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Marksmanship

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TRAINING SUPPORT PACKAGE (TSP)

TSP Number / Title|805-W-0053 / Advanced Rifle Marksmanship 4 (Reflexive Fire - Day & Night)|
Effective Date |01 Aug 2009 |
Supersedes TSP(s) / Lesson(s) |This Training Support Package (TSP) supersedes all previous versions of this TSP.|
TSP Users |All units conducting Warrior Transition Course. |
Proponent |The proponent for this document is the U.S. Army Basic Combat Training Center of Excellence. |
Improvement Comments |Users are invited to send comments and suggested improvements on DA Form 2028, Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms. Completed forms, or equivalent response, will be mailed or attached to electronic e-mail and transmitted to: Director Basic Combat Training Doctrine and Training Development ATTN: Drill Sergeant Proponent USATC&FJ 4325 Jackson Blvd Fort Jackson, SC 29207- Telephone (Comm): (803) 751-6511 Telephone (DSN): 734-6511 e-mail: james.walthes@jackson.army.mil|
Security Clearance / Access | Unclassified |
Foreign Disclosure Restrictions|FD6. This product/publication has been reviewed by the product developers in coordination with the US Infantry School foreign disclosure authority. This product is releasable to students from foreign countries on a case-by-case basis.|

PrefacePREFACE

Purpose|This Training Support Package provides the instructor with a standardized lesson plan for presenting instruction for:| |Task Number Task Title Individual 071-311-2007 Engage Targets with an M16-Series Rifle|

This TSP
Contains

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE
Preface 2
Lesson Section I Administrative Data 3
Section II Introduction 3
Terminal Learning Objective - Conduct Reflexive Fire Marksmanship with the M68 and AN/PAQ-4 3
Section III Presentation 3
Enabling Learning Objective A - Engage Targets with the M16/M4 Series Rifle, Utilizing the Reflexive Fire Technique - Live Fire 3
Enabling Learning Objective B - Engage Targets with the AN/PAQ-4 Utilizing the Reflexive Fire Technique - Live Fire 3
Section IV Summary 3
Section V Student Evaluation 3
Appendix A - Viewgraph Masters (N/A) A - 3
Appendix B - Test(s) and Test Solution(s) (N/A) B - 3
Appendix C - Practical Exercises and Solutions (N/A) C - 3
Appendix D - Student Handouts (N/A) D - 3

