impact of festivals and events: Some myths, misapplications and ethical dilemmas. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 2(1), 33–43. Crompton, J., & McKay, S. (1997). Motives of visitors attending festival events. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(2), 425–439. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper Perennial. Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, I. (1988). Optimal experience: Psychological studies of flow on consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Cunneen, C., & Lynch, R. (1988). The social meanings of conflict in riots at the Australian Grand Prix Motorcycle Races. Leisure Studies, 7(1), 1–19. Dann, G. (1977). Anomie, ego-enhancement and tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 4(4), 184–194. Davidson, R. (2003). Adding pleasure to business: Conventions and tourism. Journal of Convention and Exhibition Management, 5(1), 29–39. Davidson, L., & Schaffer, W. (1980). A discussion of methods employed in analyzing the impact of short-term entertainment events. Journal of Travel Research, 28(3), 12–16. Deery, M., Jago, L., & Fredline, E. (2004). Sport tourism or event tourism: Are they one and the same? Journal of Sport Tourism, 9(3), 235–246. Delamere, T. (2001). Development of a scale to measure resident attitudes toward the social impacts of community festivals, Part 2: Verification of the scale. Event Management, 7(1), 25–38. Delamere, T., Wankel, L., & Hinch, T. (2001). Development of a scale to measure resident attitudes toward the social impacts of community festivals, Part 1: Item generation and purification of the measure. Event Management, 7(1), 11–24. Della Bitta, A., Loudon, D., Booth, G., & Weeks, R. (1978). Estimating the economic impact of a short-term tourist event. Journal of Travel Research, 16, 10–15. Dimanche, F. (1996). Special events legacy: The 1984 Louisiana world fair in New Orleans. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 4(1), 49–54. Donovan, A., & Debres, K. (2006). Foods of freedom: Juneteenth as a culinary tourist attraction. Tourism Review International, 9(4), 379–389. Dungan, T. (1984). How cities plan special events. The Cornell H.R.A. Quarterly(May), 83–89. Dwyer, L. (2002). Economic contribution of convention tourism: Conceptual and empirical issues. In K. Weber, & K. Chon (Eds.), Convention tourism: International research and industry perspectives (pp. 21–35). New York: Haworth. Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P., & Spurr, R. (2005). Estimating the impacts of special events on an economy. Journal of Travel Research, 43(4), 351–359. Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P., & Spurr, R. (2006). Assessing the economic impacts of events: A computable general equilibrium approach. Journal of Travel Research, 45(1), 59–66. Dwyer, L., Mellor, R., Mistillis, N., & Mules, T. (2000a). A framework for assessing ‘tangible’ and ‘intangible’ impacts of events and conventions. Event Management, 6(3), 175–189. Dwyer, L., Mellor, R., Mistillis, N., & Mules, T. (2000b). Forecasting the economic impacts of events and conventions. Event Management, 6(3), 191–204. Emery, P. (2001). Bidding to host a major sports event. In C. Gratton, & I. Henry (Eds.), Sport in the city: The role of sport in economic and social regeneration (pp. 91–108). London: Routledge.

