Free Essay



Submitted By greenpearl
Words 14839
Pages 60
Lecturer: Anouk Roy G10
Pham Huynh Huong s3411991
Bach Nguyen s3426166 Tram Nguyen Ngoc s3410307 Nguyen Vy Thuy s3427595 Thuy Thai Kim s3410258
Chi Tran Le s3410405

Lecturer: Anouk Roy G10
Pham Huynh Huong s3411991
Bach Nguyen s3426166 Tram Nguyen Ngoc s3410307 Nguyen Vy Thuy s3427595 Thuy Thai Kim s3410258
Chi Tran Le s3410405

Contents Executive Summary 4 A. ANALYSIS: 4 I. Introduction 5 II. Situation Analysis 5
1. Company description 5
2. Product description 6 III. Marketing Environment 7
1. Micro-environment 7
2. Macro-environment 12 IV. SWOT Analysis: 15 V. STP 17
1. Segmentation 17
2. Targeting 18
3. Differentiation (Competitive advantages) 18
4. Positioning 19 VI. Marketing Mix Strategies 22
1. Product 22
2. Price 25
3. Place 26
4. Promotion 27 B. MARKETING OBJECTIVES 29 C. RECCOMMENDATIONS 30 I. Marketing strategies 30
1. Target Market 30
2. Differentiation and positioning 31 II. SWOT matrix (table) 32 Ill. Marketing Mix Strategies 32
1. Product 33
2. Price : 34
3. Place 35
4. Promotion 36 Reference list: 45

Executive Summary
Tuong An is an enterprise specializing in producing vegetable cooking oil for nearly 35 years and is one of the leading companies in Food and Foodstuff Industry in Vietnam. Since Tuong An was established, the firm has received many rewards and become one of the most customers favorite brands. The main function of Tuong An Cooking Oil is to bring good nutrition value to community and the famous statement of TAC is “good oil, good food”. Tuong An Cooking Oil product totally makes from beans and there are two main local competitors to Tuong An in that industry which are Neptune and Simply. As a result of this, the purpose of this marketing plan is to assist TAC maintain their high position in cooking oil industry by proving some potential solution on improvement their existing product as well as diversify their product by coming up with new product category. Some example of recommendations include: Product:
Improve existing products’ features: adding extra ingredient like omega 3 and 6 which are and chagning the design of the bottle frequently. Expand their product category by create new product such as mayonaise which is the potential market
+ Price:
For both existing product and new product: put a lot of effort on promotions and discount to attract more customers and keep loyalty of customers Distribution:
Both existing product and new product are covenience products so muiltichannel is an appropriate systerms for TAC to penetrate and coverage the market quickly. Promotion:
TAC should concertrate on advertising, PR and sales promotions to get customer’s attention to increase sales.
By analysising on current situation and using some potential recommendations, hopfully we can achieve few objective such as gain back their high market share , confirm company brand to the customer. A. ANALYSIS: I. Introduction The success of any company always results from producing innovative products that can capture the demand of the customers promptly by understanding the needs of the market as well as the customers. TAC is one of the companies that have applied this method very well in their business to be a pioneer of healthy nutrition producer. To illustrate, TAC realizes that more and more people today are well educated and they are more consider about healthy foods. In fact, in the past people usually use fats from animals to fry and cooking; however, this attitude has changed because people recognized that fats contain cholesterol and it is very harmful. As a result of this, TAC has produced vegetable cooking oil, which is completely made from beans and it is very successful. Although TAC is leading cooking oil industry, there are many obstacles and challenges that the TAC has to recover to maintain this position. To elaborate, an appearance of a number of foreign brands in cooking oil in Vietnam leads to the competitive market share for TAC. Cooking oil is a fundamental ingredient in almost every meal. The consumption for cooking oil is, therefore, increasing as the food industry develops. Understanding the need for healthy cooking oil with good quality and an affordable price, Tuong An cooking oil is a good choice for consumers. However, the extreme competitiveness resulting from high demand for cooking oil causes not few difficulties for Tuong An Corporation and Tuong An cooking oil particularly. Although Tuong An cooking oil market share is high, it gains not much profit out of the total revenue. The purpose of this marketing plan is to analyse the current business and position of the company, its strategies, drawbacks and opportunities through their consuming products figure. Hence, many new strategies are made to improve their strengths and help the company widen their brand effectively. To clarify those things, some recommendations will be given in order to lead Tuong An towards the best oil cooking oil brand in its area. II. Situation Analysis 1. Company description Vocarimex, which is Vietnam Vegetable Oils Industry Corporation, is a state-owned company and was established in 1992. Presently, Vocarimex is operating under the form of Parent – Subsidiary Company. Vocarimex hold more than 90 percent of the market share for vegetable oils and their products have been exported to China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Korea, Japan and Middle East countries. Tuong An Vegetable Oil, Tan Binh Vegetable Oil, Vegetable Oil Extraction and Vegatable Oil Trading joint stock company are under controlled as subsidiaries of Vocarimex. Tuong An Vegetable Oil was establish in 1997. It was renamed Tuong An Vegetable Oil Joint Stock Company in 2004 which is one of the leading companies in Food and Foodstuff Industry in Vietnam. TAC (Tuong An Corporation) specializes in manufacturing, trading, importing and exporting products processed from vegetable and animal oils, fats, oilseeds, spices used for food industry, sauces and instant food products. Tuong An products have been presented widely in Vietnam through a distribution network including over 200 distributors and agents, 100 industrial customers and 400 supermarkets, restaurants, cafes, schools, kindergartens and all over 64 cities and provinces nationwide. Their products also have been exported to many countries in the world such as Japan, Middle East, Hongkong, the Philippines and Taiwain. TAC mission is to improve product quality to bring nutrition and health for life. Since its establishment, the company received many awards such as Vietnam Gold Star, Vietnam's top brands, Vietnam Favorite Brands and Vietnam High Quality Goods. 2. Product description Tuong An Cooking oil has been one of the most common cooking oil brands for Vietnamese people for several years. There are three major product collections including Cooking Oil For Frying with four brand names: Cooking, Ngon, Van Tho and Olita. The second collection is Nutritional Cooking Oil which is designed for children use, with 2 brand names Vioextra and Season. The last one named Cooking Oil which is made from plants such as peanut, soya, sesame. The aim of these products is to improve community health while keeping the taste of Vietnamese traditional cuisine. With the statement “Good oil, good food”, Tuong An understands the rigorous requirements of Vietnamese dining, so the company has been trying to invest money in new technology as well as to combine with Vietnamese traditional cooking knows. Also, Tuong An products are well-known for the healthy cooking oil. The main features of Tuong An cooking oil are the products without cholesterol and keeping the necessary Vitamins such as Vitamin A, Vitamin E for the cooked food.

Bottle Sizes | Image | Price (VND) | Bottle Sizes | Image | Price (VND) | 100ml | | 6.000 | 250ml | | 12.000 | 400ml | | 15.000 | 1l | | 37.000 | 2l | | 65.000 | 5l | | 170.000 | III. Marketing Environment 1. Micro-environment 2.1. Company * Top management: CEO position of TAC is changed every 3 years. At this time, Mr Ha Binh Son was elected to be Tuong An’s CEO from the beginning of 2012 to the end of 2014. * Finance: Charter capital of TAC accounts for 189.802.000.000 VND (approximately US$ 9 million). In addition, the shareholder structure is divided into three different categories, which are state property, property abroad and others. State property occupies the highest percentage (about 51%), which means its parents companies’ finance is nearly US$ 4.5 million. * Research & Development: Tuong An has a talented team in terms of R&D. To illustrate, it account for 26% in the market share of vegetable oil industry in Vietnam in 2009 (BaoViet, 2012). Additionally, Tuong An receives a lot of awards such as Vietnam High Quality Goods, Vietnam Gold Star, Vietnam’s top brands and Vietnam Favorite Brands. * Manufacturing: After 30 years of continuous construction and development, Tuong An has established three factories which locate in Ho Chi Minh City, Vinh City and Ba Ria – Vung Tau province. Additionally, the company has two more affiliates in the North and the Middle of Vietnam. 2.2. Suppliers Fuel supplier for Tuong An Vegetable Oil companies is most of agricultural households family such as soybeans, sesame, Pheng beans ... to meet quality criteria of health products. In addition, TAC has built two factories to provide ingredients like oil olein, soybean oil and refined oil. However, the company has to imports more oilseed from other countries because there are no many oil crop in Vietnam recently. In fact, oil industry has to import materials about 90% and there is an gradual increase by 12.6% on average in Vietnam‘s oil imports from 2000 to 2008 (Vietnam News, 2009). 2.3. Marketing intermediaries * Resellers: Tuong An cooking oil's products are available in many whole salers and retailers such as supermarkets (Big C, Coop Mart, Maximark, Lotte Mart, New Chợ), local markets, groceries stores and 24-hour shops. The product distribution network of the company includes over 200 distributors and agents, 400 supermarkets throughout 64 provinces across the country (Tuong An 2008). * Physical distribution firms: The company has 4 representative offices in many big cities across Vienam such as Ha Noi, Hung Yen, Da Nang and Can Tho that makes trading business conveniently in transporting and reach to many customers in remote areas easily (Tuong An 2013). Also, Tuong An has their own system in transporting items by recruiting drivers and porters its self. Thus, the company can lower a significant amount of transportation fee and minimum the risk of damaging products when transiting products. * Financial intermediaries: Tuong An’s main financial mediaries is Baker Tilly A&C - Auditing and Consulting Company (Tuong An 2011). This companies help Tuong An overcome many difficulties in their business easily. 2.4. Customers Customer markets: housewives. Adapted from Vinaresearch (2012) As research of Vinasearch, in 2012, there were 26% over 200 of housewives, who use Tuong An cooking oil in cooking dining at home. Tuong An cooking oil is the second favourite cooking oil brand for housewives (after Neptune). Moreover, there were 20% of women said that they were loyal to one cooking oil brand, and 55% of them said that Tuong An was the most reliable brand. - Business markets: restaurants and hotels. - Reseller markets: Tuong An is now available in more than 400 supermarkets around Vietnam such as Coop Mark, BigC, Citimart etc, as well as local markets, groceries stores and 24-hour shops. The product distribution network of the company includes over 200 distributors and agents, 400 supermarkets throughout 64 provinces across the country. The company also has their own counsellor in order to help the customers to find which is the best Tuong An cooking oil, which is suitable to their health or ages. - International markets: Tuong An set up some distribution agents at some countries has high demand such as Japan, Taiwan, China… with competitive quality. Furthermore, Tuong An is now joining to Eastern European and Middle East markets. 2.5. Competitors * Main competitors: Simply and Neptune The survey of 200 people with cooking and decided to major brands of oil that: Neptune and Tuong An are the two most popular brands of cooking oil for a total of awareness on 90 percent. The others are Simply and Meizan with the overall high recognition respectively 87.5% and 81.5%. Neptune and Simply crowd in Hanoi and early 1/3 of respondents in the survey said they use the brand Neptune in the variables of family meals. In the age group from 20 - 29 rather popular brands, Neptune has 39.0%. Up to 66% intend to switch to other brands of cooking oil purchases. In particular, near half of the respondents preferred select two brands Simply and Neptune. Thus, Simply and Neptune are strong competitors of Tuong An. * Market share: The charts below show the market share of vegetable oil in 2007 and 2009.