Advanced Rifle Marksmanship 4 (Reflexive Fire - Day and Night)
WT071053 / Version 5
01 Aug 2009
Lesson Section I Administrative DataSECTION I. ADMINISTRATIVE DATA
All Courses Including This Lesson| Course Number Version Course Title 750-AT 5 Warrior Transition Course|
Task(s)Taught(*) or Supported|Task Number Task Title Individual071-311-2007 (*) Engage Targets with an M16-Series Rifle|
Reinforced Task(s)| Task Number Task Title 071-311-2007 Engage Targets with an M16-Series Rifle 071-311-2025 Maintain an M16-Series Rifle 071-311-2026 Perform a Function Check on an M16-Series Rifle 071-311-2027 Load an M16-Series Rifle 071-311-2028 Unload an M16-Series Rifle 071-311-2029 Correct Malfunctions of an M16-Series Rifle|
Academic Hours|The academic hours required to teach this lesson are as follows: Resident Hours/Methods 10 mins / Conference / Discussion 0 hrs / Practical Exercise (Hands-on) 7 hrs 40 mins / Practical Exercise (Performance) Test 0 hrs Test Review 0 hrs Total Hours: 8 hrs |
Test Lesson Number| Hours Lesson No. Testing (to include test review) N/A |
Prerequisite Lesson(s)| Lesson Number Lesson Title WT071041 BRM 1 (Basic Rifle Marksmanship) WT071042 BRM 2 (Marksmanship Fundamentals I) WT071043 BRM 3 (Marksmanship Fundamentals II - EST 2000) WT071044 BRM 4 (Grouping Procedures) WT071045 BRM 5 (Zero an M16/M4 Series Rifle) WT071046 BRM 6 (Simulated Field Fire I - EST 2000) WT071047 BRM 7 (Field Fire II) WT071048 BRM 8 (Practice Record Fire I) WT071049 BRM 9 (Practice Record Fire II) WT071050 BRM 10 (Qualify with Individual Assigned Weapon) WT071051 ARM 1 (Introduction to Quick Fire and Borelight Procedures - EST 2000) WT071052 Advanced Rifle Marksmanship 2 (Zero the M68 CCO and AN/PEQ-2 or AN/PAQ-4)|
Clearance Access|Security Level: UnclassifiedRequirements: There are no clearance or access requirements for the lesson.|
Foreign Disclosure Restrictions|FD6. This product/publication has been reviewed by the product developers in coordination with the US Infantry School foreign disclosure authority. This product is releasable to students from foreign countries on a case-by-case basis.|
References|Number|Title|Date|Additional Information|
|FM 3-22.9|Rifle Marksmanship M16A1, M16A2/3, M16A4, and M4 Carbine |24 Apr 2003||
|FM 5-19|Composite Risk Management|03 Jul 2006||
|TM 9-1005-319-10|Operator's Manual w/Components List for Rifle, 5.56-mm, M16A2 w/Equipment|01 Aug 1986||
Student Study Assignments|STP 21-1-SMCT, Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks, Warrior Skills Level 1, pages 3-307 thru 3-312; 3-545 thru 3-546; and 3-575 thru 3-576 (depending on weapon system and sight).|
Instructor Requirements| a. 1 - Tower Operator b. 1 - Range OIC c. 1 - Range Safety Officer d. 1 - Medical Support Qualified Personnel (per post SOP) e. 1 - Drill Sergeant/Cadre for every 5 firing points Day f. 1 - Drill Sergeant/Cadre for every 1 firing point Night Time|
Additional Support|Name|Stu Ratio|Qty|Man Hours|
Personnel Requirements|Additional Instructors and/or Drill Sergeants (Enlisted)|3:12|8| 8 hrs 20 mins|
|Ammunition NCO (Enlisted)|1:200|1| 8 hrs 20 mins|
|Medic (Enlisted)|1:200|1| 8 hrs 20 mins|
|NCOIC (Enlisted)|1:200|1| 8 hrs 20 mins|
|OIC (Enlisted)|1:200|1| 8 hrs 20 mins|
|Range Safety Officer (Enlisted)|1:200|1| 8 hrs 20 mins|
Equipment Required|IdName|Stu Ratio|Instr Ratio|Spt|Qty|Exp| for Instruction|1005-00-921-5004Magazine Cartridge 30 RD 5.56mm|7:1||No|0|No|
|1005-01-424-2999Cleaning Kit, Gun|1:1||No|0|Yes|
|1005-01-452-3527Modular Weapon Sys Kit (M16 Rails) - M4 Rail Adapter|1:1||No|0|No|
|1240-01-411-1265Sight, Reflex|1:1||No|0|No|
|2320-01-107-7155TRUCK UTILITY: CARGO/TROOP CARRIER 1-1/4 ton 4x4 W/E (HMMWV)|1:200||Yes|0|No|
|2330-00-141-8049TRAILER TANK: WATER 400 GALLON 1-1/|1:200||Yes|0|No|
|4110-01-485-3626Chest, Ice Storage|1:50||Yes|0|No|
|4933-01-506-5630Borelight System, Laser|1:2||No|0|No|
|5305-00-151-2522Can, Water, 5 Gal|1:10||Yes|0|No|
|5820-01-017-3742Radio Set, Base Station|1:200||Yes|0|No|
|5820-01-243-4960Radio Set 10 Channel|1:25||Yes|0|No|
|5830-00-164-6622PUBLIC ADDRESS SET: AN/TIQ-2|1:200||Yes|0|No|
|5855-01-398-4315Infrared Aiming Light, NA/PAQ4C|1:1||No|0|No|
|5855-01-432-0524AN/PVS-14|1:1||No|0|No|
|6135-00-985-7845Battery, AA alkaline|2:1||Yes|0|Yes|