424 D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428 Getz, D. (2002). Event studies and event management: On becoming an academic discipline. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 9(1), 12–23. Getz, D. (2003). Sport event tourism: Planning, development, and marketing. In S. Hudson (Ed.), Sport and adventure tourism (pp. 49–88). New York: Haworth. Getz, D. (2004a). Geographic perspectives on event tourism. In A. Lew, M. Hall, & A. Williams (Eds.), A companion to tourism (pp. 410–422). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Getz, D. (2004b). Bidding on events: Critical success factors. Journal of Convention and Exhibition Management, 5(2), 1–24. Getz, D. (2005). Event management and event tourism (2nd ed.). New York: Cognizant. Getz, D. (2007). Event studies: Theory, research and policy for planned events. Oxford: Elsevier. Getz, D., Anderson, D., & Sheehan, L. (1998). Roles, issues and strategies for convention and visitors bureaux in destination planning and product development: A survey of Canadian bureaux. Tourism Management, 19(4), 331–340. Getz, D., & Cheyne, J. (2002). Special event motives and behaviour. In C. Ryan (Ed.), The tourist experience (2nd ed., pp. 137–155). London: Continuum. Getz, D., & Fairley, S. (2004). Media management at sport events for destination promotion. Event Management, 8(3), 127–139. Getz, D., & Frisby, W. (1988). Evaluating management effectiveness in community-run festivals. Journal of Travel Research, 27(1), 22–27. Getz, D., Andersson, T., & Larson, M. (2007). Festival stakeholder roles: Concepts and case studies. Event Management, 10(2/3), 103–122. Getz, D., O’Neill, M., & Carlsen, J. (2001). Service quality evaluation at events through service mapping. Journal of Travel Research, 39(4), 380–390. Gibson, H. (1998). Sport tourism: A critical analysis of research. Sport Management Review, 1, 45–76. Gibson, H. (2004). Moving beyond the ‘‘what is and who’’ of sport tourism to understanding ‘‘why’’. Journal of Sport Tourism, 9(3), 247–265. Gibson, H. (Ed.). (2006). Sport tourism: Concepts and theories. London: Routledge. Glos (2005). The economics of staging the olympics. A comparison of the Games 1972–2008. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. Gnoth, J., & Anwar, S. (2000). New Zealand bets on event tourism. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly(August), 72–83. Goldblatt, J. (2007). Special events: The roots and wings of celebration (5th ed.). New York: Wiley. Gotham, K. (2002). Marketing mardi gras: Commodification, spectacle and the political economy of tourism in New Orleans. Urban Studies, 39(10), 1735–1756. Grado, S., Strauss, C., & Lord, B. (1998). Economic impacts of conferences and conventions. Journal of Convention and Exhibition Management, 1(1), 19–33. Gratton, C., Dobson, N., & Shibli, S. (2000). The economic importance of major sporets events: A case study of six events. Managing Leisure, 5, 14–28. Gratton, C., & Kokolakakis, T. (1997). Economic impact of sport in England 1995. London: The Sports Council. Green, B., & Chalip, L. (1998). Sport tourism as the celebration of subculture. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(2), 275–291. Greenwood, D. (1972). Tourism as an agent of change: A Spanish Basque case study. Ethnology, 11, 80–91. de Groote, P. (2005). A multidisciplinary analysis of world fairs ( ¼ Expos) and their effects. Tourism Review, 60(1/3), 12–19. Gunn, C. (1979). Tourism planning. New York: Crane Russak. Gunn, C. A., & Wicks, B. E. (1982). A study of visitors to Dickens on the strand. Galveston, Texas: Galveston Historical Foundation. Gursoy, D., & Kendall, K. (2006). Hosting mega events: Modelling locals’ support. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(3), 603–623. Hall, M. (1989). The definition and analysis of hallmark tourist events. GeoJournal, 19(3), 263–268. Fairley, S., & Gammon, S. (2006). Something lived, something learned: Nostalgia’s expanding role in sport tourism. In H. Gibson (Ed.), Sport tourism: Concepts and theories (pp. 50–65). London: Routledge. Falassi, A. (Ed.). (1987). Time out of time: Essays on the festival. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Faulkner, B., Chalip, L., Brown, G., Jago, L., March, R., & Woodside, A. (2000). Monitoring the tourism impacts of the Sydney 2000 Olympics. Event Management, 6(4), 231–246. Formica, S. (1998). The development of festivals and special events studies. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 5(3), 131–137. Formica, S., & Murrmann, S. (1998). The effects of group membership and motivation on attendance: An international festival case. Tourism Analysis, 3(3/4), 197–207. Formica, S., & Uysal, M. (1998). Market segmentation of an international cultural–historical event in Italy. Journal of Travel Research, 36(4), 16–24. Fredline, E. (2006). Host and guest relations and sport tourism. In H. Gibson (Ed.), Sport tourism: Concepts and theories (pp. 131–147). London: Routledge. Fredline, E., & Faulkner, B. (1998). Resident reactions to a major tourist event: The Gold Coast Indy car race. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 5(4), 185–205. Fredline, E., & Faulkner, B. (2002a). Residents’ reactions to the staging of major motorsport events within their communities: A cluster analysis. Event Management, 7(2), 103–114. Fredline, E., & Faulkner, B. (2002b). Variations in residents’ reactions to major motorsport events: Why residents perceive the impacts of events differently. Event Management, 7(2), 115–125. Fredline, E., Jago, L., & Deery, M. (2003). The development of a generic scale to measure the social impacts of events. Event Management, 8(1), 23–37. Fredline, E., Raybould, M., Jago, L., & Deery, M. (2005). Triple bottom line event evaluation: A proposed framework for jolistic event evaluation. In Paper presented at the third international event management research conference, Sydney. University of Technology, Sydney. Frisby, W., & Getz, D. (1989). Festival management: A case study perspective. Journal of Travel Research, 28(1), 7–11. Gammon, S. (2004). Secular pilgrimage and sport tourism. In B. Ritchie, & D. Adair (Eds.), Sport tourism: Interrelationships, impacts and issues. Clevedon: Channel View. Gammon, W., & Holecek, D. (1983). Economic impact of an annual tourism industry exposition. Annals of Tourism Research, 10, 199–212. Gammon, S., & Kurtzman, J. (2002). Sport tourism: Principles and practice. Eastbourne: Leisure Studies Association Publications. Getz, D. (1989). Special events: Defining the product. Tourism Management, 10(2), 135–137. Getz, D. (1991). Festivals, special events, and tourism. New York: Van Nostrand Rheinhold. Getz, D. (1993). Corporate culture in not-for-profit festival organizations. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 1(1), 11–17. Getz, D. (1997). Event management and event tourism (1st ed.). New York: Cognizant Communications Corp. Getz, D. (1998). Event tourism and the authenticity dilemma. In W. Theobald (Ed.), Global tourism (2nd ed., pp. 409–427). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Getz, D. (1999). The impacts of mega events on tourism: Strategies for destinations. In T. Andersson, C. Persson, B. Sahlberg, & L. Strom (Eds.), The impact of mega events (pp. 5–32). Ostersund, Sweden: European Tourism Research Institute. Getz, D. (2000a). Festivals and special events: Life cycle and saturation issues. In W. Garter, & D. Lime (Eds.), Trends in outdoor recreation, leisure and tourism (pp. 175–185). Wallingford, UK: CABI. Getz, D. (2000b). Developing a research agenda for the event management field. In J. Allen, et al. (Eds.), Events beyond 2000: Setting the agenda, proceedings of conference on event evaluation, research and education (pp. 10–21). Sydney: Australian Centre for Event Management, University of Technology.

D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428 Hall, M. (1992). Hallmark tourist events: Impacts, management and planning. London: Belhaven. Hall, M. (1994). Mega-events and their legacies. In P. Murphy (Ed.), Quality management in urban tourism: Balancing business and environment (pp. 109–123). University of Victoria. Hall, M., & Rusher, K. (2004). Politics, public policy and the destination. In I. Yeoman, et al. (Eds.), Festival and events management (pp. 217–231). Oxford: Elsevier. Hannam, K., & Halewood, C. (2006). European Viking themed festivals: An expression of identity. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 1(1), 17–31. Harris, R., & Huyskens, M. (2002). Public events: Can they make a contribution to ecological sustainability. In Paper presented to the Annual Council of Australian Tourism and Hospitality Educators conference, Fremantle. Harris, R., Jago, L., Allen, J., & Huyskens, M. (2001). Towards an Australian event research agenda: First steps. Event Management, 6(4), 213–221). Hatten, A. (1987). Economic impact of expo ‘86. Victoria, British Columbia: Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations. Hawkins, D., & Goldblatt, J. (1995). Event management implications for tourism education. Tourism Recreation Research, 20(2), 42–45. Havitz, M., & Dimanche, F. (1999). Leisure involvement revisited: Drive properties and paradoxes. Journal of Leisure Research, 31(2), 122–149. Hede, A. (2005). Sports-events, tourism and destination marketing strategies: An Australian case study of Athens 2004 and its media telecast. Journal of Sport Tourism, 10(3), 187–200. Hede, A., Jago, L., & Deery, M. (2002). Special event research 1990–2001: Key trends and issues. In Events and place marketing, proceedings of the australian conference for event management, Sydney (pp. 335–338). Sydney: University of Technology. Hede, A., Jago, L., & Deery, M. (2003). Am agenda for special event research: Lessons from the past and directions for the future. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 10(Suppl.), 1–14. Hede, A., Jago, L., & Deery, M. (2004). Segmentation of special event attendees using personal values: Relationships with satisfaction and behavioural intentions. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism, 5(2/3/4), 33–55. Hektner, J. M., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2002). The experience sampling method: Measuring the context and content of lives. In R. Bechtel, & A. Churchman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (pp. 233–243). New York: Wiley. Higham, J. (Ed.). (2005). Sport tourism destinations: Issues, opportunities and analysis. Oxford: Elsevier. Hiller, H. (2000a). Mega-events, urban boosterism and growth strategies: An analysis of the objectives and legitimations of the Cape Town 2004 Olympic bid. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24(2), 439–458. Hiller, H. (2000b). Toward an urban sociology of mega-events. Research in Urban Sociology, 5, 181–205. Hinch, T., Jackson, E., Hudson, S., & Walker, G. (2006). Leisure constraint theory and sport tourism. In H. Gibson (Ed.), Sport tourism: Concepts and theories (pp. 10–31). London: Routledge. Hinch, T., & Higham, J. (2003). Sport tourism development. Toronto: Channel View. Hoyle, L. (2002). Event marketing: How to successfully promote events, festivals, conventions, and expositions. New York: Wiley. Hudson, S. (Ed.). (2002). Sport and adventure tourism. New York: Haworth. Hughes, H. (1993). Olympic tourism and urban regeneration. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 1(4), 157–162. Hultkrantz, L. (1998). Mega-event displacement of visitors: The World Championship in Athletics, Goteborg 1995. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 5(1/2). Iso-Ahola, S. (1980). The social psychology of leisure and recreation. Dubuque, IA: Brown. Iso-Ahola, S. (1983). Towards a social psychology of recreational travel. Leisure Studies, 2(1), 45–57. 425 Jackson, E. (Ed.). (2005). Constraints on leisure. State College PA: Venture Publishing. Jackson, E., Crawford, D., & Godbey, G. (1992). Negotiation of leisure constraints. Leisure Sciences, 15, 1–12. Jago, L., Chalip, L., Brown, G., Mules, T., & Shameem, A. (2003). Building events into destination branding: Insights from Experts. Event Management, 8(1), 3–14. Jago, L., & Dwyer, L. (2006). Economic evaluation of special events: A practitioner’s guide. Gold Coast Australia: Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism. Janiskee, R. (1994). Some macroscale growth trends in America’s community festival industry. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 2(1), 10–14. Janiskee, R. (1996). The temporal distribution of America’s community festivals. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 3(3), 129–137. Jones, I., & Green, C. (2006). Serious leisure, social identity and sport tourism. In H. Gibson (Ed.), Sport tourism: Concepts and theories (pp. 32–49). London: Routledge. Kang, Y., & Perdue, R. (1994). Long term impact of a mega-event on international tourism to the host country: A conceptual model and the case of the 1988 Seoul Olympics. In M. Uysal (Ed.), Global tourist behavior (pp. 205–225). International Business Press. Kasimati, E. (2003). Economic aspects and the Summer Olympics: A review of related research. International Journal of Tourism Research, 5(6), 433–444. Kay, P. (2004). Cross-cultural research issues in developing international tourist markets for cultural events. Event Management, 8(4), 191–202. Kim, S., Scott, D., & Crompton, J. (1997). An exploration of the relationships among social psychological involvement, behavioral involvement, commitment, and future intentions in the context of birdwatching. Journal of Leisure Research, 29(3), 320–341. Laesser, C., Stettler, J., & Rutter, H. (2003). The impact of sports mega events: The case of Switzerland. In Paper presented to the 53d AIEST conference, St. Gallen. Larson, M. (2002). A political approach to relationship marketing: Case study of the Storsjoyran festival. International Journal of Tourism ¨ Research, 4(2), 119–143. Larson, M., & Wikstrom, E. (2001). Organising events: Managing conflict and consensus in a political market square. Event Management, 7(1), 51–65. Larson, R., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1983). The experience sampling method. In H. Reis (Ed.), Naturalistic approaches to studying social interaction (pp. 41–56). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Lee, C., Lee, Y., & Wicks, B. (2004). Segmentation of festival motivation by nationality and satisfaction. Tourism Management, 25(1), 61–70. Lee, J. (1987). The impact of Expo’ 86 on British Columbia markets. In P. Williams, J. Hall, & M. Hunter (Eds.), Tourism: Where is the client. Conference papers of the travel and tourism research association, Canada chapter. Lee, J., & Back, K. (2005). A review of convention and meeting management research. Journal of Convention and Event Tourism, 7(2), 1–19. Lee, S., & Crompton, J. (2003). The attraction power and spending impact of three festivals in Ocean City, Maryland. Event Management, 8(2), 109–112. Lee, C., & Kim, J. (1998). International tourism demand for the 2002 World Cup Korea: A combined forecasting technique. Pacific Tourism Review, 2(2), 157–166. Leibold, M., & van Zyl, C. (1994). The Summer Olympic Games and its tourism marketing: City tourism marketing experiences and challenges with specific reference to Cape Town, South Africa. In P. Murphy (Ed.), Quality management in urban tourism: Balancing business and the environment, proceedings (pp. 135–151). University of Victoria. Li, R., & Petrick, J. (2006). A review of festival and event motivation studies. Event Management, 9(4), 239–245. Li, X., & Vogelsong, H. (2005). Comparing methods of measuring image change: A case study of a small-scale community festival. Tourism Analysis, 10(4), 349–360.