Adapted from Bao Viet Securities (2012)

It can be seen that Cai Lan group had the highest market share in both 2007 ( 39%) and 2009 ( 44%). The market share of Tuong An group occupied 31% in 2007 which decreased to 26% in 2009. The market shares of Golden Hope Nha Be, Tan Binh also decreased during 2007 and 2009. By contrast, there was an increase in the market share of other groups which produce vegetable oil. * Potential competitors: Knife and Sailing Boat Enjoyed by all since 1948, Knife Cooking Oil has been the household name for many generations in Singapore. Knife Oil produced and refined on an advanced technology lines. Knife is continuously magazine Reader's Diggest voted to award the "Super Brand" in Malaysia and Singapore. In addition, Knife Association International Enterprise Singapore chosen as ambassador to Singapore taste years 2007-2008 and awards products of the Institute of Food Science and Technology of Singapore (SIFST). Sailing Boat Pure Vegetable cooking oil is specially formulated to retain the dish flavor while providing health benefits. Oil Sailing Boat Lam Soon Group produced under the strict standards of safety and hygiene of Singapore. Lam Soon Group has established distribution network in the major cities in Vietnam such as: Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hai Phong ... Ultimately, with Lam Soon’s reputation as well as its product’s achievements, Lam Soon can be a strong competitor of Tuong An soon in cooking oil market. 2.6. Publics * Financial publics (Annual report 2011) Domestic Shareholders: * Up to 31/12/2011, VIETNAM VEGETABLE OILS INDUSTRY CORPORATION (VOCARIMEX) holds 51% of TAC stocks. VOCARIMEX is a governmental corporation. VOCARIMEX being the major shareholders means that TAC is highly controlled, which affects its flexibility in the changing environment. * Domestic shareholders (except for Vocarimex) hold 44.8% of the stocks. Foreign shareholders:

Adapted from Au viet (2009) Jaccar and Dragon Capital are the only foreign shareholders of TAC. Recently, they have almost stopped investing in TAC due to internal conflict ( see internal publics for further information). The proportion of these investors remains 4.2%. * Banks: TAC obtained a loan of 200 billion VND to buy raw materials from Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Investment and Development of Vietnam (BIDV) and another of 220 billion VND from Vietinbank. The interest rates are 2% and 3% per month, relatively. Because of increasing interest rate, TAC had to pay 41.9 billion VND in 2011; however, it was 18.3 billion VND in 2010. * Media publics Back to mid 2012, business newspapers such as and was flooded with rumor that Masan bought TAC, which made investors afraid of buying stocks from TAC (Vnexpress 2012). At the end, it turned out to be a bit of a fizzer; however, the rumor influenced TAC stock market significantly. * General publics: Bao Viet Stock Company, Au Viet Stock Company, for example, are interested parties of TAC. They and other stock companies released a lot of analysis of TAC situations to recommend the best way of investment for interested investors. * Internal publics In 2008, Nguyen Tuan Phuong Mai, the director of TAC, who had helped TAC gain record profit ever in 2007, was fired due to VOCARIMEX’s decision. The biggest shareholder of the company’s decision, VOCARIMEX, did not want to hire her any longer because Mrs.Nguyen always put the benefits of TAC the first goal. The core reason is the internal conflict about raw material suppliers between Mrs. Nguyen and VOCARIMEX. The director wanted to import raw materials for competitive price, while VOCARIMEX forced TAC to buy raw materials from them by assigning members of its director board in Purchasing Department. VOCARIMEX is also a raw material reseller; they want to be main beneficiary of the deal. So, TAC has to spend more budgets under VOCARIMEX’s policy, although TAC are able to import raw materials themselves. As a result of the conflict, Jaccar and Dragon Capital funds almost stopped investing in TAC stock, which is a massive disadvantage for TAC. 2. Macro-environment 3.7. Demographic forces * Population: Vietnam is one of the countries that have high population, which approximately 91 million people and ranked at 13 in the world (CIA,n.d). Furthermore, the population is estimated that it will increase and become bigger. To elaborate, according to CIA (n.d) the population growth rate in Vietnam in 2012 is 1.054%, which means the number of people in Vietnam will increase nearly 959,000 people annually. All of factors above illustrate that Vietnam is the large and potential consumption market. * Population Density: The population in urban has increased significantly over the past decade and urbanization rate increase about 3% every year (CIA,n.d). To illustrate, the number of citizens increased from around 22 to 27 million people between 2003 and 2011, which occupies approximately 30% Vietnam population. It is a good opportunities for businesses if they target to invest in cities because generally high population density can be as equal as high consumption rate.

Adapted from World Bank (n.d.) * Education: Vietnam has very high percentage of literacy rate, which means people above 15 that has the ability to read and write. In fact, it has increase by 2.9% from 2002 (94%) to 2010 (96.4%) (Worldbank,n.d). It illustrate that people today are more aware of healthy lifestyle and that can impact on purchasing behavior of consumers. 3.8. Economic forces According to the Figure 1 (see Appendix), there is a gradual decrease in GDP growth from 2000-2012. In 2012 the percentage of GDP growth rates in 2012 is 5.03%, which was the lowest of the period, while the GDP in 2007 has reached a peak at 8.46%. In fact, the decline of global trade and an increase in country inflation are the reasons why GDP in 2012 was lower. * Changes in income: Between 2008 and 2010, the income in urban and rural areas increased by 9.3% per annum. In general, the average income per person in 2010 at current prices of the region increased by 39,4% compared to 2008. To elaborate, the average monthly income in urban areas was 2,130,000 VND per capital while in rural areas reached 1,071,000 VND (Baomoi, 2011) * Changing consumer spending patterns: In this current time, the customer purchases product has changes result from the economic fluctuation. According to Nguyen Thanh Nhan (2012) sates that the customers are more considered on the prices of the products and they tend to buy convenience products, thus the customers prefer to buy the common brands instead of buying new brands. In addition, there is a different spending on different income levels. For example, the upper-class spends more money on health services and entertaining than others.