|6135-01-036-3495Battery Dry, BA5590/U|1:25||Yes|0|No|
|6150-00-200-3180FIELD DRESSING, FIRST AID|1:1||No|0|No|
|6515-01-363-4495Thermometer, Clinical, Human|1:50||Yes|0|No|
|6530-00-783-7510Litter, Nonrigid, Poleless|1:50||Yes|0|No|
|6530-01-260-1222RESC & TRANS SYS, PNT BASIC (SKED)|1:50||Yes|0|No|
|6665-01-103-8547WET GLOBE TEMPERATURE KIT|1:200||Yes|0|No|
|6920-00-071-4780Target, Silhouette|1:50||Yes|0|Yes|
|7210-00-081-1417Sheet, Bed|1:25||Yes|10|Yes|
|8470-01-465-1867Interceptor Body AR (LG)|1:1||No|0|No|
|8960-01-430-4378Ice|1:10||Yes|0|Yes|
|* Before Id indicates a TADSS|
Materials Required|Instructor Materials: a. Outcomes-Based Tri-Fold Training Aid b. This Training Support Package (TSP) c. FM 3-22.9 d. TM 9-1005-249-10 e. Equipment listed aboveStudent Materials: a. Outcomes-Based Tri-Fold Training Aid b. Individual M16/M4 Series Rifle c. 1 - set Hearing Protection per Soldier d. 1 - Cleaning kit per Soldier|
Classroom, Training Area, and Range Requirements|Basic 10m-25m Firing Range (zero)|
Ammunition Requirements|Id Name|Exp|Stu Ratio|Instr Ratio|Spt Qty|
|A080 - 5.56MM BLK F M16A1/A2|Yes|20:1||0|
|AA33 - 5.56MM BALL COMMER PACK, CTG|Yes|37:1||50|
||||||
Instructional Guidance|NOTE: Before presenting this lesson, instructors must thoroughly prepare by studying this lesson and identified reference material. a. Preliminary Marksmanship Instruction: As with all other forms of marksmanship training, PMI must be conducted to establish a firm foundation on which to build. Soldiers must be taught, and must understand, the fundamentals of Short Range Marksmanship (SRM). Blank fire drills are conducted to ensure a complete and through understanding of the fundamentals as well as to provide the trainers with valuable feedback as to the level of proficiency of each Soldier. It is important during this training to emphasize basic force protection issues such as muzzle awareness and selector switch manipulation. Soldiers must be drilled on these areas to ensure that future training and performance during combat situations is done in the safest manner possible. The risk of fratricide or noncombatant casualties is greatest during SRC. Preliminary marksmanship instruction should include, at a minimum, the following tasks. (1) Weapon Ready Positions and Firing Stance. Ensure that each Soldier understands and can properly carry his weapon. (2) Moving with a Weapon. Ensure that the Soldier can move at a walk and run and turn left, right, and to the rear as well as move from the standing to kneeling position and the kneeling back to the standing position. (3) Weapons Malfunction Drills. Ensure Soldiers instinctively drop to the kneeling position, clear a malfunction (using SPORTS), and continue to engage targets. This drill can be performed by issuing each Soldier a magazine loaded with six to eight rounds of blank ammunition with one expended blank round. (4) Target Engagement Drills. These drills teach Soldiers to move from the ready position to the firing stance, emphasizing speed and precision movements. Soldiers must be observed to ensure that the finger is outside the trigger well and that the selector switch remains on the “safe” position until the weapon is raised to the firing position. This is a force protection issue and must be drilled until all Soldiers can perform to standard. b. Organization for training - This period of instruction will be conducted in two phases. Phase I will be conducted for all Soldiers as a unit and presents the general information on the fundamentals and range procedures. During Phase II, the unit is organized into two groups (orders), maintaining platoon integrity. The first order will be the firer, the second order will be the coach.NOTE: If more than two orders are used, the third order will be on the ready line.OUTCOMES-BASED TRAINING GUIDANCE: The following Outcomes and Measures of Effectiveness can be evaluated in this lesson: 1. Is a proud team member possessing the character and commitment to live the Army Values and Warrior Ethos a. Desire and commitment to live by the Army Values (1) Able to articulate and live by the Army Values and give examples of real-life applications (2) Describes, defines, and embraces the Warrior Ethos as