426 D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428 Ngamsom, B., & Beck, J. (2000). A pilot study of motivations, inhibitors, and facilitators of association members in attending international conferences. Journal of Convention and Exhibition Management, 2(2/3), 97–111. Nicholson, R., & Pearce, D. (2001). Why do people attend events: A comparative analysis of visitor motivations at four South Island events. Journal of Travel Research, 39, 449–460. Nogawa, H., Yamaguchi, Y., & Hagi, Y. (1996). An empirical research study on Japanese sport tourism in Sport-for-All events: Case studies of a single-night event and a multiple-night event. Journal of Travel Research, 35, 46–54. Nurse, K. (2004). Trinidad carnival: Festival tourism and cultural industry. Event Management, 8(4), 223–230. O’Brien, D. (2006). Event business leveraging: The Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(1), 240–261. Ohmann, S., Jones, I., & Wilkes, K. (2006). The perceived social impacts of the 2006 Football World Cup on Munich residents. Journal of Sport Tourism, 11(2), 129–153. Oppermann, M., & Chon, K. (1997). Convention participation decisionmaking process. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(1), 178–191. O’Toole, W., & Mikolaitis, P. (2002). Corporate event project management. New York: Wiley. Pearce, P. (2005). Tourist behaviour: Themes and conceptual schemas. Clevedon: Channel View. Persson, C. (2002). The Olympic games site decision. Tourism Management, 23(1), 27–36. Picard, D., & Robinson, M. (Eds.). (2006a). Festivals, tourism and social change: Remaking worlds. Clevedon: Channel View. Picard, D., & Robinson, M. (2006b). Remaking worlds: Festivals, tourism and change. In D. Picard, & M. Robinson (Eds.), Festivals, tourism and social change: Remaking worlds (pp. 1–31). Clevedon: Channel View. Pine, B., & Gilmore, J. (1999). The experience economy: Work is Theatre and every business a stage. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Pitts, B. (1999). Sports tourism and niche markets: Identification and analysis of the growing lesbian and gay sports tourism industry. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 5(1), 31–50. Prabha, P., Rolfe, J., & Sinden, J. (2006). A travel cost analysis of the value of special events: Gemfest in Central Queensland. Tourism Economics, 12(3), 403–420. Prentice, R., & Andersen, V. (2003). Festival as creative destination. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(1), 7–30. Pugh, C., & Wood, E. (2004). The strategic use of events within local government: A study of London Borough councils. Event Management, 9(1/2), 61–71. Pyo, S., Cook, R., & Howell, R. (1988). Summer Olympic tourist market—Learning from the Past. Tourism Management, 9(2), 137–144. Quinn, B. (2006). Problematising ‘festival tourism’: Arts festivals and sustainable development in Ireland. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14(3), 288–306. Ray, N., McCain, G., Davis, D., & Melin, T. (2006). Lewis and Clark and the Corps of Discovery: Re-enactment event tourism as authentic heritage travel. Leisure Studies, 25(4), 437–454. Raybould, M. (1998). Participant motivation in a remote fishing event. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 5(4), 231–241. Reid, G. (2006). The politics of city imaging: A case study of the MTV Europe Music Awards in Edinburgh 03. Event Management, 10(1), 35–46. Richards, G. (Ed.). (1996). European cultural tourism: Trends and future prospects. Wallingford, UK: CABI. Richards, G. (Ed.). (2007). Cultural tourism: Global and local perspectives. New York: Haworth. Richards, P., & Ryan, C. (2004). The Aotearoa Traditional Maori performing Arts festival 1972–2000: A case study of cultural event maturation. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 2(2), 94–117. Ritchie, J. R. B. (1984). Assessing the impacts of hallmark events: Conceptual and research issues. Journal of Travel Research, 23(1), 2–11. Lim, S., & Lee, J. (2006). Host population perceptions of the impact of mega-events. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 11(4), 407–421. Long, P. (2000). After the event: Perspectives on organizational partnership in the management of a themed festival year. Event Management, 6(1), 45–59. Mackellar, J. (2006a). Conventions, festivals, and tourism: Exploring the network that binds. Journal of Convention and Event Tourism, 8(2), 45–56. Mackellar, J. (2006b). Special interest events in a regional destination— Exploring differences between specialist and generalist events. In C. Arcodia, M. Whitford, & C. Dickson (Eds.), Global events congress proceedings (pp. 176–195). Brisbane: University of Queensland. Masterman, G., & Wood, E. (2006). Innovative marketing communications: Strategies for the events industry. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. May, V. (1995). Environmental implications of the 1992 Winter Olympic Games. Tourism Management, 16(4), 269–275. Mayfield, T., & Crompton, J. (1995). The status of the marketing concept among festival organizers. Journal of Travel Research, Spring, 14–22. McGehee, N., Yoon, Y., & Cardenas, D. (2003). Involvement and travel for recreational runners in North Carolina. Journal of Sport Management, 17(3), 305–324. McKercher, B., & du Cros, H. (2002). Cultural tourism. New York: Haworth. McKercher, B., Mei, W., & Tse, T. (2006). Are short duration festivals tourist atractions? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14(1), 55–66. Mehmetoglu, M., & Ellingsen, K. (2005). Do small-scale festivals adopt ‘‘market orientation’’ as a management philosophy? Event Management, 9(3), 119–132. Mendell, R., MacBeth, J., & Solomon, A. (1983). The 1982 world’s fair-a synopsis. Leisure Today. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance(April), 48–49. Mihalik, B. (1994). Mega-event legacies of the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. In P. Murphy (Ed.), Quality management in urban tourism: Balancing business and environment. Proceedings (pp. 151–162). University of Victoria. Mihalik, B. (2001). Host population perceptions of the 1996 Atlanta Olympics: Support, benefits and liabilities. Tourism Analysis, 5(1), 49–53. Mihalik, B., & Wing-Vogelbacher, A. (1992). Travelling art expositions as a tourism event: A market research analysis for Ramesses the Great. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 1(3), 25–41. Mill, R., & Morrison, A. (1985). The tourism system. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Miller, L., Jago, L., & Deery, M. (2004). Profiling the special event nonattendee: An initial investigation. Event Management, 8(3), 141–150. Mohr, K., Backman, K., Gahan, L., & Backman, S. (1993). An investigation of festival motivations and event satisfaction by visitor type. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 1(3), 89–97. Morrow, S. (1997). The art of the show: An Introduction to the study of exhibition management. Dallas: International Association for Exhibition Management. Morse, J. (2001). The Sydney 2000 Olympic Games: How the Australian Tourist Commission leveraged the Games for tourism. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 7(2), 101–107. Mossberg, L. (Ed.). (2000a). Evaluation of events: Scandinavian experiences. New York: Cognizant Communication Corp. Mossberg, L. (2000b). Effects of events on destination image. In L. Mossberg (Ed.), Evaluation of events: Scandinavian experiences (pp. 30–46). New York: Cognizant Communication Corp. Mules, T., & Dwyer, L. (2006). Public sector support for sport tourism events: The role of cost–benefit assessment. In H. Gibson (Ed.), Sport tourism: Concepts and theories (pp. 206–223). London: Routledge. Mules, T., & McDonald, S. (1994). The economic impact of special events: The use of forecasts. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 2(1), 45–53. New Zealand Tourist and Publicity Department (1987). New Zealand tourism report no. 38 (November).