3.9. Natural forces Up to now, Tuong An has equipped a lot of modern and advanced production technology. Tuong An's oil is processed by the method of chemical combination with physical refining methods with modern production lines of many foreign companies such as Wurter & Sanger (U.S.), Thyssen Krupp (Germany ), Desmet (Belgium) (Tuong An 2013). Therefore, the environment is reserved to be clean and unpolluted. Moreover, according to Lookatvietnam 2009, “the biggest problem of the oil industry is heavy reliance on imported materials, with 90 percent of required materials needing to be imported”. There is the shortage of raw materials for oil industry. From 2000 to 2008, imports for Vietnam’s oil increased, while exports decreased at the same time (Lookatvietnam 2009). It is predicted that if this situation keep going on, Vietnam will have to import $1billion for bearing crop to make oil by 2015 (Lookatvietnam 2009). 3.10. Technological forces
Tuong An company has 3 factories fully equipped with a lot of advanced facility imported from Japan, the United States of America and EU countries with the production capacity of 350,000 tons each year. (Vietnam-Source, 2008)
- The company accesses to new technology each year, since 2000. Tuong An now invests on the PET machine from Japan, which does an automatic process to make 5000 oil bottle in an hour. Moreover, an automatic oil refining from Germany with the capacity of 45,000 tons per year.
- Tuong An edible oil purifying technology is subject to chemical purifying method up-to-date manufacturing lines of Wurter and Sanger (USA), Thyssen Krup (Germany), De Smet (Belgium). Comestible oil clarifying systems function constantly conducted and supervised by PLC operating system and Computer guarantying the best quality requirement of products and technical-economic efficiency. (Vietnam-Source, 2008)
- The company now has two contemporary hydrogenization lines. Shortening and Margarine are produced under technology of Votator (USA) which is famous around the world. In addition, they also provided with three automatic filling lines from Germany and Italy, one Japanese PET bottle automatic blowing line. 3.11. Political In 6th 2000, Tuong An Group is one of the first enterprises in Vietnam BVQI of the United Kingdom and Quacert- Viet Nam certified ISO 9001 version 2000. Applying and maintaining effectively quality management system according to international standard ISO 9001 version 2000 is the commitment of Tuong An for the increasing demand of customers and bringing satisfaction highest for consumers. The company has always been at the forefront of "product quality and food safety". To do this seriously, production processes and quality control procedures of refined edible oil of the company always respected from raw materials to the company until the product delivered to the customer. Annually recurring, the company will send the sample products, raw materials constitute or products involved in the process of creating products (such as packaging, manufacturing technology used in...) to the food laboratory of the Analytical Center to determine the index of food safety and examine the stability of the product characteristics. VSATTP (Ve Sinh An Toan Thuc Pham) is a standard which rate food or products if they are good for health or not for Vietnamese people in Vietnam. This is a trustable standard because was set by Vietnamese government. Since 1977, Tuong An group has had a positive reputation in manufacturing healthy, high quality products for Vietnamese people. Tuong An as well as Tuong An Cooking oil have never get any scandal about product quality or having unhealthy ingredient in their products before and VSATTP standard has been maintain till now. 3.12. Cultural forces: Eating out is a new trend in eating habits of Vietnamese, which is a direct result of busy work life in developing country. People are too busy to go home from work and cook the meals by themselves, they dine out or take fast food as a preference. Therefore, fast food stalls have mushroomed to meet the demands of the society. Fast food and out-prepared food are often fried food; it is clearly that people are consuming more oil. In particular, the estimate of per capita vegetable oil consumption increased from 7.6kg/person/year in 2009 to 8.2kg/person/year. Industrial Policy and Strategy Institute (IPSI) of Vietnam estimates that vegetable oil consumption per capita will reach 14.5kg/person/year. This opens many opportunities for TAC development in the near future IV. SWOT Analysis: Strengths | Weaknesses | - Tuong An Vegetable Oil Joint Stock Company was voted by consumers as one of 204 best products of Vietnam in 14 years continuously. (Thị trường Việt Nam 2009) - Products of the company has nearly 30 years in the domestic market, the consumer using trusted and voted for years that Vietnamese high quality and strong brand. - Tuong An Vegetable Oil Joint Stock Company was a pioneer in the oil industry that has always been interested in health and nutrition community by mobilizing people use vegetable oil instead of animal fat and studies launched products with added micronutrients. - Tuong An Vegetable Oil Joint Stock Company has advanced technology equipments: automatic oil refining line; extraction process auto oil bottles European technology standard. - Tuong An Vegetable Oil Joint Stock Company has qualified staffs with many years of experience. - Tuong An Vegetable Oil Joint Stock Company has received the prestigious award conferred by the State and consumers voted: Vietnam Gold Star Award 2007 and National Famous Brand in many years. - The company is also one of the pioneer companies in the construction of a quality management system according to ISO 9001: 2000, control food safety GMP - HACCP in the production process (Thị trường Việt Nam 2009). - The Phu My oil factory (Ba Ria - Vung Tau) was established on 29/07/2005. This is the third factory oil of Tuong An and is also one of thebiggest vegetable oil plant in Vietnam today that produces 600 tons per day and increases significantly the revenue and profit of the company. | - TAC is losing its market share. The market share of Tuong An group occupied 31% in 2007 which decreased to 26% in 2009. -New manufacturer (Phu My) is located in Ba Ria, Vung Tau. Launching Phu My costs TAC a lot of capital. -Logistics cost increases because TAC manufacturers are far from distribution centers and suppliers of packages. - TAC depends much on the holding company - VOCARIMEX with 51% of stocks. - VOCARIMEX is the only supplier for raw materials for TAC. - Besides, VOCARIMEX is the holding company of TAC’s competitors such as Tan Binh, Cai Lan, Golden Hope cooking oil. So, there should be serious conflicts of benefits and TAC’s business is not confidential. - Price conflicts between manufacturer and resellers. Tuong An company allows their resellers such as supermarkets to alternate the price to accordance with the markets. This leads to the disparities in price. Furthermore, because each reseller has different price of Tuong An Cooking oil, the head company cannot manage the overall while and it causes bad impression to the customers. | Opportunities | Threats | - The demand of using cooking oil is not affected by the crisis of economic and finance in the world. The cooking oil market is predicted to increase 12%-15% continuously until 2010 (Au Viet 2009). - In 2000-2010, the vegetable oil industry Vietnam has achieved an average annual growth rate of about 8.2% per year. However, the consumption per capita in Vietnam is still low. In particular, vegetable oil consumption per capita in Vietnam in 2010 only about 7.3 - 8.3 kg / person, lower than the recommendations of the Organization World Health Organization (around 13.5 kg / person / year). See appendix - Tuong An Oil Company is listed shares on the HCM City Stock Exchange so that the company image is becoming more well-known and this is the motivation to promote the company growth and raise capitals easily. - The awareness and GDP amount per capital in Vietnam are improved significantly so that people tend to use vegetable oil rather than animal fat (Au Viet 2009). - According to the project of developing vegetable oil industry in Vietnam (by the Ministry of Industry), in 2010 and 2012, the amount of oil consuming will increase more than 1.5 and 2.4 in respectively (compared to 2005) (Au Viet 2009). | - TAC is dependent on imported raw materials and raw materials cost determines most of the product cost. Therefore, if the price of raw materials is not stable in the world market, the price of TAC products should be affected directly. As a result, the company performance will not be as good as expectations. - VOCARIMEX owes other two competitors of TAC, which is a big threat to them, because it is possible that TAC’s market share switches to its competitors. If TAC’s competitors conquer the market share, only TAC performance is badly affected not VOCARIMEX. - Vegetable oil industry is growing much faster than the demands of the market. (see Figure 2) |

V. STP 1. Segmentation Geographic | Regions | Northern, Central and Southern Vietnam | Density | Urban, Suburban and Rural areas | Climate | Northern and Southern | Demographic | Gender | Both males and females | Income | Below 5 million VND, 5-10 Million VND, above 10 million VND | Age | 18 - 60 | Psychographic | Social Class | lower lowers, upper lowers, working class, middle class, upper middles, lower uppers, upper uppers | Behavioral | Benefit sought | Convenience, affordability, medium quality | User status | Regular users and potential users | Loyalty status | Medium, strong, absolute | 2. Targeting Tuong An is practicing undifferentiated marketing. As the company offers one product (Tuong An cooking oil) for the whole market. It is understandable because cooking oil is a daily-used product. People use cooking oil in almost every meal. Hospitality industry, schools, kindergartens, to name a few, are also consumers of cooking oil. So, the company has not targeted at any segments yet. In addition, Tuong An‘s marketing program and message are very general as “Good oil, good food”. Mass marketing strategy may save Tuong An a lot of cost of advertising, market researching; however, this strategy may not satisfy all the customers’ needs and wants. Moreover, it makes it much more difficult for Tuong An in fierce competition. 3. Differentiation (Competitive advantages) Product Differentiation: Tuong An have many types of bottle size such as 250ml, 500ml, 1l, 2l and 5l bottle in order to make it more suitable for customer's demand and convenient for use. Moreover, Tuong An's products are made by advanced technologies that ensures good quality and preserves the nutrition of the oil well. Services Differentiation: Tuong An has their own distribution and transport system to wholesalers and retailers to guarantee their delivery service fast, convenient and careful. Channel Differentiation: Tuong An's products can be found everywhere not only in small retailers such as local grocery stores but also in markets and supermarkets like Big C, Coop Mart and Metro. In addition, Tuong An has 4 representative offices in 4 big cities throughout Vienam that ensures their products can be found easily in remote areas (Tuong An 2013).

People Differentiation: Tuong An has good management and training strategies for their employees. Most of their staffs are qualified with higher high school degree and have a lot of working experience. Adapted from Tuong An 2011

Image Differentiation: People can easily recognize the logo of Tuong An with the image of an elephant and the brand name in red that stand out in the yellow theme which symbolizes the elegance and the color of oil. The red color shows company’s dynamic, youth enthusiasm, confidence, and desire to win. Overall, Product Differentiation and Channel Differentiation are 2 significant advantages that differs Tuong An cooking oil from other companies.
4. Positioning 4.1 Positioning maps Price |

Quality/ benefit |

As can be seen from the map, Tuong An Cooking oil, Neptune and Simply are three of the cooking oil brands which have high price in the market. The price of Neptune is 44,000 vnd for one-liter bottle, Simply is 45,000 vnd and Tuong An cooking oil is 37,000 vnd for bottle with the same category. Also, they have more benefits for customers’ health with less fat content than other brands such as Marvela, Cai Lan or Ong Tao. Tuong An cooking oil contains nearly 10g of fat per one full spoon, while Marvela, Cai Lan and Ong Tao cover 14g of fat each ration. Cooking Oil Brand Name | Price | Amount of fat (each ration) | Simple | 45,000 vnd | 2.5g | Neptune | 44,000 vnd | < 10g | Tuong An | 37,000 vnd | 10,5g | Marvela | 33,000 vnd | 14g | Cai Lan | 31,000 vnd | 14g | Ong Tao | 31,500 vnd | 14g |

Price |

Number of models

Tuong An cooking oil always has a lot of choices for their clients with 10 sizes of different bottles. Neptune and Simply come second with 7 different sizes. Other three cooking oil brands have 2 to 5 different sizes of bottles for each. Cooking Oil Brand Name | Price | Number of Models | Tuong An | 37,000 vnd | 10 | Neptune | 44,000 vnd | 7 | Simply | 45,000 vnd | 7 | Marvela | 33,000 vnd | 5 | Cai Lan | 31,000 vnd | 5 | Ong Tao | 30,500 vnd | 2 | 4.2 Value proposition Price for a bottle of Tuong An cooking oil is 37.000vnd/ 1 liter (Vat Gia, 2013). Comparing to Neptune 1:1:1 (44.100 vnd/ 1 liter) and Simply (45.000 vnd/ 1 liter), the positioning strategy of Tuong An is less for much less, because Neptune 1:1:1, and Simply have special ingredients which provide different nutrition but higher price for a product. For example, Neptune provide vitamin E, and oryzanol which Tuong An cooking oil cannot but Neptune charge higher price per unit of product ( Vat Gia, 2013). The positioning strategy of Tuong An compare to Meiza (38.000 vnd/ 1 liter), is same for same, the qualities of them are pretty much the same and so do the price. Overall, the 2 main competitors of Tuong An Cooking oil are Neptune 1:1:1 and Simply. Therefore, the value proposition of Tuong An to the whole market is less for much less. The benefit of the less for much less strategies is that Tuong An gives more competitive price than others which can target middle class and working class customers. However, the quality and customer satisfaction may be achieved less than competitors. 4.3 Positioning Statement To price-sensitive cooking oil consumers and business markets that always try reduce their expenses as much as possible on their household budget and for their production process, Tuong An provides you a type of cooking oil that is more affordable than other brands. VI. Marketing Mix Strategies 1. Product 1.1. Product classification Marketing consideration: As being frequently purchased, cooking oil is a convenient product and so does Tuong An cooking oil. Having a little planning to buy by consumers with not so much comparison or shopping effort, cooking oil has a low customer involvement. Price: As a convenient product, Tuong An cooking oil has low price comparing to other products in different lines. Distribution: Tuong An cooking oil are wide spread in Vietnam. Because of mass production, it can be found in most of the grocery stores, markets, supermarkets, convenient locations or malls all over the nation. Promotion: Tuong An groups has advertised their cooking oil nationwide. They had some advertisements on TV, on the internet (mass promotion). 1.2. Three levels of product 1.2.1 Core benefit: cooking oil used for frying, baking, salad dressings and sauces made 1.2.2 Actual benefit: Brand: Tuong An Cooking Oil is one of the favorite brands of the customer in cooking oil industry because it has a strong and good image on customers' mind. In fact, Tuong An occupied more than 90% in the awareness of brand names within cooking oil industry (vinaresearch, 2012). Quality level: Tuong An’s products are produced by advanced technologies and meet the standard of ISO. In addition, Vietnam High Quality Goods, Vietnam Gold Star and Vietnam's top brands are other awards that Tuong An has achieved (Tuongan, n.d) Packaging: Tuong An’s cooking oil is contained in glass, plastic and jumbo bottle in many different sizes that can meet the demand of different customers market such as consumer market and business markets like fast food industry. 1.2.3 Augmented benefit: Consumers can make contact with the company for futher question and information by email address and telephone. 1.3. Branding Strategy Tuong An group is well-known for oil, especially cooking oil. Tuong An cooking oil can be recognized in everywhere in Vietnam as a reputable cooking oil. Neptune and Tuong An are both easily oil identified by consumers in Vietnaml ( Neptume has 98% of overall recognition and Tuong An has 96%). Simply and Meizan followed with a high level of recognition of respectively 87.5% and 81.5% ( Vinasearch, 2012). Due to the reasons above, Tuong An chose to utilize multibrands and new brand strategy to position their products. 1.4 Branding Strategy
Tuong An group is well-known for oil, especially cooking oil. Tuong An cooking oil can be recognized in everywhere in Vietnam as a reputable cooking oil.
Neptune and Tuong An are both easily oil identified by consumers in Vietnaml (Neptune has 98% of overall recognition and Tuong An has 96%). Simply and Meizan followed with a high level of recognition of respectively 87.5% and 81.5% (Vinasearch, 2012).
Due to the reasons above, Tuong An chose to utilize multibrands and new brand strategy to position their products. 1.4.1Multibrands
Tuong An group owns a lot of brands, they use multibrands strategies, for instant, DauMe or Canola which are vegetable oils as well as Tuong An cooking oil (Tuong An, 2012). DauMe is a type of cooking oil which is made from sesame and Canola is made from broccoli. The advantage of the multibrands strategies is that Tuong An group provide more choice for customers as well as gaining profit from different groups of customer which is interested in different brands and different ingredients in the same line of cooking oils brand name. In contrast, this strategy may distract customers in choosing company’s products as well as make Tuong An group cannot focus on developing one main product. Tuong An may lose some opportunities in getting profit from main product which is Tuong An cooking oil and may waste money in developing other brands in the same product line. 1.4.2. New Brand Tuong An group also used new brand strategies like creating Margarine, a vegetable butter developed by Tuong An group. The good side of the new brand strategy is that Tuong An Group can target different markets by developing new products with new brands in new market, it can help Tuong An have more new customer in new markets. Nevertheless, there is a down side of this kind of strategy, Tuong An will have to spend a lot of outcome to develop new brands. Moreover, the risk of this action is high, Tuong An may lose a lot of money if their new brand is not be loved by customers. Most of the products of Tuong An group are getting more successful. The revenue getting from others products which is not Tuong An cooking oil was increased comparing 2009 to 2011 (BaoViet securities). 2. Price 2.1. Current price and the main competitors Price of Tuong An Cooking Oil, compared to competitors Size of Bottle Brand name | 400ml | 1l | 2l | 5l | Tuong An | 13,000 VND | 35,000 VND | 72,000 VND | 160,000 VND | Neptune | 18,500 VND | 44,000 VND | 88,000 VND | 212,000 VND | Simply | 19,000 VND | 45,000 VND | 80,000 VND | 219,000 VND |