their personal Ethos (3) Shows the desire to be in the Army through statements and deeds b. Adherence to Army standards (1) Adopts and carries out policies and orders with pride c. Does the right thing consistently (1) Can follow basic instructions from Drill Sergeant / Soldier leaders (2) Can be counted on to be a good example for other Soldiers (3) Pays attention, follows instructions, and executes them well d. Motivated with a positive can-do attitude (1) Believes he can overcome anything with his buddies (2) Maintains optimistic attitudes e. Active team member and participant (1) Exhibits competitiveness to succeed and win individually and while serving as a member of a team (2) Assists others in team when challenged, is able to rally others to complete mission (3) Understands position in the team and as part of a larger organization f. Thinks as a ground combatant first (1) Exploits all opportunities through continual assessment 2. Is confident, adaptable, mentally agile, and accountable for own actions a. Responsible for own actions and understands implications on unit (1) Is accountable for their actions and understands consequences b. Constantly aware of surroundings and alert to potentially significant changes (1) Positively reacts to increased challenges and training complexity (2) Stays focused on surroundings with personal and team safety in mind 3. Is physically, mentally, spiritually, and emotionally ready to fight as a ground combatant a. Aggressive in Man-to-Man Contact (1) Thinks of themselves as a combatant during mission oriented training and dominates the enemy as it related during React to Man-to-Man Contact, pugil stick and bayonet training, and Advanced Rifle Marksmanship b. Successfully copes with stress (1) Is not anxious when handling a weapon 4. Is a master of critical combat skills and proficient in basic Soldier skills a. Engages and kills the enemy (1) Can load, fire, and unload (2) Is never separated from weapon; doesn’t misplace weapon (3) Is able to maintain, assemble/disassemble, and perform functions check of weapon (4) Can clear weapon without coaching (5) Shows an understanding of how to mount, bore sight, and utilize CCOs, NODs, and PAQ-4 b. Moves and fights as a member of a squad or element (1) With all weapons: - Constantly displays muzzle, selector level, and trigger-finger awareness avoiding potentially fratricidal situations - No negligent discharges - Correctly clears all weapons using universal 3-point procedure - Correctly moves between weapon statuses (green, amber, red) (2) Follows team leader’s direction and example (3) Shoots well-aimed and effective shots (4) Communicates effectively with other team members (5) Demonstrates understanding of principles of fire and movement c. Takes care of self, Family, and equipment (1) Conducts proper PCI/ PCC on personal equipment before every training event (2) Keeps equipment clean and request exchange when equipment is INOP (3) Maintains individually assigned equipment (weapons cleaning kit, weapon, LBV, eye protection) d. Functions appropriately as part of a larger organization and assimilates into the Army culture (1) Understands that the actions of an individual has ramifications for the entire organization and potentially the Army 5. Is self-disciplined, willing, and an adaptive thinker capable of solving problems commensurate with position and experience a. Willingly complies with all policies / orders and completes tasks without prompting (1) Follows all orders given to them by superiors (2) Understands and complies with policies b. Evaluates the situation and makes appropriate decisions (1) Dresses, hydrates, and modifies behaviors appropriate to the weather and mission, allowing him to continue performing (2) Soldier is attentive and takes notes during instruction c. Aggressively accomplishes every task (1) When given a task, there is no hesitation in execution (2) Never leaves post unless relieved by supervisor (3) Maintains a positive attitude and strives to accomplish mission|
||
Proponent Lesson Plan Approvals|NameFerreira, Jonathan SFC|RankSFC|PositionTraining Developer|Date|
|Ortiz, Fortunato|GS11|Training Specialist|01 Aug 2009|
|Walthes, James|YC-02 |Director, DTD|01 Aug 2009|
||

