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Mass Media Theory

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ABSTRACT This research analyses the content of programmes of the Nigerian broadcast media and how the National broadcast media has shifted the paradigm of broadcast progammes from the hands or control of the western world to indigenous and home made programme contensts, thereby promoting cultural and traditional values by creating local contents on programming for broadcast thus eliminating media imperialism the man focus was television. The research method is content analysis and the use of quantitative and qualitative methods and unobstructive observation in determining data and information to aid the study. Three televisions stations were analysed namely, Silverbird Television STV (private) Nigerian Television Authority NTA (government) and African Independent Television AIT (private). The results show that the Nigeria broadcast media have grown to be not in alienate cultural values instead destroy media imperialism by advancements in programming content which highly indigenous. The study was able to differenciate between the government owned stations and private owned and was able to deduce that the government is more indigenous in content than the private, that does not mean that the private are totally lacking behind. It recommends more efforts and indigenous programmes and contents, if recommends mere indigenous for children than foreign, and indigenous documentary that should be. Keywords: Programming contents, television, indigenous, local and foreign source.

INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND Television is an important medium of communication in the 21st century, if is used for several reasons including information, education entertainment and persuasion. Unlike other media structures, television has the advantage of utilizing vision for mass communication. Following the topic of study, which is programming contents of Nigerian Broadcast media towards and indigenizing parade on, it would be a piece-meal not to discuss what programme is all about. Programming remains a key instrument for attracting audience and determining the viability of a station. Television technology is developing rapidly and impacting diverse state of the population. TOWARDS INDIGENOUS PARADIGM In this study, analysis is being done to ascertain the level of indigenous embedment which television programmes adhere to. A programme is foreign if it is extracted from one of the foreign stations or has 94% of foreign contents that was not packaged by Nigerians or Nigeria. A local programme on the other hand is packaged by Nigerians, contains Nigerian elements and has Nigeria in it. We would be ascertaining through three television stations namely; Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) Silverbird Television (STV) and African Independent Television (AIT) This study is pertinent to aid individuals realize if the Nigerian broadcast industry is dealing into Westernization in the name of technological advancements and globalization, thus disproving the African/Nigerian tenets or the industry is alienating all forms of media imperialism from the western thus adhering to care African Local progammes. In another development, (Ezeh Nkiru 2014) posts that media exposure begins early in children and because its found in probably every of home, they spend time watching television everyday, and if adversely affects, them, n the light of foreign programming contents, what would be the fate of cultural dispositions in the nearest future. The thrusts the need for the study “programming contents of Nigeria Broadcast Media towards indigenous paradigm. STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS Programming and television is advancing and improvements are recorded everyday, but how many are home made?. The private owned stations, they rarely try to meet up of with the nations expectations or their personal interest, building programmes that are original i.e proudly Nigerian instead, they push the nation into the mercy of the westerners in terms of programmes. Finally, Nigeria is characterized by illiterates and low in came earners who feed from hand to mouth, which arises the question of how many homes can afford a television OBJECTIVIES OF STUDY The main objective of this study is to ascertain the level of embibement of local programme materials that the Nigerian broadcast industry adheres to, the study access case studies and their foreign contents, then to ascertain if media imperialism is creeping in or indigenous packages are the order of the day. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY * To identify the sources of programmes, * To state the level of foreign contents in relation to indigenous ones. * To compare the programming of private and pubic television station. RESEARCH QUESTION * DO Nigerian television stations reflect local materials in their programme content than foreign. * Which of the categories (PRIVATE & GOVT) reflect local materials more than the other.

THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK CULTURAL IMPERIALISM Explanation of Theory: Cultural Imperialism Theory states that Western nations dominate the media around the world which in return has a powerful effect on Third World Cultures by imposing n them Western views and therefore destroying their native cultures. Was propounded by theorists: Herb Schiller in the year 1973 Individual Interpretations: Western Civilization produces the majority of the media (film, news, comics, etc.) because they have the money to do so. The rest of the world purchases those productions because it is cheaper for them to do so rather than produce their own. Therefore, Third World countries are watching media filled with the Western world’s way of living, believing, and thinking. The third world cultures then start to want and do the same things in their countries and destroy their own culture. Cultural imperialism is defined as the cultural aspects of imperialism. Imperialism, here, is referring to the creation and maintenance of unequal relationships between civilizations favoring the more powerful civilization. Therefore, it can be defined as the practice of promoting and imposing a culture, usually of politically powerful nations over less potent societies. Television was Nigeria’s foremost medium of “cultural and media imperialism” but the recent trend in programming presents a PARADIGM shift as it’s now a transmit of indigenous items that are packaged by people with traditional knowledge. The development owes part or most of its success to the regulations of NBC. Its monitoring role of promoting Nigerian indigenous cultures, morals and community life. Such indigenous consciousness have improved the sector and reduced the unidirectional flow of information from the west to developing countries. The NBC’s input awakened the African consciousness limited foreign programmes promoted indigenization, with this repositioning, international broadcasting is affected as Africa, Nigeria specifically ceases to be the dumping ground of western Media content.

The paper examines the programming of Nigerian Television stations with core findings focused on the indigenizing mature of media contents. Media imperialism thesis has long argued that the expansion of Western media production into developing countries would result in the domination of national media environments and domination of indigenous media creation, but efforts by the Nigeria media today towards indigenous programme creation and contents enhancement forces like national gate keeping in the cloak of the NBC, National policies on media and local competition have contributed in restricted the proliferation of western cultural productions. Progamme contents of stations are partly influenced by ownership, government and audience generally there are differences in the programming of the studied media stations. These observations bung us to the main conclusion that with each studied station, the Nigeria broadcast media have a wide army of programs set out to inform, educate, acculturate, and entertain. Therefore recommendation, made should be: * More indigenous programmes should be integrated into the media. * Children programmes should be readdressed to point them to their cultural heritage. The media should not therefore be a channel of cultural extinction but enhancers of traditional values. Indigenous productions are visible steps towards redefining media and cultural imperialism in Nigeria and other sub Saharan African countries.

Nkiru C. Ezeh (2014). Media and society, Onitsha, E-MARTINS ED.
Nkechi Chkwuma (2011) Madonna Journal of Comm. Studies. Enugu, FORMARK
Folarin B (2005) Theories of Mass Communication, Ibadan, E- WATEB PRINT MEDIA.
Gebner, G, GROSS L, Morgan M, and Signoreilli N (1986) The main streaming of America. Violence Profile Journal of Communication no 11
Straubhaar J.D (2003) Beyond media imperialism, Assymetrical independence and cultural proximity, choosing national TV, cultural capital language and cultural proximity , Brazil, ELASMA (ED)’
Schiller.H(1976). Communication and cultural domination. New York, INERNATIONAL ARTS AND PRESS.
Krerbsk et al (2002) World Television, from global to local, Los Angeles, SAGE.

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