Premium Essay

Mcluhan Tetrad

In: Science

Submitted By kraftdinnermeal
Words 9922
Pages 40
Article

Watching the Watchers and McLuhan’s Tetrad:
The Limits of Cop-Watching in the Internet Age

Brian P. Schaefer

Kevin F. Steinmetz

University of Louisville, US. brian.schaefer@louisville.edu Kansas State University, US. criminogenic@outlook.com Abstract
The internet is considered by many to be a boon for political activists, such as cop-watchers—a free, open, and widespread medium in which to disseminate political messages. While there is truth to these claims, the internet, like any technology, can be used for many purposes and comes with its own arrangement of limitations. To elucidate these limitations and to provide a word of caution about the political potential of the internet, particularly for video-activists/cop-watchers, the theoretical work of
Marshall McLuhan is used to understand how the internet, as a medium, shapes and limits political messages. Using McLuhan’s tetrad, this study examines how the internet is problematic for cop-watching groups. In particular, the internet is said to yield consequences through how it (1) enhances or intensifies how the viewer experiences political messages through speed, (2) retrieves the importance of the narrator, (3) renders previous media increasingly obsolete, yet opens up new avenues for commercial dominance, and (4) creates additional reversals or other problems for video activism, such as the mass proliferation of surveillance and formatting discussion in counter-productive ways.

Introduction
Take a look at the lawman, beating up the wrong guy, Oh man! Wonder if he’ll ever know,
He’s in the bestselling show.
—David Bowie, Life on Mars
Accelerated technological growth and the proliferation of surveillance equipment has allowed for a significant increase in the breadth and power of surveillance assemblages. Despite authorities seeking to maintain control over...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

The Power of Mass Media

...Scott, Toby August 12, 2012 Com 100 Introduction to Mass Media The power of the media The media has a strong influence on all of us weather we realize it or not. All of us are affected by the media somehow some more than others we all have been effected by the media somehow and likely been influenced by it at least once in our lives at some point. The truth of the matter is the influence is very powerful and it’s just about everywhere. There is a saying that I read on line that said For all intents and purposes, “media” is the same as “influence.” Whatever influences us is media www.buffalo.edu by Logan Esdale. To me this theory come from something called a Dependency Theory. One thing for sure is that we are in a world that is very relent on information from sources in order to keep afloat as to what is going on in the world on a daily basis. Things such as family, recreation, work, health, along with other personal things. It is very common for a person to wake up and turn on the TV or go online to see what the latest in their area of concern is. Based on the info that his a person gathers along with their prior thought and or experiences up to that point a decision will be make on that particular topic based on the information that was given. What we need to be aware is that most of our decisions, beliefs and values are based on what we know for a fact, our assumptions and our own experience. In our work we usually know what we have to do based on our......

Words: 363 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Audience Analysis

...Audience Analysis By Student COM 285 April 04, 2012 Teacher Audience Analysis By definition “Audience analysis” is led by technical writers in an assignment's initial periods. It comprises of assessing the audience to make sure the information provided to them is at the suitable level. The addressees are often mentioned as the end-user, and all communications need to be targeted towards the defined audience. Outlining an audience requires the thought of many factors, such as age, culture and knowledge of the subject. Considering these aspects, a silhouette of the intended audience can be shaped, allowing authors to transcribe in a manner that is agreed by the projected viewers. As this week assignment, need to present quarterly sales information at an in-person meeting to a group of stakeholders, including managers, salespeople, and customers. Knowing your audience, it is always important to design your approach tacked and what is the best practices to get this information to them. This paper will look into these different methods. It is important to know the characteristics of the audience. Certain things must be considered like how large is the audience? Does the audience know you in-person? Do the audience and the presenter have any variances that would present barriers with communication to overcome? Does the audience know about this topic? Are there any topics that my audience need or not need to know? And how will the audience use this......

Words: 1223 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Theories of Journalism

...Theories of Communication – MCM 511 VU LESSON 01 COMMUNICATION Defining communication Communication is seen as central to our everyday ideas about what makes life worth living. It is not surprising that academicians have attempted to unravel the secrets of the communication process. In this section of the study we will examine the theorizing and theories of this discipline of communication. To understand communication theory we need to understand the nature of communication. Nature of communication People define terms in different ways, and those differences in definition can have a profound impact on the extent to which we understand each other and the way we move forward with both academic and everyday pursuits. Given the variety of ways in which words are used and understood, we are often ill-served to search for the single, so-called correct definition of a term. In other words, it is better to evaluate definition in terms of their utility rather than in terms of their correctness. So we should not assume that there is always a single right way to define a concept. There is a great deal of variation in the definitions. Some are very abstract and some are extremely specific. Few definitions are cited below. Communication is the process by which an individual (the communicator) transmits stimuli (usually verbal) to modify the behavior of other individuals (the audience). (Hovland Janis and Kelly in 1953) Communication is the process by which we understand others and in......