Tuong An, Neptune, and Simply are the three cooking oil brands which have the highest market share in the market, although they also have the highest price (according to the positioning map). Tuong An always determine the affordable price to make up an incredibly efficient power. 2.2 Marketing penetration pricing/Competition pricing The company has had the marketing penetration pricing, with the low price at the beginning and producing their products with high quantity. Compared to the competitors, the price of cooking oil from Tuong An is lower than Neptune or Simply. * For cooking oil for frying such as Cooking, Ngon, Van Tho and Olita, the price is ¾ compared to other competitors. * For Nutritional Cooking Oil, which is used for children’s meal, with 2 brand names Vioextra and Season, the price of these products is ¼ lower than Neptune or Simply. 2.3 Other pricing strategies Tuong An cooking oil has many different prices depend on the bottle sizes with the average price for 1l is 37.000 VND 2.3.1. Product mix pricing strategies * Product line pricing: TAC offers various choices for customers. In the product line, price for Tuong An cooking oil is set depending on its special features. There are 4 kinds of cooking oil: Cooking Oil, Vạn Thọ Cooking Oil, Olita Cooking Oil and Ngon Cooking Oil. The pricing point per litter is different for each product line and depends on its features. Vạn Thọ cooking oil and Cooking Oil are made from olein oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil refining. Olita cooking oil and Ngon cooking oil are made from olein oil, refined soybean oil. A price for each type of cooking oil is different: Product Line | Features | Price per litter | Vạn Thọ cooking oil | A normal oil type that keeps Vitamin A and E stay longer in the oil | 35.000 VND | Tuong An Cooking Oil | Maintains the crisp and taste of the dishes | 37.000 VND | Olita cooking oil | Keeps Vitamin A and E stay longer in the oil | 36.000 VND | Ngon cooking oil | Remains maximum an amount of vitamin E in dishes | 34.000 VND | The advantage of this strategy is that customers can evaluate their different features and competitor’s price. Hence, customer has many options with different prices from low to high that relates to the quality of products. In the other hand, too many products in the same line will make customers confuse and TAC have to invest a lot of money in different product lines. 2.3.2. Price adjustment strategies The Pricing strategy that Tuong An is applying is Price- adjustment strategy; particularly, Tuong An is now focusing on Discount strategy. Tuong An has used 3 Discounts strategies which are Quantity discount, Functional discount and Seasonal discounts. * Quantity discount is a reduction price for customers who buy large volume of company’s products. For example, customers receive valuable gifts or discount 10% when buying 5 boxes of Tuong An’s cooking oil. This strategy somehow helps the company increase their market share effectively. * Functional discount (trade discount) is a discount for people that perform their functions such as record keeping, selling and storing. Tuong An’s resellers that get high volume of sales for a month always receive attractive discount price for the next purchasing Tuong An’s products. For example, Tuong An offers 25% discount for the best sellers in that month. Otherwise, each of their resellers (BigC, Coop mart, Citimart) gets 10% discount from the company for all manufacturers quarterly. 3. Place 3.1 Indirect channel Presently, Tuong An Group is using the indirect marketing channel for not only Tuong An cooking oil but also other Tuong An products. Tuong An distribute their products to resellers (mostly to supermarkets) like Big C, Coopmart, Maximart, groceries, some convenient store like Family Mart. Tuong An products can also be distributed to wholesalers like Metro. Tuong An group have not got any own store yet, they always distribute products to resellers and wholesalers. 3.2 Hybrid-marketing channels (Multichannel distribution systems) Tuong An Company now has applied hybrid-marketing channels (Multichannel distribution systems) to deliver its product to final customers. To illustrate, the definition of hybrid-marketing channels is a single company creates more than two marketing channels to reach one or more customer segments in order to increase the sale. According to Vietnamsoures (n.d), Tuong An sells their products widely in Vietnam through three main channels. Firstly, they deliver products to distributors and sell them to dealers then final customers can buy products from dealers. Secondly, through retailers such as supermarkets final customers can get Tuong An products. Finally, the company delivers their products directly to final customers such as restaurants, schools and nursery schools. In fact, Tuong An distribute their product through 200 distributors and wholesalers, 100 customers in business market and 400 supermarkets, restaurants, schools and nursery schools (Vietnamsoures, n.d). 3.3 Number of intermediaries Tuong An has 2 types of intermediaries: manufacturer’s agencies and company sales force. The distribution network of Tuong An is more than 200 distributors and agents, 400 supermarkets to sell products throughout 64 provinces in the country. In addition, Tuong An has 4 representative offices in 4 big cities: Ha Noi, Hung Yen, Da Nang, Can Tho that ensures their products can be found easily in remote areas. Tuong An is using intensive distribution strategy and their products can be found everywhere not only in small retailers such as local grocery stores but also in markets and supermarkets. TAC use vertical distribution systems that maintain the good relationship with customers and retailers; also, they can take control easily about prices, services and promotions from retailers. 4. Promotion 4.1 Advertising One of the weaknesses of Tuong An Cooking Oil Company is that they don’t have much investment on advertising. Tuong An only has some reminder advertising on TV (HTV, VTV) and newspapers (Thanh Nien, Tuoi Tre, Nguoi Lao Dong…) in order to reminiscent the customers to about their products with the message: “Good cooking oil, delicious food” and “Good and pure cooking oil”. However, for some people, the advertisements as well as slogans are not impressive. Furthermore, almost Tuong An’s advertising usually have the same messages. 4.2 Sales promotion 4.2.1 Price packs: Using price packs tool can help the company keep the loyal customer and attract more consumers because the company provides lower price than usual. In fact, the customers tend to buy cheaper products with better quality because of high inflation in the economy. Therefore, TAC reduces the cost of its products for some customers and retailers like supermarket, Big C and Co-op Mart. 4.2.2 Sweepstakes and games: It has been 17 years since TAC joined in the program “Vietnamese use Vietnam product priority”. In order to increase the sale, the company has applied sales promotion tool such as sweepstakes and games which gives a chance to customers to win something value as an award such as the company’s other products or cash, and it requires customers to provide their personal information. In fact, the customer can get the awards through the form “lucky draw” or “lucky card”. The award including other products of Tuong An so they can also introduce more products to the customers as well as provide a trial or experience for them. 4.3 Personal selling Tuong An Group have a territorial sale force structure: Territorial sale force structure means that one or few salespeople are in charge a particular geographic area. Tuong An Group (2013) divide salespeople into provinces, one or few sales will take a responsibility in one provinces. Salespeople will work in Tuong An head quarter in Ho Chi Minh city, they work with computers, website, information about the products sales sent from provinces and cities in Vietnam. For example, one salesperson will find the way to lower the sale expense, improve selling efficient and customer relationship in Nam Dinh, a province of Vietnam. In a big city like Ho Chi Minh, Tuong An Group assigns 3 or more salespeople to do the job more effective. Salespersons in each province or city have a responsibility to control sell activities of the company’s full line of products and services to all customers in that territory.

4.4 Public relations TAC is the company in Vietnam has applied one of the promotion tools is public relations (PR), especially in public affair aspect, in which TAC is very experienced and enthusiasm to build good relationship with local customers. In the early period after the company was established and until now, TAC has created various charity events to assist disadvantaged people widely in Vietnam. In fact, according to tuongan (2012) the numbers of TAC charity events in 2012 comprise: * Cooperating with HCMC University of Medicine and Pharmacy to providing free medical care in Tay Ninh province and giving more than free presents for disadvantage families in there. * Giving more than 500 free presents to assist disadvantage families in Binh Phuoc province could have a warm and happy Lunar New Year 2012. * Holding the event that visit and give presents to children in Tam Binh orphanage. 4.5 Direct / online marketing Tuong An is using Web-based catalogs which is one of Direct Marketing Tool. Their website is which includes fully information about prices, features of products, company’s hot line that helps customer save time to find and purchase their products. In addition, there are a lot of benefits of using Web-based catalogs. TAC can lower the cost of printing catalogs and introduce the large amount of products with their features. Furthermore, the company can add or remove their products’ information and update promotional news instantly. MARKETING OBJECTIVES Market share: As mentioned above, Tuong An is losing its market share in oil industry. Therefore, the primary purpose of this market plan is to help Tuong An Corporation gain back high market share. Market coverage: Get maximum market coverage throughout the country through distribution channels. Brand position: Positioning Tuong An brand in the consumer’s mind as a brand with high quality with a more affordable price compared to that of competitors. Business portfolio: Take advantage of the brand reputation to expand Tuong An business portfolio by developing new product. C. RECCOMMENDATIONS I. Marketing strategies 1. Target Market

Segment | Segment size and growth | Structural attractiveness | Middle class people in the South | This is the largest segment because Vietnam is in the development process, most people are from middle class. It is likely that the lower class people will become middle class, which contributes a large number of new customers. | _Tuong An brand is the most favourable brand in Ho Chi Minh and Southern regions._According to Vinaresearch, 44% consumers’ responses of their favourite cooking oil brand is Tuong An._Especially for housewives aged over 30, 55% of this group is loyal to one brand, Tuong An._Neptune and Simply cannot catch up with Tuong An. | Upper middle people in the North | It is likely that the middle class people will move towards to become upper middle class. The growth of this segment is very promising. | _There is fierce competition from Neptune and Simply._ However, 66% of consumers intend to switch to a new brand, which is a good opportunity for Tuong An | Fast food restaurant | Fast food industry seems to be growing steadily in the recent years due to busy lifestyle as today. Fast food has become a good solution to save time. | There is competition here. With the current low price, Tuong An will be a preference in fast food industry. |

1.1 Profile of target market

Segment | Geographic | Demographic | Psychographic | Behavior | Segment 1: Aged Housewives | In Ho Chi Minh city, Can Tho, Vung Tau and other areas. | _ Age: over 30 year-old
_ Income: less than 10 million VND per month | _Lifestyle: focus on value of the family, spending most of their time on playing, taking care of their family members and low price products _Middle class | _ User status: potential user, first time user, regular user._ Loyal status:, completely loyal_ Occasion: throughout the year, Tet, Summer, end of year. | Segment 2: Young customers | In urban and suburban: Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, and other Northern areas. | _ Age: 20-29 year-old_ Income: over 10 million VND per month | _Lifestyle: pay more attention to the quality of products; do not care about the price._Upper middle class | _ User status: potential user, first time user._ Loyal status: light users._ Occasion: Tet, Summer, end of year. | Segment 3:Fast food restaurants | Throughout the country | _ Industry: service_ Organization size: small, medium, large. | They care about the price of input as cooking oil to gain the most profit | _ User status: regular user._ Loyal status: completely loyal |

1.2. Targeting strategy
It is recommended that Tuong An practices differentiated marketing (segmented marketing)to reach their segments effectively. To elaborate, Tuong An uses a particular approach for each segment, which may result in high sales and strong brand position in the consumer’s mind. However, Tuong An might consider to put more budget in developing a particular strategy for every single segment. 2. Differentiation and positioning
2.1 Competitive advantages
Tuong An should pay more attention to develop their people differentiation and image differentiation to compete with their competitors. * People differentiation: Tuong An should enroll more qualified engineers, people with bachelor degree or higher that have skills, working experience to work and manage the company better. Otherwise, Tuong An can launch some scholarships in universities to attract excellent students to work for them afterwards. * Image differentiation: Tuong An should advertise their brand name by providing more promotion girls in supermarkets and local markets to introduce their quality products. Moreover, they could donate their money for charity by cooking free foods for poor people, or become sponsors for many cooking programs on TV.

2.2 Overall positioning strategy
Less for much less is the existing strategy that has applied by TAC because it provides product with less benefits with lower price when compare to its competitors. However, to make its products more competitive in the market in order to hold its high market share, Tuong An should transform its existing strategy to the same for less. To illustrate, Tuong An already has advantage equipment in their processing so the company can improve their quality as the same as its competitors at lower price.

2.3 Positioning statement
To young, knowledge and sensitive cooking oil housewives consumers who are educated about good health and price comparable, TAC provides them a product that has the same benefits which contains the same amount of essential unsaturated fatty acids in cooking oil compare to its competitors.