Section II Introduction SECTION II. INTRODUCTION Method of Instruction: Conference / Discussion Instructor to Student Ratio is: 1:50 Time of Instruction: 5 mins Media: Large Group Instruction
Motivator|Now that you know how to apply the fundamentals of basic rifle marksmanship, and have qualified with your combat weapon, you are ready to learn the fundamentals and techniques of the M16/M4 Series Rifle burst fire. Today you will be introduced to the next level of rifle marksmanship skills. All Soldiers must qualify on their individual weapon in the single fire mode. At some point you will have the need to use burst fire in combat; from suppression fire to marking targets. Today’s training will familiarize you into the next level of marksmanship skills.|
Terminal Learning Objective - Conduct Reflexive Fire Marksmanship with the M68 and AN/PAQ-4 Terminal Learning Objective|NOTE: Inform the students of the following Terminal Learning Objective requirements.At the completion of this lesson, you [the student] will:|
|Action:|Conduct Reflexive Fire Marksmanship with the M68 and AN/PAQ-4|
|Conditions:|Day, given an M16/M4 Series Rifle, Kevlar and LBE, on a live fire range with 3 E-Type silhouettes at 25 meters, two 10 round magazines loaded with blank ammunition, two 10 round magazines loaded with 5.56mm ball ammunition, conduct practice and live fire introduction to Reflexive Fire Marksmanship.NOTE: SEE WARNING STATEMENTS IN THE SAFETY PARAGRAPH OF SECTION II: INTRODUCTION |
|Standards:|Selectively engage targets at 25 meters with the M16/M4 Series Rifle using aimed reflexive fire technique of engagement, while maintaining positive control of the weapon, obtain 10 of 20 target hits placing the weapon on safe after each engagement. |
||
Safety Requirements|WARNING: SINCE THIS TRAINING INCLUDES BOTH DAY AND NIGHT BLANK/LIVE-FIRE TRAINING, ALL INSTRUCTORS AND RANGE CADRE MUST ENSURE INSTALLATION AND UNIT SOPs ARE FOLLOWED TO ENSURE BLANK ADAPTERS ARE NOT ON WEAPONS PRIOR TO CONDUCTING LIVE-FIRING.WARNING: SINCE THIS TRAINING INCLUDES BOTH BLANK AND LIVE-FIRE TRAINING, INSTRUCTORS AND RANGE CADRE MUST ENSURE INSTALLATION AND UNIT SOPs ARE FOLLOWED TO ENSURE BLANK AND BALL AMMUNITION ARE COMPLETELY SEPERATED TO ENSURE MIXING OF AMMUNITION DOES NOT OCCUR.NOTE: The safety briefing will include items particular to the local area and may be developed locally and annotated on the daily risk management worksheet in conjunction with the range risk management worksheet provided by the Installation.SAFETY BRIEFING EXAMPLE: a. Electrical Storms (when appropriate). Take precautions against anyone being hit by lightning. b. Snake Bites (when appropriate). The most common poisonous snakes to be found on this range are _________________. In training areas, they may be found in fighting positions and bunkers. Always observe an area very closely before training. c. Heat Casualties (when appropriate). When you are active in a hot climate with high humidity, the body becomes overheated. You may become a possible casualty from the heat as the body temperature rises above normal temperature. d. Cold Weather Injuries (when appropriate). Adequate dry clothing is the key to prevention of cold weather injuries. Supervisors at every level will ensure that their subordinates are adequately protected during cold weather. e. Weapons Handling Weapon muzzles must be pointed in the air and downrange at all times. During live-firing, all weapons must be presumed loaded and must, therefore, never be pointed at anyone or anything. Weapons must be loaded on command only. Before firing any exercise, the safety limits of the range must be pointed out and their purpose explained.CHAMBER SAFETY FLAG: The chamber safety flag is an L-shaped, solid piece of high-impact plastic with a whip like antenna that protrudes approximately 4 inches and is fabricated for the chamber of the M16/M4 Series Rifle. Once the Soldier has fired his last round, he removes the magazine, places his weapon on SAFE, inserts the chamber flag into the chamber, and releases the bolt. Instructors can then see at a glance the chamber flag protruding from the ejection port and know that no round is in the chamber. Although the safety and welfare of the Soldier are very important, valuable training time must be maximized. Range safety briefings should cover specific live-fire aspects and procedures. Unit cadre should accomplish special weapons checks, such as inspection of bolt carrier groups for correct assembly, before live-five training begins. The safety flag is acquired as a training aid number DVC-T 07-88.|
Risk Assessment Level|Medium - Potential Risk = MODERATE. Risk Assessment to be produced locally IAW FM 5-19, July 2006.|
Environmental Considerations|NOTE: It is the responsibility of all Soldiers and DA civilians to protect the environment from damage. a. Based on its commitment to environmental protection, the Army will conduct its operations in ways that minimize environmental impacts. The Army will— (1) Comply with all environmental laws and regulations. This includes federal, state, local, and Host Nation laws, some of which are outlined in TC 3-34.489, The Soldier and the Environment, 26 Oct 2001, Appendix B. (2) Prevent pollution at the source by reducing, reusing, and recycling material that causes pollution. (3) Conserve and preserve natural and cultural resources so that they will be available for present and future generations. b. Units and installations will prepare an environmental risk assessment using the before, during, and after checklist found in TC 3-24.489, Appendix A. The checklist should supplement local and state environmental regulations applicable to your area.|
Evaluation|Each Soldier engages the target IAW the firing table in this lesson and scores 17 hits day and night. For scoring purposes, a hit is a round that impacts within the "lethal zone." In addition to achieving a qualifying score, all 20 rounds must hit the E-type silhouette in order to qualify.|
Instructional Lead-In|Conduct a firing demonstration for Soldiers. Engage targets at each range. DO NOT MISS. Use a pre-zeroed rifle and an expert instructor who can, place a well aimed shot and hit targets at each range, and engage with two 3 round bursts. This exercise will gain Soldier attention.|

Section III PresentationSECTION III. PRESENTATION NOTE: Inform the students of the Enabling Learning Objective requirements. Enabling Learning Objective A - Engage Targets with the M16/M4 Series Rifle, Utilizing the Reflexive Fire Technique - Live Fire A. ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE
ACTION:|Engage Targets with the M16/M4 Series Rifle, Utilizing the Reflexive Fire Technique - Live Fire|
CONDITIONS:|Day, given an M16/M4 Series Rifle, on a live fire range or other site approved for use with 5.56mm blank ammunition, with 3 E-Type silhouettes presented at 25 meters, given one twenty round magazine loaded with blank ammunition, and with helmet and LCE.NOTE: SEE WARNING STATEMENTS IN THE SAFETY PARAGRAPH OF SECTION II: INTRODUCTION|
STANDARDS:|Each Soldier engages targets using target discrimination within the specified time limit, observing the lethal zone hit standard and ensuring all 20 rounds hit the E-Type silhouette with 17 in the lethal zone.|

1. Learning Step / Activity 1. Reflexive Fire Day Method of Instruction: Practical Exercise (Performance) Instructor to Student Ratio: 1:5 Time of Instruction: 3 hrs 45 mins Media: Equipment based instruction

a. Each Soldier will conduct a blank-fire exercise under the same conditions as the actual qualification. Each Soldier will have a safety to ensure that he is acquiring the target; that the weapon remains on safe until time to engage the target and is then placed back on safe; and that he maintains muzzle awareness throughout the exercise. If a Soldier is having difficulty during the blank-fire exercise, he will not continue with the qualification and will be retrained. Soldiers should conduct SRM qualification semiannually. In addition to qualification, commanders should conduct familiarization using the same qualification standards while altering the conditions. Firing the qualification tables in protective masks and during periods of limited visibility should be included. Soldiers should train as they fight-that is with all MTOE equipment. Although the qualification is intended to be fired with open sights only, iterations using laser aiming devices, close-combat optics (CCO), and NVDs is highly encouraged. Soldiers must complete a blank fire iteration of the qualification tables before conducting live-fire qualification.
NOTE: If the Soldiers will be engaging targets with either lasers, optics, or the protective mask, they should complete all steps using the same equipment. Do not have the Soldier's familiarization with iron sights and then fire the live exercise while wearing the protective mask. b. Each Soldier engages the target IAW the firing table and scores 17 hits in the lethal zone with all 20 rounds hitting the silhouette. For scoring purposes, a hit is a round that impacts within the "lethal zone" (see diagram below). In addition to achieving a qualifying score, all 20 rounds must hit the E-type silhouette in order to qualify.

POSITION|RNDS|DISTANCE|METHOD|TIME STANDARD|
Straight ahead|4|2x 25m|controlled pair|3 sec from command "UP'|
Straight ahead walking|4|2x 10m(begin at 15m)|controlled pair|3 sec from command "UP'|
Straight ahead walking|4|2x 5m(begin at 10m)|controlled pair|3 sec from command "UP'|
Straight ahead kneeling|4|2x 10m(begin at 15m)|controlled pair|3 sec from command "UP'|
Straight ahead|4|2x 25m|controlled pair|3 sec from command "UP'|

2. Learning Step / Activity 2. Concurrent Training: Target Discrimination Method of Instruction: Practical Exercise (Hands-on) Instructor to Student Ratio: 1:25 Time of Instruction: 0 hrs Media: Large Group Instruction

a. TARGET DISCRIMINATION TRAINING: Target discrimination is the act of distinguishing between threat and non-threat targets during SRC. During SRC, there is little or no margin for error. A shot at a noncombatant or friendly Soldier, or slow inaccurate shots can all be disastrous. Target discrimination is an inescapable responsibility and must be stressed in all situations regardless of mission. It is essential that this training be aimed at instilling fire control and discipline in individual Soldiers. The first priority is always the safety of the Soldier.

(1) Target Discrimination Targets. Target discrimination is best taught using two or more E-type silhouettes with bowling pins painted on each side of the silhouette (such as brown side and green side). The instructor calls out a color for the shooter to identify on the command “READY, UP” or at the “whistle blast.” The shooter quickly scans all targets for the color and engages using a controlled pair. This is the standard that all Soldiers train to. It will effectively train Soldiers to accomplish missions under the expected ROE. The OPFOR will wear distinctive uniforms during force-on-force training, which will prepare Soldiers to eliminate threats based on enemy uniforms and reduce the chances of a Soldier hesitating and becoming a casualty. Using realistic targets displaying threat and non-threat personnel is another variation.

(a) Alternative methods include using multiple E-type silhouettes with different painted shapes (squares, triangles, and circles). The instructor calls out a shape for the firers to identify. On the command “READY, UP,” or at a whistle blast, the shooters quickly scan all three targets searching for the shape and engage using the controlled pair technique. This is repeated until one shape is mastered. Subsequently, sequences of shapes are announced, and the firers engage accordingly.

(b) Another variation is to paint a series of 3-inch circles on the E-type silhouettes. The instructors call out which circle to engage (for example, top left) and firers react accordingly. Marksmanship is emphasized using this technique.

(c) Another technique for training is to use pop-up targets (electrical or pull targets).

(d) A good technique for teaching Soldiers target discrimination is to have them focus on the target’s hands. If a target is a threat, the first and most obvious indicator is a weapon in the target’s hands. This is also the center of the uniform, which Soldiers should focus on. The Soldier must mentally take a “flash picture” of the entire target because an armed target could possibly be a fellow Soldier or other friendly, which is why soldiers train on uniforms (green or brown silhouettes). This level of target discrimination should not be trained until Soldiers are thoroughly proficient in basic SRC and SRM tasks.

(2) Range Setup. The range must be at least 25 meters in length and each lane should be at least 5 meters wide. Each lane should have target holders and should be marked in a way that prevents cross firing between lanes. A coach/safety is assigned to each lane to observe and control the Soldier’s performance. The tower, lane safety, or senior instructor gives all firing commands.

(3) Conduct of Training. Each Soldier must complete a dry-fire exercise and a blank-fire exercise before moving on to the live-fire portion. (Table 7-3 will be used to score this exercise.) Regardless of the type of target used, the following method will be used to conduct training. The Soldier will begin all engagements facing away from the target, which requires the Soldier to identify and discriminate, and reinforces skills used during reflexive firing training. The Soldier will be given a target description and, on the command “READY,” begins to scan for the target. On cue (“Up,” voice command, or whistle blast), the Soldier will turn toward and engage the target.

(a) Instructors should vary commands and targets so that the Soldier does not fall into a pattern. Intermixing “no fire” commands will add to realism.

(b) A Soldier will be scored as a “NO GO” if he fails to engage a target or engages a target other than the one called for by the instructor. Soldiers will complete a blank fire validation on this task before live firing. Soldiers will also receive a “NO GO” if at any time their weapon is pointed at another Soldier or they fail to keep their weapon on safe before acquiring and engaging the targets. The first priority is always the safety of the Soldier.

(c) All Soldiers must receive a “GO” on this task before SRM qualification. Targets must be scored and marked after each firing distance.

NOTE: Initial training and sustainment training may be conducted by changing the uniform in the standards statement.

CHECK ON LEARNING: Conduct a check on learning and summarize the ELO. Enabling Learning Objective B - Engage Targets with the AN/PAQ-4 Utilizing the Reflexive Fire Technique - Live Fire B. ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE
ACTION:|Engage Targets with the AN/PAQ-4 Utilizing the Reflexive Fire Technique - Live Fire|
CONDITIONS:|Night, given an M16/M4 Series Rifle, on a live fire range or other site approved for use with 5.56mm blank ammunition, with 3 E-Type silhouettes presented at 25 meters, given one twenty round magazine loaded with blank ammunition, and with helmet and LCE.NOTE: SEE WARNING STATEMENTS IN THE SAFETY PARAGRAPH OF SECTION II: INTRODUCTION|
STANDARDS:|Each Soldier engages targets using target discrimination within the specified time limit, observing the lethal zone hit standard and ensuring 50% of the rounds hit the E-Type silhouette.|

1. Learning Step / Activity 1. Reflexive Fire with the AN/PAQ-4 Method of Instruction: Practical Exercise (Performance) Instructor to Student Ratio: 1:1 Time of Instruction: 3 hrs 45 mins Media: Equipment based instruction

a. Each Soldier will conduct a blank-fire exercise or dry fire exercise under the same conditions as the actual qualification. Each Soldier will have a coach to ensure that he is acquiring the target; that the weapon remains on safe until time to engage the target and is then placed back on safe; and that he maintains muzzle awareness throughout the exercise. If a Soldier is having difficulty during the blank-fire exercise, he will not continue with the qualification and will be retrained. Soldiers should conduct SRM qualification semiannually. In addition to qualification, commanders should conduct familiarization using the same qualification standards while altering the conditions. Firing the qualification tables in protective masks and during periods of limited visibility should be included. Soldiers should train as they fight-that is with all MTOE equipment. Although the qualification is intended to be fired with open sights only, iterations using laser aiming devices, close-combat optics (CCO), and NVDs is highly encouraged. Soldiers must complete a blank fire iteration of the qualification tables before conducting live-fire qualification.
NOTE: If the Soldiers will be engaging targets with either-lasers, optics, or the protective mask, they should complete all steps using the same equipment. Do not have the Soldier's familiarization with iron sights and then fire the live exercise while wearing the protective mask. b. Each Soldier engages the target IAW the firing table and scores 17 hits day and night. For scoring purposes, a hit is a round that impacts within the "lethal zone" (See figure below). In addition to achieving a qualifying score, all 20 rounds must hit the E-type silhouette in order to qualify.
POSITION|RNDS|DISTANCE|METHOD|TIME STANDARD|
Straight ahead|4|2x 25m|controlled pair|3 sec from command "UP'|
Straight ahead walking|4|2x 10m(begin at 15m)|controlled pair|3 sec from command "UP'|
Straight ahead walking|4|2x 5m(begin at 10m)|controlled pair|3 sec from command "UP'|
Straight ahead kneeling|4|2x 10m(begin at 15m)|controlled pair|3 sec from command "UP'|
Straight ahead|4|2x 25m|controlled pair|3 sec from command "UP'|

CHECK ON LEARNING: Conduct a check on learning and summarize the ELO.

Section IV Summary SECTION IV. SUMMARY Method of Instruction: Conference / Discussion Instructor to Student Ratio is: 1:50 Time of Instruction: 5 mins Media: Large Group Instruction
Check on Learning|Determine if the Soldiers have learned the material presented by soliciting Soldier questions and explanations. Ask the Soldiers questions and correct misunderstandings.|
Review / Summarize Lesson| a. During this lesson you were presented instruction on: (1) The advantages and disadvantages of Quick Fire (2) The use of controlled pairs (3) Magazine changing (4) Fire distribution (5) Practical ExerciseNOTE: Repeat the Terminal Learning Objective statement of this lesson.|

SECTION V. Section V Student Evaluation STUDENT EVALUATION
Testing Requirements|NOTE: Describe how the student must demonstrate accomplishment of the TLO. Refer student to the Student Evaluation Plan.|
|Student will be evaluated on his/her performance at engaging targets using controlled pairs and the Quick Fire technique.|
Feedback Requirements|NOTE: Feedback is essential to effective learning. Schedule and provide feedback on the evaluation and any information to help answer students' questions about the test. Provide remedial training as needed.|
|NOTE: Rapid, immediate feedback is essential to effective learning. Schedule and provide feedback on the evaluation and any information to help answer Soldier’s questions about the test. Provide remedial training as needed. a. Provide remedial training on site as needed. b. Establish concurrent station for re-enforcement training. c. Communicate to the Soldiers if they did or did not meet the established Outcomes for this lesson IAW Section 1, Instructional Guidance.|

Appendix A - Viewgraph Masters (N/A) A - Appendix A - Viewgraph Masters (N/A)

Appendix B - Test(s) and Test Solution(s) (N/A) B - Appendix B - Test(s) and Test Solution(s) (N/A)

Appendix C - Practical Exercises and Solutions (N/A) C - Appendix C - Practical Exercises and Solutions (N/A)

Appendix D - Student Handouts (N/A) D - Appendix D - Student Handouts (N/A)

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