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Submitted By pdah
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Terminology and Concepts: Matter
Matter – anything that occupies space and has mass.
Fundamental Particles of Atoms (Historical Point of View)
John Dalton (1808) – atomic theory 1. Atoms – small indivisible particles. 2. Atoms – neither created nor destroyed. 3. Atoms – chemical reactions result from combination / separation of atoms.
J. J. Thomson (1897) 1. Electrons – negatively-charged particles. 2. Atoms – positively-charged sphere.
Ernest Rutherford (1911) 1. Atoms – consists of a positively-charged nucleus with a cloud of electrons surrounding nucleus. 2. Protons – positively-charged particles.
Niels Bohr (1913) 1. Electrons – surrounding the nucleus (orbit).
James Cadwick (1932) 1. Neutrons – electrically neutral subatomic particles. 2. Neutrons – mass almost the same with a proton. 3. Nucleus of an atom – consists of protons and neutrons.
Modern Atomic Model 1. Nucleus of an atom – consists of protons and neutrons. 2. Electrons – moving around the nucleus (orbits / electron shells/ quantum shells)

Atom – smallest particle of an element.
Relative atomic mass (Ar) - (an element) average mass of one atom of the element relative to 1/12 times the mass of one atom of carbon-12.
= (average mass of one atom of the element) / (1/12 x mass of one atom of C-12)
= 12 x [(average mass of one atom of the element) / (mass of one atom of C-12)]
Cations – positively-charge ions.
Example: H+, K+, NH4+ and Mg2+
Anions – negatively-charge ions.
Example: Br-, OH-, O2- and S2O32-
Molecule – a group of two or more atoms.
Relative molecular mass (Mr) – (an element or compound) average mass of one molecule of the substance relative to 1/12 times the mass of one atom of carbon-12.
= (average mass of one molecule of substance) / (1/12 x mass of one atom of C-12)
= 12 x [(average mass of one...

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