Words: 67078 - Pages: 269

Premium Essay

Comm 225 Wk 2 Paper

...Electronic and Digital Media Industry Paper Com/225 September 23, 2013 Role of Electronic and Digital Media In this paper I will discuss the role of technology in electronic and digital media. . I will give historical and contemporary roles of media in society and describe how the chemical and electronic technology of photography, recording, and transmission has advanced from the initial discovery to the present day. I will also describe how mass media uses these technological innovations, analyze how the development of digital technology has affected the content, distribution, and style of electronic media and finally discuss how it has evolved overtime and made each and every one of us dependent on them. Historical and contemporary roles of media in society Technology plays a very important role in electronic and digital media and it is forever evolving. Digital and electronic media today is readily available with the invention of the Internet. The introduction of the Internet into the society’s everyday lives have brought about a convenience that has simplify the process in which we retrieve answers to questions. Society has grown dependent on electronic products, spending less time with people and more time on the Internet. Prior to the introduction of Internet; people would have to go to the local library to research to retrieve the answer to questions. People would also participate in......

Words: 889 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Hum176

...University of Phoenix Material 07/18/2012 Media Convergence Worksheet Write brief 250- to 300-word answers to each of the following: |Questions |Answers | |What is meant by the term media |Media convergence means the lines are getting blurred between traditional forms | |convergence with regard to technology, |convergence with technology of the media and almost becoming one. Media convergence plays | |and how has it affected everyday life? |a very an important role in how it has affected everyday life of the evolution of mass | | |communication the evolution and media convergence occurs whenever it establish forms | | |communication technology to create new technologies offering new mass communications. The | | |internet allows magazines and newspapers to merge with new technology and computers to | | |increase and report information to readers frequently. Amazon allows readers to have | | |E-readers to combine medium of books with electronic display technologies to offer a new | | |convenient method way of reading. A new source of media mass converge is unavailable for | | ...

Words: 1177 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Theories

...Identify the Hypodermic Needle Theory and Uses and Gratification Theory. Hypodermic Needle Theory The "hypodermic needle theory" implied mass media had a direct, immediate and powerful effect on its audiences. The mass media in the 1940s and 1950s were perceived as a powerful influence on behavior change. The theory suggests that the mass media could influence a very large group of people directly and uniformly by ‘shooting’ or ‘injecting’ them with appropriate messages designed to trigger a desired response. Several factors contributed to this "strong effects" theory of communication, including: - the fast rise and popularization of radio and television - the emergence of the persuasion industries, such as advertising and propaganda - the Payne Fund studies of the 1930s, which focused on the impact of motion pictures on children, and - Hitler's monopolization of the mass media during WWII to unify the German public behind the Nazi party Uses and Gratification Theory explaining of media use Originated in the 1970s as a reaction to traditional mass communication research emphasizing the sender and the message. Stressing the active audience and user instead. Psychological orientation taking needs, motives and gratifications of media users as the main point of departure. Uses and gratification theory assumes an active audience, which chooses the text it consumes and where individuals have reasons for consuming these texts. Uses and gratifications theory......

Words: 359 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Political Science

...Balance of Media Media is a huge part of politics. Without the mass communication systems we have in the US today, there would be an even bigger knowledge gap in our population. The percentage of people who are actually up to date on current politics and issues is astounding when you look at all the media coverage these areas have. The media serves as a politician’s biggest survivor tool and worst enemy; although some like to say any media is good media, when dealing with politics it can be a detriment, not only to a politician but to the entire political system. Having freedom of press leaves unlimited opportunities to convey whatever news there may be in whatever way best suits that source. How the media influence has changed people’s mind about politics can be seen as good and bad. With an already considerably low number of citizens active in their knowledge of politics, the media is a huge reliant. Without television broadcast, and radio stations there would be millions of more people clueless as to what is going on in our government. So for their general purpose of simply informing the public, the media overflow is a good thing and has positive influence on people. There are also media outlets that stand on either side of the spectrum, so people can see the difference and get the correct information for both sides. And even better there are some less popular channels that convey both sides equally without bias toward either party or view, making an excellent source...