D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428 Ritchie, J. R. B. (2000). Turning 16 days into 16 years through Olympic legacies. Event Management, 6(2), 155–165. Ritchie, B., & Adair, D. (2004). Sport tourism: Interrelationships, impacts and issues. Clevedon: Channel View. Ritchie, J. R. B., & Beliveau, D. (1974). Hallmark events: An evaluation of a stratewgic response to seasonality in the travel market. Journal of Travel Research, 14, 14–20. Ritchie, B., Sanders, D., & Mules, T. (2006). Televised events: Shaping destination images and perceptions of capital cities from the couch. In C. Arcodia, M. Whitford, & C. Dickson (Eds.), Global events congress, proceedings (pp. 286–299). Brisbane: University of Queensland. Ritchie, J. R. B., & Smith, B. (1991). The impact of a mega-event on host region awareness: A longitudinal study. Journal of Travel Research, 30(1), 3–10. Rittichainuwat, B., Beck, J., & LaLopa, J. (2001). Understanding motivations, inhibitors, and facilitators of association members in attending international conferences. Journal of Convention and Exhibition Management, 3(3), 45–62. Robinson, M., Picard, D., & Long, P. (2004). Festival tourism: Producing, translating, and consuming expressions of culture(s). Event Management, 8(4), 187–189. Robinson, T., & Gammon, S. (2004). A question of primary and secondary motives: Revisiting and applying the sport tourism framework. Journal of Sport Tourism, 9(3), 221–223. Roche, M. (2000). Mega-events and modernity: Olympics and expos in the growth of global culture. London: Routledge. Roche, M. (2006). Mega-events and modernity revisited: Globalization and the case of the Olympics. Sociological Review, 54, 25–40. Rogers, T. (2003). Conferences and conventions: A global industry. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Rooney, J. (1988). Mega sports events as tourism attractions: A geographical analysis. In Paper presented at the TTRA annual conference, Montreal. Rozin, S. (2000). The amateurs who saved Indianapolis. Business Week, April 10. Russell, J. (2004). Celebrating culture, energising language, transforming society. In M. Robinson, D. Picard, I. Schneider, & O. Haid (Eds.), Conference proceedings, journeys of expression III. Centre for Tourism and Cultural Change, Sheffield-Hallam University (Compact Disc). Ryan, C. (2002). The tourist experience (2nd ed.). London: Continuum. Ryan, C., & Lockyer, T. (2002). Masters’ Games—The nature of competitors’ involvement and requirements. Event Management, 7(4), 259–270. Ryan, C., Smee, A., Murphy, S., & Getz, D. (1998). New Zealand events: A temporal and regional analysis. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 5(1/2), 71–83. Saleh, F., & Ryan, C. (1993). Jazz and knitwear: Factors that attract tourists to festivals. Tourism Management, 14(4), 289–297. Standeven, J., & De Knop, P. (1999). Sport tourism. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Scotinform Ltd. (1991). Edinburgh Festivals study 1990–91: Visitor survey and economic impact assessment, final report. Edinburgh: Scottish Tourist Board. Scott, D. (1996). A comparison of visitors’ motivations to attend three urban festivals. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 3(3), 121–128. Severt, D., Wang, Y., Chen, P., & Breiter, D. (2007). Examining the motivation, perceived performance, and behavioural intentions of convention attendees: Evidence from a regional conference. Tourism Management, 28(2), 399–408. Sherwood, P. (2007). A triple bottom line evaluation of the impact of special events: the development of indicators. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University, Melbourne. Sherwood, P., Jago, L., & Deery, M. (2004). Sustainability reporting: An application for the evaluation of special events. In C. Cooper, et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the annual conference of the Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education. Brisbane: University of Queensland. 427 Sherwood, P., Jago, L., & Deery, M. (2005). Unlocking the triple bottom line of special event evaluations: What are the key impacts? In J. Allen (Ed.), Proceedings of the third international event management research conference, Sydney. Sydney: University of Technology. Shibli, S., & the Sport Industry Research Centre (2002). The 2002 embassy world snooker championship, an evaluation of the economic impact, place marketing effects, and visitors’ perceptions of Sheffield, For Sheffield City Council. Shone, A., & Parry, B. (2001). Successful event management. London: Continuum. Silvers, J. (2004). Professional event coordination. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Singh, R. (2006). Pilgrimage in Hinduism: Historical context and modern perspectives. In D. Timothy, & D. Olsen (Eds.), Tourism, religion and spiritual journeys (pp. 220–236). London, New York: Routledge. Skinner, B., & Rukavina, V. (2003). Event sponsorship. New York: Wiley. Smith, M. (2005). Spotlight events, media relations, and place promotion: A case study. Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 12(1/2), 115–134. Sofield, T. (1991). Sustainable ethnic tourism in the South Pacific: Some principles. Journal of Tourism Studies, 1(3), 56–72. Sofield, T., & Li, F. (1998). Historical methodology and sustainability: An 800-year-old festival from China. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 6(4), 267–292. Sofield, T., & Sivan, A. (2003). From cultural festival to international sport—The Hong Kong Dragon Boat Races. Journal of Sport Tourism(81), 9–20. Solberg, H., Andersson, T., & Shibli, S. (2002). An exploration of the direct economic impacts from business travelers at world championships. Event Management, 7(3), 151–164. Soutar, G., & McLeod, P. (1993). Residents’ perceptions on impact of the America’s Cup. Annals of Tourism Research, 20(3), 571–582. Spiller, J. (2002). History of convention tourism. In K. Weber, & K. Chon (Eds.), Convention tourism: International research and industry perspectives (pp. 3–20). Spilling, O. (1998). Beyond intermezzo? On the long-term industrial impacts of mega-events: The case of Lillehammer 1994. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 5(3), 101–122. Sports Business Market Research Handbook (2000–2006). Sports Business Market Research Inc. Stebbins, R. (1982). Serious leisure: A conceptual statement. Pacific Sociological Review, 25(2). Stebbins, R. (1992). Amateurs, professionals, and serious leisure. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Stebbins, R. (2001). New directions in the theory and research of serious leisure. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen. Stebbins, R. (2006). Serious leisure: A perspective for our time. Somerset, NJ: Aldine Transaction Publications. Stokes, R. (2004). A framework for the analysis of events—tourism knowledge networks. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 11(2), 108–123. Supovitz, F., & Goldblatt, J. (2004). The sports event management and marketing handbook. New York: Wiley. Syme, G., Shaw, B., Fenton, D., & Mueller, W. (Eds.). (1989). The planning and evaluation of hallmark events. Aldershot: Gower. Tarlow, P. (2002). Event risk management and safety. New York: Wiley. Tassiopoulos, D. (Ed.). (2000). Event management: A professional and developmental approach. Lansdowne: Juta Education. Taylor, P., & Gratton, C. (1988). The Olympic games: An economic analysis. Leisure Management, 8(3), 32–34. Teigland, J. (1996). Impacts on tourism from mega-events: The case of winter olympic games. Sogndal: Western Norway Research Institute. Thomas, R., & Wood, E. (2004). Event-based tourism: A survey of local authority strategies in the UK. Local Governance, 29(2), 127036. Thrane, C. (2002). Music quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions within a jazz festival context. Event Management, 7(3), 143–150. Timothy, D., & Olsen, D. (Eds.). (2006). Tourism, religion and spiritual journeys. London, New York: Routledge.