II. SWOT matrix

SO | WO | * Maintaining the positive reputation of Tuong An cooking oil as well as making this strength of the product more popular in the North, Hanoi and foreign countries (emphasizing the high quality, the achievement of VSATTP standard and the age of the company, 37 years). * Improving technology, updating new machines and infrastructures to amend work performance. * Investigating new market in other countries that are near the South of Vietnam. | * Advertising strongly though Northern channels on TV (channels which have a lot of Northern Vietnamese watch), northern newspapers. * Building new factories in the North of Vietnam. * Using internet, social networks ( facebook, twitter…) in order to target new segments or increasing consumers. * Improving higher quality, for instant, adding more vitamins or healthy ingredients in order compete with other Cooking oils. | ST | WT | * TAC has strong finance and good relationship with partners so they could recover the lack of material in producing process by connecting with suppliers. * TAC should apply market penetration which increase sale of existing product in the existing market to compete with other competitors within industry. To elaborate, * TAC should invest more money in improving the quality and advertising in order to maintain the high of market share. | * Diversify products to maximize the material resources so TAC does not have to depend on imported raw materials. * Evaluate the financial resource so that TAC can eliminate some fees which are not important and reduce the transportation cost. * Unify the price in the market so that the retailers and manufacturers cannot conflict and increase customers satisfied. * Negotiate with Vocarimex to create an independent in managing the company as well as protect the private company information. | Ill. Marketing Mix Strategies 1. Product
1.1 Existing product improvements
In order to maintain the high market share, TAC needs to make their products more competitive in the market in term of price and quality by concerning the main competitors’ product such as Nepture and Simply. To improve the quality of product in the best way and increase sales, TAC should add extra ingredients such as omega 3 and omega 6, which are already in Nepture and Simply cooking oil. In fact, these ingredients are very healthy because they can reduce risk of increase cholesterol in blood and other heart diseases, especially omega 3.
The products’ design is also very important and the company needs to change the shape of their bottles frequently for two main purposes. Firstly, it makes customers think that the quality of product is improved. Secondly, new shape design will attract customers’ view and they may tend to buy that product.
1.2 New products
To develop the brand and increase revenue, mayonnaise is an opportunity product for TAC because main ingredient includes oil and an emulsion of egg. In this current time, people are busy with their jobs to make a better living; it seems that they do not have enough time to prepare traditional meal. Therefore, they are looking for convenience food that contains enough nutrition. According to Whittemore (2012), mayonnaise provides vitamin A, B12, E, and K. In addition, mayonnaise can use for many kinds of food such as sandwiches and salads for family meals or parties. Thus, they tend to choice mayonnaise as a spice because it is convenience and fast.

Core benefit: * Providing necessary nutrition for people in their meals such as A, B12, E and K. * Making food more delicious * It is convenient and fast
Actual product: * Product quality: new product is made from good quality cooking oil and emulsion of fresh eggs. * Product design and image: The customers are strongly impressive by the design that is propitious and attractive. Thus, the company should design new product which attractive colors. * Packaging: there are many sizes of new product that the customers can choice such as 100g, 150g and 200g to meet the demand of different customers’ need. * Brand name: the name of new product is Tuong An mayonnaise because it is a brand extension of the company which is a spice like cooking oil.
Augmented product:
There are many services for the customers such as they can contact with the company if they have any questions. Moreover, the customers can get presents if they buy a large numbers of this new product. 2. Price : 2.1 Existing product:
Although the current pricing strategies of Tuong An are launched quite good, there should have some changes in Tuong An’s pricing strategies next year. Tuong An could apply those strategies for the next year. * Value- added pricing: Tuong An can increase their price for adding omega 3 and omega 6 into their cooking oil. Customer will think that it is a reasonable higher price as it has more quality nutrition.

* Discount and allowance pricing: * Cash discount: offer 5% discount for whom purchases over 200.000VND and 10% for over 700.000 VND. * Quantity discount: discount 5% for whom buys over 10 items. * Functional discount: offer lower prices for big retailers (Coop Mart, Big C, markets,…) in big cities such as Ho Chi Minh city, Ha Noi, Binh Duong, Hai Phong, Da Nang,... * Seasonal discount: offer discount price for Tet, summer, the end of year. * Customer segment pricing * Tuong An Cooking Oil should have more incentives for their longtime customers (such as Coop mart, BigC) than other newbie customers (New Market, convenience stores like Family Mart, Shop&Go). The more the customers cooperate with the company, the more profit they will gain. This also brings the huge income for both – the customers and the company. * Psychological pricing: * Tuong An can make customer think they perceive high quality products as the product’s high price. * Tuong An can write on 1litter, 2litters or 5litters (jumbo bottle) the amount of money that customers can save when they buy them in comparison with the 250ml bottle. Hence, customers will think that it is a cheap price and it will attract their buying power. * Another strategy that TAC can use is setting their price as 169.999 VND instead of 170.000 VND for a 5 litter cooking oil bottle. Reducing a little amount of money like that will satisfy a lot of customers.

3.2. New product
New product pricing strategy:
The company should use market penetration pricing that the firm set up and sale their new product with the initial low price to get customers’ attention and gain their market share because Tuong An has more advantages than others competitors. To illustrate, the cost that they produce the new products may be lower than competitors because Tuong An is the manufacturing that produces cooking oil which is one of the main raw material of mayonnaise. Net Weigh | 100g | 150g | 200g | Tuong An Mayonnaise(Price) | 10,000 vnd | 14,500 vnd | 19,000 vnd |

Recommended retailed price
Product-mix pricing strategy:
Product bundle pricing: TAC could combine their existing and new product, which are cooking oil and mayonnaise at lower price (5% discount in total amount). For example, Tuong An could sell a bundle of 1 liter cooking oil and 100g mayonnaise at 44,500 vnd rather at 47,000vnd. As a result of this, not only TAC could increase their sale because of the discount but also the customers could have a chance to try and may get use to TAC new product.
Price-adjustment strategies:
Discount and allowance pricing: Tuong An should offer different discount for customers that buy different large amount of products. For example, * Quantity discount: B to C, if customers buy more than 1 kilogram of mayonnaise they could receive 5% discount and 3% for whom buy below that amount. * Functional discount: B to B, if customers buy more than 5 kilograms they could receive 8% discount and 10% for whom buy over 5 kilograms. 3. Place 3.1 What are your recommended distribution systems for the next year
Multichannel is the existing and effective distribution system that Tuong An has applied to deliver their cooking oil product and this system should be remained. To illustrate, Tuong An Cooking Oil is a convenience and undifferentiated product; therefore, it needs as much as coverage of the market as possible. By using different channels, the firm can target many different customer segments. However, TAC needs to put a lot of efforts in controlling their many different channels to ensure that there are no conflicts between the producer, wholesalers and retailers by force them sell the products at the fixed price.

3.2. Number of intermediaries for next year? Who are they? Segment 1 | Housewives from lower and middle class aged over 30 in Ho Chi Minh and Southern regions, who are price-sensitive | Segment 2 | Young consumers (20-29) from upper middle class in Ha Noi and Northern areas | Segment 3 | Fast Food restaurant throughout the country |
For more details, refer to section 1. Target Market

- Intermediaries for consumer segment 1 and 2:
We target to low, medium and high income customers; therefore, we will sell our products to grocery stores, markets or supermarkets in order to cover the shelf space in the market and increase the brand awareness for customers. For many Southern areas where the brand recognition is high, we should maintain the business activities with more promotion activities to attract new customers and satisfy our loyal customers. For Northern areas, we should advertise our brand and sell our products in small grocery stores, markets and supermarket in big cities such as Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Vinh. Northern customers care a lot about the quality of products; hence, providing information about the product’s quality is very important to compete with other existing cooking oil brands.
- Intermediaries for business segment 3:
We will sell our products to many fast food stores such as Pizza hut, KFC, Lotteria, other restaurants and food stores in all over Vietnam. We will set amazing discount prices for buying large quantity so that they can buy our products with low price and achieve fully the good quality of Tuong An’s oil. 4. Promotion
Push and Pull strategy:
- Push strategy: TAC can use this strategy for B2B market; they can increase the sales by cooperating with many channel members such as Coop Mart, Big C, Maximark and other retailers. Those retailers can make advertisements, brochures or adding promotion sales with discount programs to attract customers attention and increase Tuong An cooking oil’s sales. For example, TAC can negotiate with Coopmart for a better shelf space where customers pass by the most.
- Pull strategy: TAC can use this strategy for B2C market; the company should create a marketing development department in order to persuade and motivate customers to buy their products. For instance, TAC can give customer sample products in the market, make more advertising on TV or on billboard at crossroad so that customers will demand it from retailers.

4.1 Advertising * Objectives:
EXISTING PRODUCT * Persuasive advertising: Tuong An Cooking Oil should create some persuasive advertising to persuade their customers (especially housewives) to believe in their products which is good for health. * Comparative advertising: Tuong An Cooking Oil should have some comparative advertising with their competitors (Neptune, Simple…) to make sure that their products bring more benefits than the competitors’.
NEW PRODUCT * Informative advertising: The new product, Tuong An Mayonnaise can be appeared on Shopping Channel (SCJ) to make the customers and viewers know more about them. * Message Strategy: * Creative concept for existing products: Apart from taking care of their customers’ health, Tuong An Cooking Oil also contributes to keep the necessary nutrients of food. Cooking with Tuong An’s products not only makes the cuisine more delicious (like the slogan “Good cooking oil, delicious food), but also makes the food healthy for the society. * Message Execution:
EXISTING PRODUCT * Testimotional evidence: The company should invite some of their loyal clients to talk about what they think after using Tuong An Cooking Oil’s products. The marketing directors of Tuong An company need to know what their customers like about the products and this can be reminded in the products’ advertising. * Expert endorsement: The company should invite the most well-known dietitian Nguyen Thi Dieu Thao (Ms Dieu Thao) to talk about Tuong An Cooking Oil. She is also an incredible chef, who has been the special guests of many TV cooking shows, such as “Mon ngon moi ngay” (Daily cuisine) on HTV7, “Gioi tre vao bep” (Young people in the kitchen) on HTV3, “O nha chu nhat” (Sunday at home) on VTV3, “Vao bep cung nguoi noi tieng” (Cooking with celebrities) on VTV1…
NEW PRODUCT * Lifestyle: Advertisement for Tuong An Mayonnaise. The advertising features a kid who did not like to eat vegetable at first (like almost children). Then his mom decided to buy the new product of Tuong An, Tuong An Mayonnaise at the first time she saw it at the supermarket. Afterward, her son enjoys eating vegetable with Tuong An Mayonnaise. * Scientific evidence: The company should show the nutrition, ingredients of Tuong An Mayonnaise to persuade the customers to buy their product. Moreover, the company has to show that why the clients should prefer buying their products to other brands.

