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Marketing

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Capitulo 1 – Dirección de Marketing.

El éxito financiero suele depender del talento comercial y del marketing de las empresas. Los gerentes de marketing no solo deben tomar decisiones generales, como las características que debe presentar el nuevo producto, , el precio, donde se va a vender , sino también decisiones más especificas como el color del nuevo envase o las palabras exactas que aparecerán en este.

Las empresas incapaces de realizar un seguimiento a sus clientes y de sus competidores, y por tanto, de mejorar constantemente sus ofertas, son aquellas que corren mayor peligro. La búsqueda del éxito en marketing es interminable.

¿Qué es el Marketing?

Consiste en identificar y satisfacer las necesidades de las personas y de la sociedad. Otra definición indica que es satisfacer las necesidades en forma rentable.

La Dirección del Marketing, es el arte y la ciencia de seleccionar los mercados meta y lograr conquistar, mantener e incrementar el número de clientes mediante la generación, comunicación y entrega un mayor valor para el cliente.

Marketing, definición social y empresarial, la primera se basa en “lograr un mejor nivel de vida”, la segunda se basa “el arte de vender productos”

El objetivo del marketing es conocer y entender tan bien al consumidor que los productos o servicios se ajusten perfectamente a sus necesidades y se vendan solos

Intercambios y Transacciones.

Intercambio, es todo proceso que consiste en conseguir de otro el producto que uno desea, ofreciendo algo a cambio. Cuando dos partes negocian, es decir, cuando intentan obtener condiciones beneficiosas para ambas, están participando en un proceso de intercambio. Si se llega a un acuerdo, es lo que se llama una transacción (es un canje de valores entre dos o más partes)

Condiciones:

• Debe haber al menos 2 partes.

• Cada parte debe tener algo que el otro valore.

• Cada parte es capaz de comunicarse y proporcionar valor.

• Cada parte debe ser libre de aceptar o rechazar la oferta de intercambio.

• Cada parte debe considerar adecuado o deseable negociar con la otra.

Transferencia, es cuando uno da algo pero no recibe nada a cambio.

¿Para qué es útil el Marketing?

Los encargados del marketing, aplican esto al menos 10 rubros: Bienes, Servicios, Eventos, Experiencias, Personas, Lugares, Derechos de Propiedad, Organizaciones, Información, Ideas.

¿Quién ejerce el marketing?

Mercadologo, cualquier persona que busca generar una respuesta (captar atención, propiciar una compra, obtener un voto o un donativo) de terceros, que conforman su mercado meta. Si ambas partes tienen interés similar en el intercambio, uno y otro podrían considerarse mercadologos.

Los gerentes de marketing tratan de influir sobre el nivel, el momento y la composición de la demanda de su empresa para cumplir con los objetivos de esta.

Estados de Demanda.

• Negativa.

• Inexistente

• Latente

• En declive

• Irregular

• Completa.

• Excesiva.

• Indeseable

Mercados.

Es aquel lugar en el que vendedores y compradores se reunían para comprar y vender bienes. Los mercadologos utilizan el termino mercado para referirse a las distintas agrupaciones de mercados. Así entienden que los vendedores constituyen la industria y los compradores constituyen el mercado.

Clases de Mercado.

• Mercado de Consumidores. Las empresas venden bienes y servicios de consumo masivo.

• Mercado de Empresas. Las empresas venden bienes y servicios a otras empresas.

• Mercados Globales. Las empresas venden bienes y servicios en el mercado internacional.

Mercados, Ciber Mercados y Meta mercados.

Se puede distinguir 02 tipos de mercado: físico y el virtual. El primero se refiere al lugar físico (Tienda), el segundo es digital (Internet).

Meta Mercado, es el conjunto de productos y servicios complementarios que los consumidores consideran estrechamente relacionados, pero que se fabrican en sectores industriales diferentes.

Cómo han evolucionado las empresas y el marketing?

El mercado ha cambiado en forma radical como consecuencia de las fuerzas sociales muy potentes y en ocasiones interrelacionadas.

• Cambios Tecnológicos. Revolución digital ha dado paso a la era de la información.

• Globalización. Comercio con otros países.

• Desregulación. Liberalización de industrias para generar mayor competencia.

• Privatización. Privatizar empresas para aumentar su eficiencia.

• Empowertment. Los consumidores esperan una calidad y servicio mejor.

• Personalización. Productos diferenciados.

• Mayor competencia.

• Convergencia sectorial. Las fronteras entre los sectores desaparecen de manera rápida

• Transformación de la venta al menudeo o minorista.

