Premium Essay

Mathematical Dependent vs Independent Variables

In: Science

Submitted By cgomes90
Words 1140
Pages 5
Mathematics
In calculus, a function is a map whose action is specified on variables. Take x and y to be two variables. A function f may map x to some expression in x. Assigning gives a relation between y and x. If there is some relation specifying y in terms of x, then y is known as a dependent variable (and x is an independent variable).
Statistics
In a statistics experiment, the dependent variable is the event studied and expected to change whenever the independent variable is altered.[1]
Modelling
In mathematical modelling, the dependent variable is studied to see if and how much it varies as the independent variables vary. In the simple stochastic linear model the term is the i th value of the dependent variable and is i th value of the independent variable. The term is known as the "error" and contains the variability of the dependent variable not explained by the independent variable.
With multiple independent variables, the expression is: , where n is the number of independent variables.
Simulation
In simulation, the dependent variable is changed in response to changes in the independent variables.
Statistics Synonyms

Independent variable
An independent variable is also known as a "predictor variable", "regressor", "controlled variable", "manipulated variable", "explanatory variable", "exposure variable" (see reliability theory), "risk factor" (see medical statistics), "feature" (in machine learning and pattern recognition) or an "input variable."[2][3]
"Explanatory variable" is preferred by some authors over "independent variable" when the quantities treated as "independent variables" may not be statistically independent.[4][5]
Independent variable(s) may be of these kinds: continuous variable(s), binary/dichotomous variable(s), nominal categorical variable(s), ordinal categorical variable(s), among others.
Dependent variable
A dependent…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Correlation & Scatter Plots

...Correlations & Scatterplots Paper Introduction The purpose of this paper is to determine if there is a relationship between age and several different activities performed by respondents that participated in a survey conducted by the Statistics class of spring 2010 at the Community College of Philadelphia. Age was the dependent variable I chose. The ages of the respondents ranged from 13 to 80. The survey consisted of 329 respondents. The variables I chose to evaluate were: (1) Hours spent on the internet; (2) Hours spent watching television; (3) Hours spent talking on cell phones; (4) Number of cigarettes smoked daily. I chose each of the independent variables because I was curious to see if there would be a relationship between the dependent variable “age” and each of the independent variables. I suspect that age will play a major factor in each of the variables chosen. Using the Data Analysis Tool in Excel will help me determine if my speculations are correct or incorrect. Speculations I expect that the amount of time spent on the internet would decrease as the age increases. It seems to me; the younger you are the more reason you have to use the internet, for example: for school, for social sites, and just because it seems that this is what most young people do today. I would expect that the amount of time watching television would increase as age increases because younger people tend to spend more time with other activities such as sports as opposed to......

Words: 1597 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Research Paper Article Psych

...IQ And Mathematical Learning In the article Motivation, Not IQ, Matters Most for Learning New Math Skills, psychologists study math abilities and habits of thirty-five hundred German students from the fifth to tenth grade. Students’ mathematical abilities were evaluated each year using standardized testing. In addition to this students were given an IQ test and surveys that questioned about their attitudes toward math. As the title of this report suggests they found that IQ was not the main determining factor in how well the student’s math abilities grew. Instead IQ was found to be a predictor of initial math skill and studying and motivation where found to be predictors of growth in mathematical abilities. These findings came as a surprise to the researchers who predicted that intelligence measured by IQ would be a strong predictor of mathematical abilities. This article encompasses the main findings of the researchers into a summarization of their findings. This research in this study is credible and believable but the article leaves out some essential information about the findings that could strengthen or weaken the researcher’s argument and allow the reader to develop their own opinion. In this study the independent variable is the student’s IQ and the dependent variable is the student’s mathematical scores/abilities. IQ tests have long been used as a system to measure the intelligence of the testee. Standardized mathematical testing is an accurate method of......

Words: 1414 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Associative and Time Series Forecasting

...multiplied times values in order to incorporate seasonality. Associative Models Also known as “causal” models involve the identification of variables that can be used to predict another variable of interest. They are based on the assumption that the historical relationship between "dependent" and"independent" variables will remain valid in future and each independent variable is easy to predict. This form of analysis can take several months and is used for medium-term forecasts for products in their growth or maturity phase. The procedure for this model is to collect several periods of history relating to the independent and dependent variables themselves, establish the relationship that minimizes mean squared error of forecast vs actual using linear or non-linear and singular or multiple regression analysis. So you first predict the independent variable, then look at the established relationships between that independent variable and the dependent ones to predict what the dependent variables will be. You then develop an equation that summarizes the effects of predictor variables. To do this you will need aggregate data which is not always readily available and this model can be become overly complex the more factors are included as variables. Examples of the relationship between independent and dependent variables include: interest rates will impact on home loan applications, soil conditions will effect crop yields, location and size of land will effect......