* * Media Types and Media Vehicles: Media Types | Media Vehicles | Television Commercial (TVC) | EXISTING PRODUCT * To increase the number of clients, television is the good channel for the advertising due to the fact that many people (especially housewives) prefer watching TV to reading newspaper, and they can be influenced by the advertisements on TV. * TVC should be broadcasted at 6pm (time of dinner) or 8pm (relaxing time after a day) when almost people watching TV. TVC should be shown at cooking guide shows or cooking contests break. * Furthermore, Tuong An Cooking Oil can be one of the sponsors for some cooking shows on TV to make viewers remember their products. | * Mon ngon moi ngay (Daily cuisine) on HTV7 * Kham pha am thuc Viet Nam cung Martin Yan (Taste of Vietnam) on HTV9 * Gioi tre vao bep (Young people in the kitchen) on HTV3 * Suc song moi (New life) on VTV3 * Iron Chef Vietnam on VTV3 * Masterchef Vietnam on VTV3 * SCJ TV (only for Tuong An Mayonnaise) | NEW PRODUCT * Tuong An Mayonnaise should have the own informative advertisements on TV so that the customers can update the new product in details. * TVC can be broadcasted at the same time as the existing product. After the advertising of Tuong An Cooking Oil, it will be the advertising of Tuong An Mayonnaise. * The advertising on TV should feature children or kids (lifestyle advertising messafe) in order to make the young viewers enjoy their product. | * | There are more than 10 million people all around Vietnam who listen to the radio. It is not a bad idea for Tuong An Cooking Oil to advertise their products on the radio (especially some radio shows for women). | * VOV Traffic and Music (99,1 MHz) * VOV News (99,9 MHz) * XoneFM (104,5 MHz) | Print Ads | EXISTING PRODUCT Print Ads should be shown on magazines or newspapers with high reputation in Vietnam. Their ads should be appeared on magazines or newspapers which are targeted on women. | * The gioi phu nu (Women’s world) * Sai Gon tiep thi (Marketing in Saigon) * Tiep thi va gia dinh (Marketing and Family) | NEW PRODUCTThe pictures of Tuong An Mayonnaise will be appeared on the cooking recipes on magazine. Take for example, there will be the picture of Tuong An in the cooking salad recipe. | * | Internet | Banners or Pop-up Ads on the internet. The ads should be published on websites which are well-known for women or websites about cooking. | * * * * * | Media Types | Media Vehicles | Television Commercial (TVC) | * To increase the number of clients, television is the good channel for the advertising due to the fact that many people (especially housewives) prefer watching TV to reading newspaper, and they can be influenced by the advertisements on TV. * TVC should be broadcasted at 6pm (time of dinner) or 8pm (relaxing time after a day) when almost people watching TV. TVC should be shown at cooking guide shows or cooking contests break. * Furthermore, Tuong An Cooking Oil can be one of the sponsors for some cooking shows on TV to make viewers remember their products. | * Mon ngon moi ngay (Daily cuisine) on HTV7 * Kham pha am thuc Viet Nam cung Martin Yan (Taste of Vietnam) on HTV9 * Gioi tre vao bep (Young people in the kitchen) on HTV3 * Suc song moi (New life) on VTV3 * Iron Chef Vietnam on VTV3 * Masterchef Vietnam on VTV3 | Radio | There are more than 10 million people all around Vietnam who listen to the radio. It is not a bad idea for Tuong An Cooking Oil to advertise their products on the radio (especially some radio shows for women). | * VOV Traffic and Music (99,1 MHz) * VOV News (99,9 MHz) * XoneFM (104,5 MHz) | Print Ads | Print Ads should be shown on magazines or newspapers with high reputation in Vietnam. Their ads should be appeared on magazines or newspapers which are targeted on women. | * The gioi phu nu (Women’s world) * Sai Gon tiep thi (Marketing in Saigon) * Tiep thi va gia dinh (Marketing and Family) | Internet | Banners or Pop-up Ads on the internet. The ads should be published on websites which are well-known for women or websites about cooking. | * * * * * |

4.2 Personal selling
According to Tuong An (2013), mostly the territorial salespeople are working in Tuong An head quarter in Ho Chi Minh. However, people who actually sell their products is the one who work in supermarkets, groceries…, the information and feedbacks of consumers about the products may be reduced. In order get more information and build a better customer relationship, Tuong An should hire some face- to- face salespeople in each province and city. In addition, Tuong An should give territorial salespeople in Ho Chi Minh city a tour to their provinces and cities that they are in charge. The salesperson can collect full feedbacks or impression of the customers about the product so Tuong An can have better marketing strategies base on customer’s feedbacks and recommendation.

4.3 Sales promotion:
4.3.1 Existing product: * Point of purchase: TAC should set up a food stall in Co-op mart, Big C and Metro. To illustrate, salesperson of the company Tuong An cooking oil to fry to prove that TAC products are quality and color of food is beautiful. This tool can attract more customers and increases in believes of them. * Advertising specialties: When the customers buy TAC products, they should be received useful gifts that present the company’s logo or message. For example, if the customers buy the product over 100,000 VND, they will receive a T-shirt that present the elephant icon of the company. * Patronage rewards: TAC should provide VIP cards for the loyal customers, which result in increasing customer satisfaction and relationships. The VIP cards can help the consumers get more benefits like receive the presents from the company’s celebration, or buy more products with lower price than usual.

4.3.2 New product

* Point- Of- Purchase: Tuong An Group can also set displays or demonstrations in some supermarkets such as Big C and Coopmart or big malls to attract customers as well as raise customers awareness and promote products. * Sample: it is important for the firm to get feedback and reaction of customers on their new product introduction and it is a good solution that the firm provides to customers a small trial amount of new product. For example, during the introduction Point- Of- Purchase Tuong An should add a stall that produce salad with their mayonnaise in order to provide to customers a trial of Tuong An mayonnaise. As a result of this, TAC could measure the new product success by research on the number of sale.

4.4 Direct Marketing * Online Marketing: Website
Official website of Tuong An is, which helps the company to sell and advertise their products online. However, providing some more valuable information will strengthen the relationships with customers. For instance, we can open a survey about the satisfaction for the quality and prices of our products online and provide cooking tips, promotion news that are favored by parents
• How to deep fry food?
• Steps for healthy frying
• How to make fried food healthier?
Website is a useful and convenient tool for customers to choose and refer product’s information online. Using social network such as Facebook is also a good way to wide spread our reach to new customers. Otherwise, using Facebook is good for targeting young generation customers.

* Catalogues
Catalogues will cover products’ features, instructions and prices so that customers can make comparison and purchase the products. Catalogs should have product’s images, visually attractive and the TAC’s hot line and branch addresses. Catalogs should be free distributed in every grocery stores, markets and supermarkets.

* Direct Mail * B2C
Direct mail is a good strategy to maintain and develop the relationship between the producer and its customers. Those emails should be sent to loyal customers and who buy a large scale of TAC’s products. Also, sending email that covers new information and upcoming programs shows TAC’s carefulness to its customers’ value.

* B2B * Existing business market: Mails should be sent frequently to our current business customers in order to provide new promotion news and product’s information. Also, this is a useful way to maintain many long-term relationships. * Potential business market: Mails should be sent to our potential or new business customers such as fast food stores, restaurants, and kindergartens. Those emails should include information of promotion with discount price for new members and create TAC’s VIP card. Hence, it will attract them to cooperate and buying TAC’s products in terms of receiving mutual benefits.

4.5 Public Relation * Special events: * Holding a recycling event by setting up a “Do good things get reward” campaign lasted for 4 months that customers give back to the company the empty bottles for them to encourage them to classify waste as well as make customers get use to with Tuong An’s products. For example, the customers could receive the reward such as raincoat, T-shirt or umbrella when they give back 10 empty bottles through agents. * Sponsoring for teaching cooking programs on the televisions such as “Mon Ngon Moi Ngay” and “Kham Pha Am Thuc Viet Nam”. To illustrate, this program usually attracts homemaker’s viewers so through these programs Tuong An could advertise their products as raw materials in producing food. In addition, Tuong An should funds competition cooking programs such as “Gioi Tre Vao Bep” which attracts young people between 20 and 30 years old participate in. As a result of this, the name and the image of Tuong An could penetrate to customers’ mind quickly and effectively.