• No intermediarios.

Orientación de las empresas hacia el mercado.

Enfoque de Producción: Es uno de los más antiguos del mundo. Los consumidores favorecerán aquellos productos fáciles de conseguir y de bajo costo. Los directivos concentran sus esfuerzos en conseguir una gran eficiencia productiva, costos bajos y distribución masiva.

Enfoque de Producto: Los consumidores favorecerán aquellos productos que ofrezcan la mejor calidad, los mejores resultados o las características más innovadoras. Los directivos se concentran en fabricar productos bien hechos y en mejorarlos continuamente.

Enfoque de Ventas: Si no se anima a los consumidores o a las empresas a que compren, no adquirirán suficientes productos de la empresa. Por tanto, la empresa debe hacer esfuerzos de promoción y ventas muy intensos. El enfoque de ventas, se aplica con los bienes no buscados, es decir con aquellos bienes que la empresa no está dispuesta a comprar.

Enfoque de Marketing: En lugar de seguir una filosofía de centrada en el producto, de “fabricar y vender”, las empresas cambiaron a una filosofía centrada en el consumidor que consiste en “detectar y responder”. En lugar de “cazar” se empezó a “cultivar”. El marketing no se concentraba en encontrar al consumidor adecuado para el producto, sino en desarrollar los productos adecuados para los consumidores (Necesidades del comprador)

Este enfoque, indica que la clave para lograr los objetivos de las organizaciones consiste en ser más eficaz que la competencia a la hora de generar, ofrecer y comunicar un mayor valoral mercado meta.

Enfoque de Marketing Holístico: Se basa en el desarrollo, diseño y la aplicación de programa, procesos y actividades de marketing reconociendo el alcance y la interdependencia de sus efectos. El marketing holístico es consciente de que todo importa en el marketing y de que es necesario adoptar una perspectiva amplia e integrada.

Componentes:

• Marketing Relacional. Tiene como objetivo establecer relaciones mutuamente satisfactorias y de largo plazo, con los participantes claves (consumidores, proveedores, distribuidores y otros), con el fin de conservar e incrementar el negocio.

o Los componentes dl marketing de relaciones son los clientes, los empleados, los socios de marketing (proveedores, canales, distribuidores, intermediarios y agencias), y los miembros de la comunidad financiera (accionistas, inversionistas y analistas).

o El resultado final de un buen marketing relacional, es la creación de un activo único para la empresa denominada Red de Marketing. La Red de Marketing esta formada por la empresa y las personas que al sustentan (clientes, empleados, proveedores, distribuidores, minoristas, agencias de publicidad, científicos investigadores, entres otros).

• Marketing Integrado. Los responsables del marketing se encargan de idear las actividades y de ensamblar los distintos programas de marketing integrado para crear, comunicar y generar valor para los clientes. Una descripción tradicional de las actividades de marketing se sintetiza en el concepto de Mezcla de Marketing, que se define como el conjunto de herramientas que utiliza una empresa para conseguir sus objetivos de marketing. Aquí están las 4 P del Marketing: Producto, Precio, Plaza y Promoción.

Las 4 P reflejan las perspectivas que tiene el vendedor sobre las herramientas de marketing disponibles para influir sobre los compradores.

El marketing integrado tiene 2 facetas fundamentales.

• Existe una gran diversidad de actividades de marketing para comunicar y generar valor.

• Todas las actividades de marketing se coordinan para maximizar sus efectos de forma conjunta. Cualquier actividad de marketing se diseña y aplica teniendo en cuenta el resto de las actividades.

• Marketing Interno. Es la tarea de contratar, entrenar y motivar al personal idóneo para atender adecuadamente a los clientes. Los buenos profesionales dl marketing son conscientes de que las actividades de marketing dentro de una empresa son tan importantes, o incluso más, que las actividades que realizan fuera de la compañía. El marketing interno debe desarrollarse a dos niveles.

o Las diferentes funciones del marketing (ventas, publicidad, servicio al cliente, administración de productos, investigación de mercados) deben estar coordinados. Todas las funciones de marketing deben estar coordinadas desde el punto de vista del cliente.

o El marketing debe ser aceptado por otros departamentos, es decir, también deben “pensar en el cliente”.

• Marketing Social o Socialmente Responsable. El marketing holístico incluye el concepto de marketing social y la compresión de los principales temas de interés público, así como el contexto ético ambiental, legal y social de las actividades y programas de marketing. La responsabilidad social también requiere que los mercadologos consideren la función que están desempeñando y que podrían desempeñar en términos de bienestar social.

o Marketing social corporativo.

o Marketing con causa.

o Marketing de causas sociales.

o Filantropía Empresarial.

o Colaboración con la comunidad.

o Prácticas empresariales de responsabilidad social.