Words: 757 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Effects of Mass Media Worksheet

...Jesse L. Fitch Effects of Mass Media Worksheet Write brief 250-to 300-word answers to each of the following: |Questions |Answers | |What were the major developments in the |The 20th century has thus far seen the fastest growth in mass media compared to any other | |evolution of mass media during the 20th |century. Before the 20th century the most used form of media was printed in large scale | |century? |thanks to the invention of the printing press that became very efficient in producing up | | |too 500 pages an hour. By the start of the evolution of mass media in the 20th century, | | |most printing presses could produce up to 3,000 pages an hour. The media age may have been| | |very well started by the telegraph in 1837, but the mass media age did not boom till the | | |radio was found in homes across the country in the 1920’s. Radios were easily obtainable | | |by most Americans and were even less expensive than phones at the time. Radios were so | | |largely popular at the time that a broad cast could reach the ears of more than 20 million| | ...

Words: 607 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Media Covergence Worksheet

...Media Convergence Worksheet Write brief 250- to 300-word answers to each of the following: Questions Answers What is meant by the term media convergence with regard to technology, and how has it affected everyday life? The term media convergence with regards to technology is defined as a process of combining together the telecommunications and computers and turning them into one electronic or digital form. The media convergence has affected our everyday life as we know it in many ways, you can now watch television shows, listen to music and shop online using your computer all without leaving the privacy of your home. Using the computer you can also communicate using the email, or chat option on the computer, eliminating the need to call from your phone. Facebook is another option that allows you to keep up with friends and family, while knowing where they are at all times. The internet is a multitasking piece of equipment that has replaced many forms of communications. Hard back books have been replaced with e-books, which can be electronically downloaded from your computer. The way we watch television has also changed, there are so many things that we can do through the television. You can program your home lights and alarms from you cell phone through the television. You can also communicate through you television to others, replacing the need for a telephone. The television and the internet are just two examples of media convergence, that has......

Words: 1151 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Mass Media Usage

...Introduction to Media Industries Media Visualization Essay Media Usage Mass media has become a powerful tool in shaping our culture, and is largely reflective of our society today. According to our text book and class lecture notes, mass media can be loosely defined as the technological vehicles through which mass communication takes place, along with the industries which control them. Over the years, mass media, has had a profound effect on American society, on its culture, and on the individuals exposed to the media. Mass media effects people differently because of varied amounts of exposure and formats; however with the convergence of media, todays society fails to recognize the immense influence that mass communication has on every one of us. While keeping track of my involvement in mass communication and media for three days, I became eminently aware of the influence mass media has on me through varied amounts of exposure and mediums. I created six classes of mediums through which mass communication presents itself- television, movies (film), radio, phone (including both landlines and cellular devices), internet, and print. After noting how I received media through differing technological vehicles, I than created my own categories for the roles it plays in my life- entertainment, advertisement, research (both school and personal related), and interpersonal communication. Observing my participation in media through these four lenses produced for me, a better......

Words: 813 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Advantage

...In general, "media" refers to various means of communication. Media refers to communication devices, which can be used to communicate and interact among two or more people. Nowadays, the most commonly used media are Newspaper, Television, Radio, and Internet. Be it the pictorial messages of the early ages, or the high-technology media that are available today, one thing that we all agree upon, is that mass media are an important part of our lives. Entertainment and media always go hand in hand, but in addition to the entertainment, mass media also remain to be an effective medium for communication, exchange of information, advertising, marketing, and in general, for expressing and sharing views, opinions, and ideas. Mass media is a double-edged sword which means that there are positive as well as negative influences of media. Advantages : The common man gets the latest news within a fraction of seconds. The distance is not at all a barrier now. The news they get through media help them in their daily life a lot. We get the latest news in our home due to the television set. We can bring out the hidden talent, we can get public opinion about certain events, current issues. Television is quite popular because people can get easy overview from news. Television also entertains and educates people. Children’s knowledge increases by watching geographical channel, quiz programs and speeches by famous personalities of different fields. Radio has its own......

Words: 1644 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Influence of Visual Media

...Influence of Visual Media American culture and values have been influenced in many ways by visual entertainment media. Televisions, smart phones, computers, and gaming systems, are a part of almost everyone’s daily life. