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Mbi Model

In: Business and Management

Submitted By othmanothman
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STD – ICE 2003

San Diego, CA - May 20, 2003

TU309

Getting High Performance in Diverse Teams
The “M.B.I” Model
Professor Joe DiStefano IMD Lausanne Switzerland
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Joe DiStefano
1 JDS-MBI Model

Copyright © IMD International, Lausanne, Switzerland Not to be used or reproduced without permission

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Objectives get higher performance and the impact of our differences Test the applicability of the ideas to situations from your experience
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Provide a framework for using diversity to

Increase awareness of ourself and others

Joe DiStefano
2 JDS-MBI Model

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Diversity Yields

Wide range of perspectives Large variety of potential solutions for problems or opportunities Potential for synergy

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Joe DiStefano
3 JDS-MBI Model

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Performance of Diverse Teams
Homogeneous Number of Teams Diverse Diverse

Low

Performance

High

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Joe DiStefano
4 JDS-MBI Model

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Fundamental Issues
Most diverse work groups do not perform as well as homogeneous groups Counter-intuitive to assumption that diversity provides greater variety, therefore, greater potential for synergy Why gap between potential and actual? How can potential be enhanced?
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Joe DiStefano
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Copyright © IMD International, Lausanne, Switzerland Not to be used or reproduced without permission

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Manage Differences for High Performance

M
Mapping
Understand the Differences Cultural values Leadership style Personality Thinking style Gender, etc.
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B
Bridging
Communicate Across the Differences

I
Integrating
Manage the Differences

High Performance

Value the differences

Joe DiStefano
6 JDS-MBI Model

Copyright © IMD International, Lausanne, Switzerland Not to be used or reproduced without permission

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Cultural Map: CPQ
Reliable questionnaire Based on extensive cultural research Values mapped by individual and country Values and their variations relate to work: management behavior, structure, systems and processes, etc. Easy to understand and apply
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Joe DiStefano
7 JDS-MBI Model

Copyright © IMD International, Lausanne, Switzerland Not to be used or reproduced without permission

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Bridging: Communicate Across Differences
Preparing
Motivation to understand and communicate across differences - a major role of leadership Confidence in the ability to communicate effectively and that the outcome will be positive a major influence on Leader’s motivation

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Joe DiStefano
8 JDS-MBI Model

Copyright © IMD International, Lausanne, Switzerland Not to be used or reproduced without permission

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Bridging: Communicate Across Differences
Decentering without blame
Blame-free explanations: attribute problems and conflicts correctly De-centering: send and receive messages with the other person’s code in mind

Recentering

Common reality: foundation for effective communication Check for shared definition/understanding of the situation Find something you can agree on. Common rules: agree on norms of behavior
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Joe DiStefano
9 JDS-MBI Model

Copyright © IMD International, Lausanne, Switzerland Not to be used or reproduced without permission

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Integrating: Manage the Differences
Building participation

Monitor participation rates. Actively seek to involve people - invite contributions from low participators Establish routines to facilitate participation Vary the modes of participation

Resolving conflicts
Detect disagreement (indirectly expressed?) Deal with conflict in appropriate ways Attempt to resolve using communication skills Agree on ways to avoid destructive conflict
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Joe DiStefano
10 JDS-MBI Model

Copyright © IMD International, Lausanne, Switzerland Not to be used or reproduced without permission

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Integrating: Manage the Differences
Building on ideas
Start with individual ideas Explore differences; build on each other’s ideas; try to invent new ideas Do more than combine and compromise Search for solutions acceptable to all

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Joe DiStefano
11 JDS-MBI Model

Copyright © IMD International, Lausanne, Switzerland Not to be used or reproduced without permission

STD – ICE 2003

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Manage Differences for High Performance Mapping
Understand the Differences Cultural values Leadership style Personality Thinking style Gender, etc.
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Bridging
Communicate Across the Differences Preparing with motivation and confidence Decentering without blame Recentering with commonalities

Integrating
Manage the Differences Building participation Resolving conflicts Building on each other’s ideas

High Performance

Value the differences

Joe DiStefano
12 JDS-MBI Model

Copyright © IMD International, Lausanne, Switzerland Not to be used or reproduced without permission

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Learnings from MBI Applications

The MBI model is robust. It is applicable for different kinds o diversity, beyond cultural differences. The MBI model transcends cultures. It is applicable independent of the particular cultural mix of the members of a team. It has been applied across Asia, North and South America, Europe, the Middle East and Africa.

The MBI model transcends hierarchy & space. It is applicabl in work teams (ranging from R&D teams to bank, back-office processing teams), cross-functional project teams, intact managerial teams and top executive groups & boards. It is applicable in face-to-face and in virtual teams.

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Joe DiStefano
13 JDS-MBI Model

The MBI model transcends industries and organizations. It i applicable in the private and public sectors, in NGOs, even in churches and armies (e.g., it has been used to train Bosnian peace-keeping forces).
Copyright © IMD International, Lausanne, Switzerland Not to be used or reproduced without permission

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Designs & Materials for MBI Applications

For a more complete discussion of designs for using the MBI model, see “Developing Global Managers: Integrating Theory, Behavior, Data and Performance”, DiStefano, Joseph J. and Martha L. Maznevski, in Advances in Global Leadership, Volume III, Mobley, William and Peter Dorfman (eds.), JAI Press, 2003. CPQ Online until May 30, 2003:
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http://www.imd.ch/surveycreator/survey/60669123/default.cf
Joe DiStefano
14 JDS-MBI Model Copyright © IMD International, Lausanne, Switzerland Not to be used or reproduced without permission

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Other References

International Management Behavior: From Policy to Practice Henry W. Lane, Joseph J. DiStefano & Martha L. Maznevski Blackwell Publishers Ltd., 2000 (4th Edition)

“Creating Value with Diverse Teams in Global Management” Joseph J. DiStefano and Martha L. Maznevski, Organizational Dynamics, Volume 29, Issue 1, 2000, pp. 45 - 63 Dr. Joseph J. DiStefano Professor of Organizational Behavior & International Business IMD International Institute for Management Development CH 1001 Lausanne, Switzerland Telephone: +41 21 618 0704 Fax: +41 21 618 0707 Email: distefano@imd. ch
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Joe DiStefano
15 JDS-MBI Model

Copyright © IMD International, Lausanne, Switzerland Not to be used or reproduced without permission

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RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Research Summary

1. 2.

What are the elements of group interaction that are especially important to multicultural team effectiveness? Can multicultural teams improve their ability to engage in these processes effectively? RESEARCH METHODS
73 groups of 4 to 6 people worked on complex international decisionmaking simulation (verified experiment with bank middle managers)

Measured individual-level variables prior to group interaction, group-lev variables after group interaction

Randomly assigned half the groups to a training condition prior to simulation (half received training after the simulation & measurements)
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Joe DiStefano
16 JDS-MBI Model

Measured perceived and actual performance (expert panel = standard
Copyright © IMD International, Lausanne, Switzerland Not to be used or reproduced without permission

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MEASUREMENT - Previous research suggested: There was need for a more managerially-relevant measurement of culture

Research Summary

We found that the CPQ and the anthropological framework it is based on provides a solid basis for the measure, easily related to management perceptions and practices PROCESSES – Previous research suggested: Effective processes for cross-cultural communication are a result of fulfilling “Bridging” preconditions (shared views of reality, motivation & confidence, accurate attribution of difficulties, decentering, negotiating norms of behavior)

We found that these Bridging preconditions explained: 60% of the variance in broadening participation, 57% of the variance in conflict resolution & 40% of the variance in building on ideas Implication: focus on behaviors & skills that fulfill 6 preconditions is a good strategy for improving performance.
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Joe DiStefano
17 JDS-MBI Model

Copyright © IMD International, Lausanne, Switzerland Not to be used or reproduced without permission

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DIVERSE GROUPS - Previous research suggested: That multicultural groups would have difficulty fulfilling the 6 Bridging preconditions

Research Summary

We found no consistent significant relationships between cultural diversity & ability to fulfill preconditions. Only significant relationships were positive: multicultural groups were better at fulfilling preconditions. Implication: barriers can be overcome. PERFORMANCE – Previous research suggested: Performance would be influenced by 3 Integrating processes (broadening participation, resolving conflicts & building on ideas)

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Joe DiStefano
18 JDS-MBI Model

We found that these Integrating processes explained 58% of the variance in perceived performance, 64% of the variance in willingness to work together again & 28% of overall satisfaction Implication: focus on Integrating behaviors is worthwhile.
Copyright © IMD International, Lausanne, Switzerland Not to be used or reproduced without permission

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Research Summary

DIVERSE GROUPS - Previous research suggested: A need t know whether multicultural groups could improve their ability t integrate effectively (Doomed to failure or trainable?)

We found that individuals who participated in training before the simulation had better motivation, confidence, decentering and actual performance than those who didn’t. Groups who participated in training before the simulation attributed difficulties more accurately, negotiated norms better (decentering & recentering) and had more effective communication, conflict resolution and building ideas processes. AND diverse groups benefited even more from the training than did homogeneous groups.

IMPLICATIONS: Multicultural groups can learn to interact an perform effectively, even if they are not prone to doing it naturally.
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Joe DiStefano
19 JDS-MBI Model

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