* Public services activities:
Reminding people about charity activities of Tuong An through advertising. To elaborate, although Tuong An has funded and participated in many charities, not many people are aware of that. Therefore, TAC should create a statement such as “when you buy one products of Tuong An you donate 1000 Vnd for orphans and indigent families in rural areas widely country” on their advertising on TV as well as updating on Facebook pages. In addition, it is a good idea that if this advertising is on TV at 6 to 8 pm because traditionally Vietnamese families usually sit together and watch TV programs. * Social networking
We should control TAC Facebook page effectively. To illustrate, having someone associate with customers by updating information about charity activities that has done by Tuong An and respond to customers’ messages in order to build good image brand name to customers. As a result of this, the relationship between customers and company could improve and become closer. * Media Publics:
Beside televisions and social networking such as Facebook, newspapers and magazines also has significant impact on Tuong An’s ability to achieve in PR’s objectives. Therefore, Tuong An should send their press release which has done and upcoming events, promotions and programs to local media such as Marketing and Family, The Women’s World, Tuoi Tre and Thanh Nien.
IV. Control TASK | RESPONSIBILITY | TIME | PRODUCT | Product improvement | MD/ITD/ R&D | * Monthly survey * Monthly report about current product | Produce and test new products | PD/HRD/ITD/R&D | * Weekly customer survey * Weekly meeting * Monthly report | PLACE | New store | AD/HRD/MD | * Monthly meeting * Monthly Report | Corporation (Coop Mart, Big C, Maximark) | SD | * Weekly meeting * Monthly Sales report | PRICE | Price adjustment | SMD | * Weekly Sales report * Weekly meeting * Monthly report | PROMOTION | Advertising | MD | * Monthly Report * Twice a month Meeting * Monthly sales report * Monthly customer survey | Public relation | MD/IT | * Weekly meeting * Monthly report | Sales Promotion | MD | * Twice a month meeting |

V. Action Program Task | Note | Department | 2013 | 2014 | | | | Month | | | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | Promotion | | | | | | | | | | | | | | TV Advertising | HTV7, HTV9, HTV3, VTV3 | Marketing, Public Relation, IT, Advertising Division | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | Radio | VOV Traffic and Music, VOV News, XoneFm | | X | X | X | | | | | | X | X | X | X | Print Ads | The gioiphu nu (Women’s world), Tiepthivagiadinh (Marketing and Family), SaiGontiepthi (Marketing in Saigon) | | | | | | X | X | X | X | | | | | Banners/Pop-up ads on Internet | | | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | Direct Marketing (website, catalogues, direct mail) | , Facebook | PR, Marketing | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | Personal Selling | A trip to the provinces or cities which salespeople in charge | Marketing | | X | | | | X | | | X | | | | Price | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Promotional Pricing | | Marketing, advertising, division | | | X | X | X | X | | | X | X | X | | Sales promotion | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Point of purchase | | Designer Marketing | | X | X | X | X | | | | X | X | | | Advertising specialties | | PR,Marketing | X | | | X | X | | X | | X | X | | | Price pack | | | X | X | X | | | X | X | | | X | | X | Sample | | | X | X | X | X | | | | X | X | | | | Patronage rewards | VIP cards | | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | Public Relations | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Media Publics | TuoiTre, ThanhNien, The Women’s World and Marketing and Family | PR, Marketing | X | X | X | X | X | | | | X | X | X | X | Special Events | Sponsoring for competition and teaching cooking programs | | | X | X | X | X | | | | | X | X | X | | “Do good things get reward” | | | | | | X | X | X | X | | | | |

Figure 1

Adapted from VIR (2013)
Figure 2

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...Marketing MKT 421 Marketing According to “American Marketing Association” (2013), “Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customer, clients, partners, and society at large.” The American Marketing Society has grown to be the largest marketing associations in the world. The members work, teach, and study in the field of marketing across the globe. Another definition of marketing is according to “ Investors” (2013), “Marketing is an activity. Marketing activities and strategies result in making products available that satisfy customers while making profits for the companies that offer those products.” Organizations success lies in marketing and it is the heart of the success. The marketing introduces a product or service to potential customers. An organization can offer the best service or product in the industry but the potential customers would not know about it without marketing. Sales could crash and organizations may close without marketing. For a business to succeed the product or service that is provided needs to be known to the potential buyers. Getting the word out is important part of marketing in any organizational success. Product or service awareness is created by marketing strategies. If marketing is not used the potential customers will never be aware of the organizational offerings and the organization will not have the opportunity to succeed...

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...chapter 1 Marketing’s Role in the Global Economy When You Finish This Chapter, You Should 1. Know what marketing is and why you should learn about it. 2. Understand the difference between micro-marketing and macro-marketing. 3. Know why and how macromarketing systems develop. 4. Understand why marketing is crucial to economic development and our global economy. 5. Know why marketing special— ists—including middlemen and — facilitators—develop. 6. Know the marketing functions and who performs them. 7. Understand the important new terms (shown in red). www.mhhe. When it’s time to roll out of bed in the morning, does your General Electric alarm wake you with a buzzer—or by playing your favorite radio station? Is the station playing rock, classical, or country music—or perhaps a Red Cross ad asking you to contribute blood? Will you slip into your Levi’s jeans, your shirt from L. L. Bean, and your Reeboks, or does the day call for your Brooks Brothers interviewing suit? Will breakfast be Lender’s Bagels with cream cheese or Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes—made with grain from America’s heartland—or some extra large eggs and Oscar Mayer bacon cooked in a Panasonic microwave oven imported from Japan? Will you drink decaffeinated Maxwell House coffee—grown in Colombia—or some Tang instant juice? Will you eat at home or is this a day to meet a friend at the Marriott-run cafeteria—where you’ll pay someone else to serve your breakfast? After breakfast, will you head off to school...

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...Abstract In the world of today with rude competition everywhere, customers’ expectations have become higher than ever. It is not the customers who come towards the products but it is the products which should make their way to the customers. And for this, only competitive businesses that are able to stimulate customers’ interests survive in the market. Therefore firms need to increase customers’ awareness about their products or services to be able to pull and encourage them to engage in purchase of their products. And as such, the promotional mix used by a company is really important for this task. The promotional mix in itself is very broad, consisting of various tools, like advertising, personal selling, direct marketing, public relation and sales promotion. To make the optimum use of these tools, marketers usually select them, depending on their budget and objectives, as well as the sector in which they operate (Kotler & Armstrong 1997). As such, research has been conducted on the use of promotional mix and research questions and objectives have been set. The methodology which will be used has been devised. We shall be doing a descriptive study through a survey questionnaire, in which there will be open as well as close ended questions and the questionnaire will be administered through personal interview that is direct, face-to-face. The sample size will be 100 persons and will all be customers of J Kalachand & Co Ltd. After the research, we will be...

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...Marketing is the process of communicating the value of a product or service to customers, for the purpose of selling that product or service. Marketing can be looked at as an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, delivering and communicating value to customers, and customer relationship management that also benefits the organization. Marketing is the science of choosing target markets through market analysis and market segmentation, as well as understanding consumer behavior and providing superior customer value. From a societal point of view, marketing is the link between a society’s material requirements and its economic patterns of response. Marketing satisfies these needs and wants through exchange processes and building long term relationships. Organizations may choose to operate a business under five competing concepts: the production concept, the product concept, the selling concept, the marketing concept, and the holistic marketing concept.[1] The four components of holistic marketing are relationship marketing, internal marketing, integrated marketing, and socially responsive marketing. The set of engagements necessary for successful marketing management includes capturing marketing insights, connecting with customers, building strong brands, shaping the market offerings, delivering and communicating value, creating long-term growth, and developing marketing strategies and plans.[2] Marketing may be defined in several ways, depending on...

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...oriented philosophy is so important. The phrase market-oriented is used in marketing conversations as an adjective describing a company with a marketing orientation. Market orientation more describes the company's approach to doing business. Market-oriented defines the company itself. If a company is market-oriented, its board and executive leadership believe that the best way to succeed is to prioritize the marketplace above products. This usually goes over well with customers, but the company also must have adequate research and development to provide what the market wants. Hence, a market-oriented organization is one whose actions are consistent with the marketing concept. Difference Between Marketing Orientation & Market Oriented by Neil Kokemuller, Demand Media Marketing is a management process and management support for marketing concept is very important element in success. If a company wants to be successful then it is market oriented. Marketing involves identifying the customer requirements and estimate the customer requirements in future. It requires planning which is very important process of marketing. To satisfy the needs the business should provide benefits – offering right marketing at right time at right place. Generally market based companies adopt strategic level marketing that defines the mission and long term objectives of the company. Market oriented...

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...Assessment: MKC1 Market Environmental Variables Reading: Contemporary Marketing: Chapter 3 Questions: 1. How would you categorize Generation X using the five segments of the marketing environment? A: Competitive Environment B: Political-legal environment C: Economic environment D: Technological environment E: Social-cultural environment 2. Joe and Ryan both have storefronts in the local mall. Joe sells candies and Ryan sells pretzels. Are Joe and Ryan in direct competition with each other? A: Yes B: No Consumer Behavior and Marketing Reading: Contemporary Marketing: Chapter 5 Questions: 1. Rachel and Sarah’s parents always purchased groceries from the local Aldi marketplace. What is this type of behavior an example of? A: Cultural influences B: Social Influences C: Personal factors 2. Maryanne purchases Maxwell House coffee every two weeks from the grocery. What is this type of behavior an example of? A: Routinized Problem Solving B: Limited problem solving C: Extended problem solving 3. Aaron does research on several local colleges before applying to his first three choices. This is an example of: A: High – involvement purchase decision B: Low – involvement purchase decision Marketing Plans Reading: Contemporary Marketing: Chapter 2 + Ch. 2 Appendix Web sites: Questions: 1. Strategies are designed to meet objectives...

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