Words: 1499 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Some Factors That Affect the Mathematical Ability of 2nd Year Ssc Students in Panabo National High School

...because of the difficulty of this subject. These methods should be introduced to the students to improve more in their Mathematical abilities. In PNHS, many students have difficulty in Mathematics, because in this subject it uses more analysis and understanding problems. Math is not easy for the Math teachers, because some students have no interests of this subject; because of its difficulty. Teachers must encourage the students to study this subject. If the students able to study this subject, there is a big possibility to pass or increase their grades. But if the duration of time spent for studying this lesson is not enough, the student’s achievement in their Mathematical ability will be decreased. So, studying is very important to the students. There are so many factors that can affect or cannot affect the Mathematical ability of a student. One factor is watching Television, because it can consume the time of a students for studying their lessons. Another factor is, having not enough allowance, because some students are not interested to go to school if their allowance is not enough. Another is Internet addiction, because they spent their time and money for this, that lead to addiction and the students have lack of interest in studying that will lead for them got low grades. In this study, we will know the factors that can or cannot affect the Mathematical ability of I-Universe and I-Galaxy. Statement of the Problem This study aimed to answer the following......

Words: 3162 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

The Perseverance of Inductive Inference

... Akerlof  nor  Schelling  is  willing  to   claim  that  their  respective  models  are  complete  theories.  Rather  than  this,  their   models  create  a  premise  for  other  economists  or  readers  to  interpret  their  own   theory.       Logical  Empiricism  vs.  Instrumentalism   Also  referred  to  as  logical  positivism,  logical  empiricism  was  a  philosophical   movement  considered  by  much  of  the  western  world  starting  around  the  1920s.  It  was     6   THE  PERSEVERANCE  OF  INDUCTIVE  INFERENCE         mainly  concerned  with  exactly  what  the  name  suggests;  logicism  and   Pascal  Peters   3960463   positism/empiricism.  The  former  refers  to  the  concept  that  logic  is  capable  putting   forward  definitions  for  primitive  mathematical  concepts.  The  latter  suggests  that   concrete  knowledge  can  only  be  achieved  from  learning  out  of  experience.   Instrumentalism  on  the  other  hand  follows  the  belief  that  a  theory  should  be  judged   based  on  their  predictive ......

Words: 5957 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Psych

...their memories become less fragile, they are able to understand that even when an object is taken out of their view, it still will continue to exist. 1c. Stranger anxiety begins when a child is 8 months of age, and is caused when a child sees a face they are not familiar with, causing anxiety and distress. Object permanence and stranger anxiety may develop in children both at 8 months due to the child being able to recognize when people or things are not in their view, they still continue to exist. As memory becomes stronger in infants they can distinguish adults they are familiar with and those that are “strangers.” 1d. Koleen McCrink and Karen Wynn believe that infants beginning as young as 5-months old can actually recognize simple mathematical scenarios. As they grow older, around the age of 9-months, they are able to also keep track of the difference between two numbers, recognize larger groups of things compared to smaller groups, as well as do small-scale addition and subtraction. Piaget believed that infant’s at 5 months of age did not have the cognitive development to process small scale addition and subtraction and that they did not understand object permanence until the age of 8-months. Habituation is a method that might be used to explore predictions of Piaget’s theory. 2a. Habituation occurs when an infant is presented something (sight, smell, etc.) for the first time, their response will be more intense than something they are used to and bored of seeing.......

Words: 1577 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Industrial Organizational Psych

...students; c) Research methods are often quickly forgotten; d) Several topics relevant to I/0 psychology may not have been covered in previous courses. After studying the material in this chapter the student should be able to: 1. Understand and describe the characteristics of a good research question. 2. Explain each of the major concepts of research design including: variables, setting, generalizability, control, confounding, random assignment, and random selection. 3. Explain what a research design is; Describe different types of research designs as well as list their advantages and disadvantages. 4. Define the basic concepts of measurement. 5. List and describe the types of reliability. 6. Discuss the different ways of assessing validity. 7. Define basic concepts of descriptive statistics. 8. Explain the difference between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. 9. Explain basic concepts in inferential statistics, especially statistical significance. 10. Report the nature and purpose of meta-analysis. 11. Explain what mediator and moderator variables are; explain the complex relationships they assess. 12. Understand the major principles of research ethics. TESTBANK Multiple Choice Questions 1. The foundation of both the science and practice sides of I/O psychology is a. Generalizability. b. Research. c. Training. d. Statistics. Answer: b Learning Objective: 1 Page: 23-24 2. Which......

Words: 4511 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Langley Lect. Notes

...proffs. May emphasize the behavioral perspect. In explaining & treating psycho disordersBehavioralism particuarlly effective against phobias. Present spider to subj. paired w/ positive stim.Eventually, see spider and cognate the positive stim. Humanistic, Maslow & RogersPersonal growth, interpersonal relationships, mental health field emphasisCROSS CULTURAL PERSP.Emerged in 1980sEmphasizes diversity of behavior across cultures and the fact that many earlier findings were not universalSocial loafing (given example) – 1 slacker will make all slackIMPORTANT CULTURAL TERMSEthnocentrism- Belief that one's own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others (DEFAULT)Individualistic Cultures- Emphasize the needs & goals of individals vs. group (USA)Collectivistic culture-Needs and goals of group over individual (Mexico, Japan)Culture refers to the attitude, values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of people AND **communicated from one generation to another.EVOLUTIONARY PERSPEC.Applies princip. Of exolution to explain psychological processesMost adaptive characteristics are perpetuated through natural selectionDavid Buss (2008) Än evolved psych. Mechanism exists in the form that is does because it solved a specific problem of survival or reproduction recurrently over evolutionary history”Human evolution v. Declopment of civilizationNot all psych. Are cliniciansPsychiatrist-Medical practicioner, M.D. (studied psych)P.h.D. Psych (NOT doctor, can get license to......

Words: 1027 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Business Research Res351

...In addition, enhancing the knowledge and skill of the artists, we can develop unique styles of tattooing to separate our shop from any competition within a limited radius. A tattoo shop will have to worry about many independent and dependent variables, which will interfere with day-to-day business operations. One independent variable that our business will incur is that of the square footage of the shop. If the company purchases a space too small, it will not allow the tattoo artist the adequate space to function properly and provide the customer with his/her “own space.” Another independent variable is, if there is a demographic that will come to the new tattoo shop location. Whereas a dependent variable that goes along with the previous independent variable is; will tourist come to the location if they happen to visit the area? In the summer months, there is an increase in tourism in the location we have decided on, and we will need to prepare for this. Finally, weather can and will be a major dependent variable for the shop. As stated previously, during the summer time, tourism will bring in the customers, and a rough winter may deter customers from making the drive to our new tattoo shop. Along with considering the independent and dependent variables that the shop may see, we also have to consider any ethical issues that may come about. Exploring ethical issues is good to consider in the beginning phase of starting a tattooing business. Before applying for any......

Words: 2350 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Parametric and Non-Parametric Statistics Use in Research Methods

...given 99 independent observations from the same normal distribution. A non-parametric estimate of the same thing is the maximum of the first 99 scores. We don't need to assume anything about the distribution of test scores to reason that before we gave the test it was equally likely that the highest score would be any of the first 100. Thus there is a 1% chance that the 100th is higher than any of the 99 that preceded it. Statistician Jacob Wolfowitz coined the statistical term "parametric" in order to define its opposite in 1942: "Most of these developments have this feature in common, that the distribution functions of the various stochastic variables which enter into their problems are assumed to be of known functional form, and the theories of estimation and of testing hypotheses are theories of estimation of and of testing hypotheses about, one or more parameters. . ., the knowledge of which would completely determine the various distribution functions involved. We shall refer to this situation . . . as the parametric case, and denote the opposite case, where the functional forms of the distributions are unknown, as the non-parametric case.” Parametric statistics Parametric tests are done on sets of data meet the assumptions of main distributions used. Before a parametric test can be undertaken, it must be ascertained that: 1) The samples are random (i.e., each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for measurement); 2) The scores are......

Words: 3625 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Lecture 7

...beliefs for research methods in those areas? Lay out the components of the Runkel and McGrath (1972) Research Cycle and the Martin (1982) Garbage Can Model of the research process. What are the aims of either approach? What assumptions does each approach make? What basic themes does each approach emphasize? What kinds of constraints on the process of doing research does each approach highlight? How are the two approaches alike and different in other ways? What are the likely pitfalls of viewing the research process from only one of these two viewpoints? Define (and discuss important features or issues concerning) the following constructs of Philosophy and Logic of Science. (Define any four terms). 1. Null hypothesis 3. Paradigm 4. Independent variable 5. Operational definition 6. Nomological network 8. The fallacy of affirming the consequent 9. Theory 2. Logical empiricism (positivism) 7. Modus tollens A4. Organizational Studies may be described as either a basic or an applied discipline. From your point of view, is Organizational Studies a basic discipline or an applied discipline, or both? What should it be? When answering this question, be sure to define distinctions between these two types of disciplines. Provide evidence from the organizational studies literature that supports your position. A5. What rules of evidence are used to determine whether a research finding is meaningful? A6. Considerable debate in the social and behavioral sciences has occurred......