Principales conceptos, tendencias y funciones del Marketing.

Necesidades, deseos y demandas.

Las necesidades son los requerimientos básicos del ser humano (alimento, aire, agua, vestimenta, vivienda, educación, ocio y entretenimiento).

Cuando estas necesidades se dirigen hacia objetos específicos que puedan satisfacerlas se convierten en deseos.

Las demandas son deseos de productos específicos que están respaldados por una capacidad de pago.

Los profesionales del marketing no crean necesidades, sino que estas las preceden. Los mercadologos con una serie de factores sociales, influyen en los deseos Se pueden distinguir 05 tipos de necesidades:

• Declaradas.

• Reales.

• No declaradas.

• De deleite.

• Secretas.

Mercados Meta, Posicionamiento y Segmentación.

Los mercadologos comienzan a dividir el mercado en segmentos. Identifican y separan los diferentes grupos de compradores que comparten definiciones específicas de productos o servicios. Para identificar los grupos se utilizan variables demográficas, pictográficas u conductuales de los compradores.

Luego las empresas deciden que segmentos representan la mejor oportunidad: cuáles son sus mercados meta. Para cada mercado meta, la empresa desarrolla una oferta de mercado. Esta oferta se posiciona en la mente de los compradores meta en función de determinadas ventajas.

Ofertas y Marcas.

Las empresas atienden las necesidades de los consumidores ofreciendo una propuesta de valor, es decir, ofrecen a los consumidores un conjunto de ventajas para satisfacer sus necesidades. La propuesta de valor intangible se materializa en una oferta que puede ser combinación de productos, servicios, información y experiencias. Una marca es una oferta de una fuente conocida.

Valor y Satisfacción.

Una oferta tendrá éxito si promete valor y satisfacción al comprador potencial. El comprador elige entre las diferentes ofertas en función del valor que percibe de ellas. El valor refleja los beneficios y los costos, tanto tangibles como intangibles, que el consumidor percibe a partir de la oferta. El concepto de valor se puede concebir básicamente como una combinación de calidad, servicio y precio. La satisfacción refleja los juicios comparativos que hace una persona, a partir del desempeño (o resultado) que obtiene de un producto, en relación con las expectativas que tenia del mismo.

Canales de Marketing.

Para llegar al mercado meta, los mercadologos utilizan 03 tipos de canales de marketing:

• Canales de Comunicación. Enviar información a compradores potenciales (periódicos, revistas, tv, correo electrónico, etc.)

• Canales de Distribución. Exhibir, vender o entregar los productos y servicios físicos al comprador.(Distribuidores, mayoristas, minoristas y agentes)

• Canales de Servicio. Efectuar transacciones con compradores potenciales. (Almacenes, empresas de transporte, bancos).

Cadena de Suministro.

Mientras que la cadena de marketing ponen en contacto a las empresas que pretenden vender y a los compradores potenciales, la cadena de suministro describe un canal más largo que va desde las materias primas y componentes, hasta los productos acabados que se destinan a los compradores finales.

Competencia.

La competencia incluye todas las ofertas y los productos sustitutos rivales que un comprador puede tener en cuenta a la hora de decidir su compra.

Entorno de Marketing.

La competencia representa tan solo una de las fuerzas del entorno en la que operan los mercadologos. El entorno de marketing está formado por el entorno funcional y por el entorno general.

• El entorno funcional, incluye a aquellos agentes inmediatos que participan en la producción, distribución y promoción de la oferta. Los agentes principales son la empresa, los proveedores, los distribuidores, los intermediarios y el público meta.

• El entorno general, está compuesto por 06 elementos: el entorno demográfico, económico, físico, tecnológico, político-legal y el sociocultural.

Planeación de Marketing.

En la práctica, el marketing sigue un proceso lógico. El proceso de planeación de marketing consiste en identificar y analizar oportunidades de negocio, seleccionar los mercados meta, elaborar estrategias, definir programas y administrar el esfuerzo del marketing.

Cambios en la dirección del Marketing.

• Marketing como responsabilidad de la empresa.

• Organización por segmentos de consumidores.

• Compra de bienes y servicios de terceros.

• Trabajar con menos proveedores.

• Confiar en fortalezas pasadas a descubrir otras nuevas.

• Poner énfasis en los activos tangibles a ponerlos en los intangibles.

• Crear marcas a partir de la publicidad.

Funciones de la Dirección de Marketing.

1. Desarrollo de Estrategias y Planes de Marketing. Es identificar las posibles oportunidades de crecimiento a largo plazo, en función de su experiencia y de sus competencias básicas.

2. Identificación de cambios en el entorno y de las oportunidades de marketing. Se requiere un sistema de información confiable, que le permita conocer de cerca su entorno de marketing.

3. Relación con los clientes. Se debe generar valor agregado para su público meta y desarrollar relaciones estrechas, duraderas y rentables con sus clientes.

4. Creación de marcas fuertes. Se debe conocer las fortalezas y las debilidades de la marca de la competencia.

5. Definición de oferta. El núcleo de un programa de marketing es el producto, es decir, la oferta tangible que aplica una empresa en el mercado y que incluye la calidad, el diseño, las características y el empaque.

6. Entregar valor. Se debe determinar como dar el valor prometido con sus productos o servicios al mercado meta.

7. Comunicación de valor. Se debe comunicar adecuadamente a su público meta el valor que incorporan sus productos y servicios.

8. Desarrollo de crecimiento rentable a largo plazo. Se debe estudiar cómo desarrollar en el largo plazo sus líneas de productos y marcas, y como hacer crecer sus ganancias.

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Marketing

...Marketing is an expansive area of expertise that encompasses many different areas, skills and job descriptions. According to Merriam-Webster, broken down to its basic form, marketing is defined as: “The activities involved in making people aware of a company’s products and making sure that the products are available to be bought.” Working in a marketing position involves showcasing a company in a positive light, showing why customers should purchase products and drawing in a targeted audience to consider goods and services. But what does a marketer do? Unfortunately there isn’t one set job description for everyone in this position. But we connected with marketing pros to give you a sneak peek at three common types of marketing. Taking a closer look at these options will help you determine if this field is right for you. 1. Digital marketing Digital marketing is just what it sounds like: marketing that’s gone digital! This type of marketing utilizes the internet and all things technology to get the word out about products, services or companies. Digital marketing has a slew of benefits, according to Don Crow, CEO of Verge Pipe Media. He says two of the most obvious advantages are scale and cost. “Considering 70 percent of all phones today are smartphones, it's increasingly important that brands and organizations think about how to connect with consumers on this increasingly important digital device,” Crow explains. There are many jobs that fall under the......

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Marketing

...BTEC LEVEL 3 BUSINESS P1-Describe how marketing techniques are used to market products in two organizations Introduction In this task (P1) I will describe and explain how different marketing techniques are used to market products in two different organizations. The first one being Cotswold wildlife park and the second organization being Tesco. Using these two organizations I will describe the marketing techniques that they used to market products. Marketing 1) Marketing is the action, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners and the society at large. https://www.ama.org/AboutAMA/Pages/Definition-of-Marketing.aspx 2) Marketing is the social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and values with others. http://www.marketingteacher.com/what-is-marketing/ 3) Marketing is traditionally the means by which an organization communicates to, connects with, and engages its target audience to convey the value of and ultimately sell its products and services. http://heidicohen.com/marketing-definition/ From the first definition of marketing, what I understand is that marketing is a process or activity that takes place by interacting directly to the customer or client. It is doing actions that will benefit the customer as well as the......

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Marketing

...chapter 1 Marketing’s Role in the Global Economy When You Finish This Chapter, You Should 1. Know what marketing is and why you should learn about it. 2. Understand the difference between micro-marketing and macro-marketing. 3. Know why and how macromarketing systems develop. 4. Understand why marketing is crucial to economic development and our global economy. 5. Know why marketing special— ists—including middlemen and — facilitators—develop. 6. Know the marketing functions and who performs them. 7. Understand the important new terms (shown in red). www.mhhe. When it’s time to roll out of bed in the morning, does your General Electric alarm wake you with a buzzer—or by playing your favorite radio station? Is the station playing rock, classical, or country music—or perhaps a Red Cross ad asking you to contribute blood? Will you slip into your Levi’s jeans, your shirt from L. L. Bean, and your Reeboks, or does the day call for your Brooks Brothers interviewing suit? Will breakfast be Lender’s Bagels with cream cheese or Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes—made with grain from America’s heartland—or some extra large eggs and Oscar Mayer bacon cooked in a Panasonic microwave oven imported from Japan? Will you drink decaffeinated Maxwell House coffee—grown in Colombia—or some Tang instant juice? Will you eat at home or is this a day to meet a friend at the Marriott-run cafeteria—where you’ll pay someone else to serve your breakfast? After breakfast, will you head off to......

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