428 D. Getz / Tourism Management 29 (2008) 403–428 Weber, K., & Chon, K. (2002). Convention tourism: International research and industry perspectives. New York: Haworth. Weber, K., & Ladkin, A. (2004). Trends affecting the convention industry in the 21st century. Journal of Convention and Event Tourism, 6(4), 47–63. Weed, M. (2003). Why the two won’t tango! Explaining the lack of integrated policies for sport and tourism in the UK. Journal of Sport Management, 17(3), 258–283. Weed, M. (2005). Sports tourism theory and method: Concepts, issues and epistemologies. European Sport Management Quarterly, 5(3), 229–242. Weed, M. (2006). Sports tourism research 2000–2004: A systematic review of knowledge and a meta-evaluation of methods. Journal of Sport and Tourism, 11(1), 5–30. Weed, M., & Bull, C. (2004). Sports tourism: Participants, policy and providers. Oxford: Elsevier. Westerbeek, H., Turner, P., & Ingerson, L. (2002). Key success factors in bidding for hallmark sporting events. International Marketing Review, 19(3), 303–322. Whitford, M. (2004a). Regional development through domestic and tourist event policies: Gold Coast and Brisbane, 1974–2003. UNLV Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure Science, 1, 1–24. Whitford, M. (2004b). Event public policy development in the Northern Sub-Regional Organisation of Councils, Queensland Australia: Rhetoric or realisation? Journal of Convention and Event Tourism, 6(3), 81–99. Whitson, D., & Horne, J. (2006). Underestimated costs and overestimated benefits? Comparing the outcomes of sports mega-events in Canada and Japan. Sociological Review, 54(2), 71–89. Whitson, D., & Macintosh, D. (1996). The global circus: International sport, tourism, and the marketing of cities. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 20(3), 275–295. Wicks, B., & Fesenmaier, D. (1995). Market potential for special events: A midwestern case study. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 3(1), 25–31. Xiao, H., & Smith, S. (2004). Residents’ perceptions of KitchenerWaterloo Oktoberfest: An inductive analysis. Event Management, 8(3), 161–175. Xie, P. (2003). The Bamboo-beating dance in Hainan, China. Authenticity and commodification. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 11(1), 5–16. Xie, P. (2004). Visitors’ perceptions of authenticity at a rural heritage festival: A case study. Event Management, 8(3), 151–160. Xiao, P., & Smith, S. (2004). Improving forecasts for world’s fair attendance: Incorporating income effects. Event Management, 6(1), 15–23. Yoo, J., & Weber, K. (2005). Progress in convention tourism research. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 29(2), 194–222. Yoon, S., Spencer, D., Holecek, D., & Kim, D. (2000). A profile of Michigan’s festival and special event tourism market. Event Management, 6(1), 33–44. Tomljenovic, R., & Weber, S. (2004). Funding cultural events in Croatia: Tourism-related policy issues. Event Management, 9(1/2), 51–59. Toohey, K., & Veal, T. (2007). The olympic games: A social science perspective. Wallingford: CABI. Travel and Tourism Research Association, Canada Chapter. (1986). Proceedings of the Canada chapter conference. Travel Industry Association of America. (1999). Profile of travellers who attend sports events. Washington, DC: TIAA. Travel Industry Association of America, and Smithsonian Magazine. (2003). The historic/cultural traveller. Tum, J., Norton, P., & Wright, J. (2006). Management of event operations. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier. Turco, D. (1995). Measuring the tax impacts of an international festival: Justification for government sponsorship. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 2(3/4), 191–195. Turco, D., Riley, R., & Swart, K. (2002). Sport tourism. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology Inc. Turner, V. (1969). The ritual process: Structure and anti-structure. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Turner, V. (1974). Liminal to liminoid, in play, flow and ritual: An essay in comparative symbology. In E. Norbeck (Ed.), The Anthropological Study of Human Play, Vol. 60 (pp. 53–92). Rice University Studies. Turner, V. (Ed.). (1982). Celebration: Studies in festivity and ritual. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. Uysal, M., Gahan, L., & Martin, B. (1993). An examination of event motivations: A case study. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 1(1), 5–10. Uysal, M., & Gitelson, R. (1994). Assessment of economic impacts: Festivals and special events. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 2(1), 3–9. Van der Wagen, L. (2004). Event management for tourism, cultural, business and sporting events (2nd ed.). Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Education Australia. Van der Wagen, L. (2006). Human resource management for events: Managing the event workforce. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Van Gennep, A. (1909). The rites of passage (1960 translation by M. Vizedom and G. Coffee). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Vaughan, R. (1979). Does a festival pay? A case study of the edinburgh festival in 1976. Tourism Recreation Research Unit, Working paper 5, University of Edinburgh. Verhoven, P., Wall, D., & Cottrell, S. (1998). Application of desktop mapping as a marketing tool for special events planning and evaluation: A case study of the Newport News Celebration in Lights. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 5(3), 123–130. Waitt, G. (2004). A critical examination of Sydney’s 2000 Olympic games. In I. Yeoman, et al. (Eds.), Festivals and events management (pp. 391–408). Oxford: Elsevier. Walle, A. (1994). The festival life cycle and tourism strategies: The case of the Cowboy Poetry Gathering. Festival Management and Event Tourism(2), 85–94.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...ASB-1104 Introduction to Marketing Assignment 1 In view of the dynamic nature of the marketing environment, to what extent do you consider consumers to be, in practice, central to marketing activities? Name: ZHUOMING AN Student No: 500356688 Tutor: David James Introduction What is marketing? The answer is not changeless. There are some different definitions about marketing. The Chartered Institute of Marketing define that "Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying consumers' requirements profitably." (CIM). Taking a concern into this definition, it indicates that marketing begins before a product or service is developed. In additional, it also explain that marketing involves identifying an unsatisfied consumer need or want and determining if a profitable opportunity exists. Another definition is that “A social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others." (Kotler et al., 2005). The basic idea of this definition is that core to all marketing activities is customer satisfaction, which means marketing is an ongoing process as consumer demands and the environment is constantly changing. Products need to adapt as demands change. At the same time, marketing does not involve misleading, tricking or manipulation the customer. The Jobber also define the marketing is "The achievement of corporate goals through......

Words: 1933 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay


...*/introduction Critically evaluates the marketing planning process Discusses impediments to effective implementation of marketing plan Introduction The leading exponents of the marketing planning have been warned of the communications factors, operational, cultural and managerial in which frequently impede the effective implementation of the marketing planning programmers in the past two decades. (Cravens, 1998; Doyle, 1998; Greenley, 1982; Leeflang and de Mortanges, 1996; McDonald, 1992a, b; 1995; Piercy and Morgan, 1994; Jain, 1993; Simkin, 1996a, b; Verhage and Waarts, 1988). There have some specific guidance are offered in the recent years to assist marketing managers overcoming those internal organisational and in pre-empting forces (cf. Cravens, 1998; Dibb et al., 1996; Lings, 1999; Piercy, 1997; 1998; Simkin, 2000). Yet, the recent research has shows barriers to the implementation of programmes and marketing strategies. (Dibb and Simkin, 2001; Simkin, 2000). Another key barrier is indicating impeding the deployment of effective marketing practices used to be the lack in most marketing function or either in organisations. (cf. McDonald, 1992a, b; Piercy and Morgan, 1994). The research are shows this is a no longer to the case with the bulkiness businesses professing to have a marketing department undertaking not only promotion and customer research,but are relate to the Kotleresque textbook approach to marketing management (Dibb and Simkin, 1997;......

Words: 1580 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...A high-level data model in business or for any functional area is an abstract model that documents and organizes the business data for communication between functional and technical people. It is used to show the data needed and created by business processes. A data model in software engineering is an abstract model that documents and organizes the business data for communication between team members and is used as a plan for developing applications, specifically how data are stored and accessed. An entity-relationship model (ERM) is an abstract conceptual data model (or semantic data model) used in software engineering to represent structured data. There are several notations used for ERMs. Methodology: 1. Use E-R model to get a high-level graphical view of essential components of enterprise and how they are related 2. Then convert E-R diagram to SQL DDL, or whatever database model you are using E-R Model is not SQL based. It's not limited to any particular DBMS. It is a conceptual and semantic model – captures meanings rather than an actual implementation The E-R Model: The enterprise is viewed as set of * Entities * Relationships among entities Symbols used in E-R Diagram * Entity – rectangle * Attribute – oval * Relationship – diamond * Link - line Ellipsis (plural ellipses; from the Ancient Greek: ἔλλειψις, élleipsis, "omission" or "falling short") is a series of dots that usually indicate an intentional omission of a word,......

Words: 1759 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay


...Defining Marketing Paper ShuMikki Stinson MKT/351 Thomas Collins August 26, 2013 Marketing is a tool that can help business owners to prosper with their product. Marketing can be defined as an instrument that is helpful to individuals to promote their goods in their unique way that other people items would not be an eye-catcher. It is vital to know that the key thing for every marketing tool that the individual uses will be used for the proper reasons. By the individual using marketing tools in the proper way, the individual will reach their marketing level in which they wish to be at. There are side effects when it comes to the marketing tools and the techniques which they do not work properly as it was intended too. There are numerous of definitions that relate to the marketing field. According to William D. Perreault, the author of Basic Marketing, the best definition of marketing is the performance of activities that seek to accomplish an organization’s objectives by anticipating customer or client needs and directing a flow of need satisfying goods and services from producer to customer or client. (William D. Perreault, 2011). Marketing is important because it can be a benefit for a business or a hardship. Respectable marketing methods can make a transformation between a concrete upsurges in sales to an impasse circumstances on a quality merchandise. Marketing can be as simple as having a general conversation, which is usually the case in the long run. Marketing......

Words: 767 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Omar Rochell Marketing MKT/421 April 7, 2011 Nikki Jackson Introduction Marketing is exposed to someone every day, even when they do not seem realize it. Driving down the roads you see billboards everywhere and that is part of marketing. Logos people were on their shirts and signs in the middle or on the sign of football fields are all part of marketing. Even when a child is marketing themselves to their parents to borrow the car or go to a party they are marketing themselves to their parents in exchange for the car or the party. A set of activities that will benefit both parties’ objectives is my own personal definition of marketing. This paper will be defining marketing in different perspectives. Discussing the importance of marketing in a organizational success will also be discussed with examples included from different organizations. As an organization it is important to know what marketing is and how to establish success. What is Marketing “Marketing is defined as the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that will have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.”(American Marketing Association, 2011) Marketing is a process that helps links the consumer, customer, and public to information that will help identify and market opportunities. Marketing research will generate, and evaluate different types of market actions, monitor marketing performance, and help......

Words: 1088 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...focus inward on the organization’s needs instead of outward (the customer’s needs). • Product is aimed at everyone. • Firms want to profit through maximizing sales volume. • Promotion to achieve goals. 2. Describe some of the characteristics of a firm that would follow a marketing orientation. Marketing orientation is “a philosophy that assumes that a sale does not depend on an aggressive sales force but rather than on a customer’s decision to purchase a product; it is synonymous with the marketing concept.” • Unlike sales orientation, a firm would focus outward on the customers wants and needs. • The goal of a firm is to satisfy customers wants and needs and delivering superior value. • The target is specific groups of people. • Where sales orientation profits by sales volume, marketing orientation firms profit with good feedback from customers or customer satisfaction. • It’s more about marketing and less about selling (less persuasion). • Firms identify what customers want and have businesses give them what they want efficiently. 3. In what ways does McDonald's embody both a marketing and a societal marketing orientation? Do some internet research if necessary. McDonald’s embodies a marketing orientation...

Words: 1110 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...customer-focused and heavily committed to marketing. These companies share a passion for understanding and satisfying customer needs in well-defined target markets. They motivate everyone in the organization to help build lasting customer relationships based on creating value. Marketing is just as important for non-profit-making organizations as it is for profit-making ones. It is very important to realize that at the heart of marketing is the customer. It is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying consumer requirements profitability. Background The term ‘‘marketing’’ is derived from the word ‘‘market’’, which refers to a group of sellers and buyers that cooperate to exchange goods and services. The modern concept of marketing evolved during and after the revolution in the 19th and 20th centuries. During that period, the proliferation of goods and services, increased worker specialization and technological advances in transportation, refrigeration and other factors that facilitate the transfer of goods over long distances resulted in the need for more advance market mechanisms and selling techniques. But it was not until the 1930s that companies began to place a greater emphasis on advertising and promoting their products and began striving to tailor their goods to specific consumer needs. By the 1950s, many larger companies were sporting entire marketing departments charged with devising and implementing marketing strategies that......

Words: 2190 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay


...chapter 1 Marketing’s Role in the Global Economy When You Finish This Chapter, You Should 1. Know what marketing is and why you should learn about it. 2. Understand the difference between micro-marketing and macro-marketing. 3. Know why and how macromarketing systems develop. 4. Understand why marketing is crucial to economic development and our global economy. 5. Know why marketing special— ists—including middlemen and — facilitators—develop. 6. Know the marketing functions and who performs them. 7. Understand the important new terms (shown in red). www.mhhe. When it’s time to roll out of bed in the morning, does your General Electric alarm wake you with a buzzer—or by playing your favorite radio station? Is the station playing rock, classical, or country music—or perhaps a Red Cross ad asking you to contribute blood? Will you slip into your Levi’s jeans, your shirt from L. L. Bean, and your Reeboks, or does the day call for your Brooks Brothers interviewing suit? Will breakfast be Lender’s Bagels with cream cheese or Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes—made with grain from America’s heartland—or some extra large eggs and Oscar Mayer bacon cooked in a Panasonic microwave oven imported from Japan? Will you drink decaffeinated Maxwell House coffee—grown in Colombia—or some Tang instant juice? Will you eat at home or is this a day to meet a friend at the Marriott-run cafeteria—where you’ll pay someone else to serve your breakfast? After breakfast, will you head off to......

Words: 14069 - Pages: 57

Premium Essay


...MARKETING PLAN RESEARCH DEFINITION: A marketing plan is a business document written for the purpose of describing the current market position of a business and its marketing strategy for the period covered by the marketing plan. Marketing plans usually have a life of from one to five years. PURPOSE: The purpose of creating a marketing plan is to clearly show what steps will be undertaken to achieve the business' marketing objectives. CONTENT OF MARKETING: A marketing plan for a small business typically includes Small Business Administration Description of competitors, including the level of demand for the product or service and the strengths and weaknesses of competitors. 1. Description of the product or service, including special features 2. Marketing budget, including the advertising and promotional plan 3. Description of the business location, including advantages and disadvantages for marketing 4. Pricing strategy 5. Market Segmentation The main contents in marketing plan are: * Executive Summary Brief statement of goals and recommendations based on hard data. * Environmental Analysis Presents data on the market, product, competition, distribution, macro-environment. (Product fact book) S.P.I.N.S. Situation “Where am I”, Problem identification/Implications “What is happening”, Needs Assessment “Why is it happening”, Solutions “What can I do about it” Market Situation: Data on target market, size and growth for past......

Words: 579 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Marketing MKT 421 Marketing According to “American Marketing Association” (2013), “Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customer, clients, partners, and society at large.” The American Marketing Society has grown to be the largest marketing associations in the world. The members work, teach, and study in the field of marketing across the globe. Another definition of marketing is according to “ Investors” (2013), “Marketing is an activity. Marketing activities and strategies result in making products available that satisfy customers while making profits for the companies that offer those products.” Organizations success lies in marketing and it is the heart of the success. The marketing introduces a product or service to potential customers. An organization can offer the best service or product in the industry but the potential customers would not know about it without marketing. Sales could crash and organizations may close without marketing. For a business to succeed the product or service that is provided needs to be known to the potential buyers. Getting the word out is important part of marketing in any organizational success. Product or service awareness is created by marketing strategies. If marketing is not used the potential customers will never be aware of the organizational offerings and the organization will not have the opportunity to......

Words: 776 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Abstract In the world of today with rude competition everywhere, customers’ expectations have become higher than ever. It is not the customers who come towards the products but it is the products which should make their way to the customers. And for this, only competitive businesses that are able to stimulate customers’ interests survive in the market. Therefore firms need to increase customers’ awareness about their products or services to be able to pull and encourage them to engage in purchase of their products. And as such, the promotional mix used by a company is really important for this task. The promotional mix in itself is very broad, consisting of various tools, like advertising, personal selling, direct marketing, public relation and sales promotion. To make the optimum use of these tools, marketers usually select them, depending on their budget and objectives, as well as the sector in which they operate (Kotler & Armstrong 1997). As such, research has been conducted on the use of promotional mix and research questions and objectives have been set. The methodology which will be used has been devised. We shall be doing a descriptive study through a survey questionnaire, in which there will be open as well as close ended questions and the questionnaire will be administered through personal interview that is direct, face-to-face. The sample size will be 100 persons and will all be customers of J Kalachand & Co Ltd. After the research, we will......

Words: 4233 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay


...Assessment: MKC1 Market Environmental Variables Reading: Contemporary Marketing: Chapter 3 Questions: 1. How would you categorize Generation X using the five segments of the marketing environment? A: Competitive Environment B: Political-legal environment C: Economic environment D: Technological environment E: Social-cultural environment 2. Joe and Ryan both have storefronts in the local mall. Joe sells candies and Ryan sells pretzels. Are Joe and Ryan in direct competition with each other? A: Yes B: No Consumer Behavior and Marketing Reading: Contemporary Marketing: Chapter 5 Questions: 1. Rachel and Sarah’s parents always purchased groceries from the local Aldi marketplace. What is this type of behavior an example of? A: Cultural influences B: Social Influences C: Personal factors 2. Maryanne purchases Maxwell House coffee every two weeks from the grocery. What is this type of behavior an example of? A: Routinized Problem Solving B: Limited problem solving C: Extended problem solving 3. Aaron does research on several local colleges before applying to his first three choices. This is an example of: A: High – involvement purchase decision B: Low – involvement purchase decision Marketing Plans Reading: Contemporary Marketing: Chapter 2 + Ch. 2 Appendix Web sites: Questions: 1. Strategies are designed to meet......

Words: 8933 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay


...Appendix C Sample Marketing Plan C1 APPENDIX C Sample Marketing Plan Star Software, Inc. Marketing Plan 1 I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Star Software, Inc., is a small, family-owned corporation in the first year of a transition from first-generation to second-generation leadership. Star Software sells custom-made calendar programs and related items to about 400 businesses, which use the software mainly for promotion. Star’s 18 employees face scheduling challenges, as Star’s business is highly seasonal, with its greatest demand during October, November, and December. In other months, the equipment and staff are sometimes idle. A major challenge facing Star Software is how to increase profits and make better use of its resources during the off-season. An evaluation of the company’s internal strengths and weaknesses and external opportunities and threats served as the foundation for this strategic analysis and marketing plan. The plan focuses on the company’s growth strategy, suggesting ways in which it can build on existing customer relationships, and on the development of new products and/or services targeted to specific customer niches. Since Star Software markets a product used primarily as a promotional tool by its clients, it currently is considered a business-to-business marketer. This sample marketing plan for a hypothetical company illustrates how the marketing planning process described in Chapter 2 might be implemented. If you are asked to create a marketing......

Words: 4587 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay


...Marketing is the process of communicating the value of a product or service to customers, for the purpose of selling that product or service. Marketing can be looked at as an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, delivering and communicating value to customers, and customer relationship management that also benefits the organization. Marketing is the science of choosing target markets through market analysis and market segmentation, as well as understanding consumer behavior and providing superior customer value. From a societal point of view, marketing is the link between a society’s material requirements and its economic patterns of response. Marketing satisfies these needs and wants through exchange processes and building long term relationships. Organizations may choose to operate a business under five competing concepts: the production concept, the product concept, the selling concept, the marketing concept, and the holistic marketing concept.[1] The four components of holistic marketing are relationship marketing, internal marketing, integrated marketing, and socially responsive marketing. The set of engagements necessary for successful marketing management includes capturing marketing insights, connecting with customers, building strong brands, shaping the market offerings, delivering and communicating value, creating long-term growth, and developing marketing strategies and plans.[2] Marketing may be defined in several ways, depending......

Words: 270 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...oriented philosophy is so important. The phrase market-oriented is used in marketing conversations as an adjective describing a company with a marketing orientation. Market orientation more describes the company's approach to doing business. Market-oriented defines the company itself. If a company is market-oriented, its board and executive leadership believe that the best way to succeed is to prioritize the marketplace above products. This usually goes over well with customers, but the company also must have adequate research and development to provide what the market wants. Hence, a market-oriented organization is one whose actions are consistent with the marketing concept. Difference Between Marketing Orientation & Market Oriented by Neil Kokemuller, Demand Media Marketing is a management process and management support for marketing concept is very important element in success. If a company wants to be successful then it is market oriented. Marketing involves identifying the customer requirements and estimate the customer requirements in future. It requires planning which is very important process of marketing. To satisfy the needs the business should provide benefits – offering right marketing at right time at right place. Generally market based companies adopt strategic level marketing that defines the mission and long term objectives of the......

Words: 716 - Pages: 3