Words: 21963 - Pages: 88

Premium Essay

Psycology

...psychological traits, such as memory, language, as functional products of natural selection j. Biopsychological- more focused on brain influence etc. 4. We discussed some careers in Psychology. What are some differences between a clinical and a counseling psychologist? A psychiatrist and a psychologist? k. Clinical – taking care of someone ill bedside l. Counseling- talk to them about their issues etc. m. Psychiatrist vs. psychologist i. Psychiatrist can prescribe medicine, goes to med school, MD, medical approach ii. Psychologist- grad school, PHD, therapeutic approach 5. Why is psychology considered a science? n. Study of mental processes and behaviors. It attempts to describe, predict, and explain thoughts and behaviors 6. Know the difference between a DV and IV. Can you give an example of a design that would contain each of these? o. Dependent variable: measured as the independent variable is changed. Depends on the independent variable p. Independent variable: varied by the experimenter. q. Example: a scientist wants to know if caffeine is related to reading speed. She brings them a reading test. DV? Reading speed. IV? Amount of caffeine given. r. Science- objective data collection, common sense- subjective data collection- hit or miss 7. Know the basics of the experimental designs we discussed: survey, case study, correlational study, quasi-experiment, true......

Words: 1773 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Biology of Mind Notes

...Skepticism = persistently asking two questions: What do you mean? How do you know? 2. Scientific attitude: being skeptical but not cynical, open but not gullible vi. Humility = an awareness of our own vulnerability to error and an openness to surprises and new perspectives d) Critical Thinking ii. How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions? e) The Scientific Method vii. A scientific theory explains through an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviour or events. viii. Hypotheses ix. We should be aware that it can bias subjective observations x. Operational functions = a statement of the procedures used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test xi. Replicate – repeat xii. Finally – organizepredictionsrevised theory xiii. We can test our hypotheses and refine our theories using … f) Description xiv. The Case Study 3. The case study examines one individual in depth in hopes of revealing things true of us all. 4. Suggest directions for further study 5. Show us what can happen 6. May mislead us if the individual being studied is atypical 7. Unrepresentative information can lead to mistaken judgments and false conclusions 8. The plural of anecdote is not......

Words: 4656 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Business Stat

...and death rates of a population et One way to form a frequency polygon is to connect the midpoints at the top of the bars of a histogram with line segments (or a smooth curve). Of course the midpoints themselves could easily be plotted without the histogram and be joined by line segments. Sometimes it is beneficial to show the histogram and frequency polygon together. Unlike histograms, frequency polygons can be superimposed so as to compare several frequency distributions. Figure 2.2: Frequency polygon of rickshaw pulling year 2.1.4 Cumulative Frequency Distribution Cumulative frequency analysis is the analysis of the frequency of occurrence of values of a phenomenon less than a reference value. The phenomenon may be time- or space-dependent. Cumulative frequency is also called frequency of non-exceedance. Cumulative frequency analysis is performed to obtain insight into how often a certain phenomenon (feature) is below a certain value. This may help in describing or explaining a situation in which the phenomenon is involved, or in planning interventions, for example in flood protection. Figure 2.3: Cumulative Frequency Distribution of rickshaw pulling year 2.1.5 Pie Chart A pie chart (or a circle graph) is a circular chart divided into sectors, illustrating numerical proportion. In a pie chart, the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and area), is proportional to the quantity it represents. While it is named for its resemblance to......

Words: 3838 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Projection Based Stereolithography Process for 3d Biomanufacturing of Biomaterials.

...platform which is dipped in the pool of the liquid resin. After top layer is polymerized and then the platform moves downwards to specified distance along with the attached top layer. In bottom exposure, the photopolymer liquid resin is illuminated from the bottom of the setup and the top layer is attached to the supporting platform which moves up once the top layer is attached to it. As soon as it moves upwards the liquid resin takes its place and plain second layer of liquid resin is exposed to get projected. In this technique platform is not dipped inside the liquid resin vat. Build orientation wise, as discussed you can observe that the bottom exposure approach is better than the top exposure because: - * The vat depth is independent of the object height. Less liquid resin is required in vat. * Recoating for the next layer is not required. * Illuminated layer is not exposed to the atmosphere, so oxygen inhibition is limited. * Saves waste of liquid resin in case multiple resin use. Resin can also be peppitted from the above. Second differentiation can be done on the basis of method of illumination wise, in Mask Image Projection based Stereolithography (MIP-SL) apparatus, (a) Scanning-based Stereolithography (b) Projection-based Stereolithography Fig. 1. Schematic of (a) SSL and (b) PSL. Picture credit: (Yaghmaie et al.2014) * In this technique, a digital mirror device (DMD), an array of several millions of small mirrors that can be......

Words: 4548 - Pages: 19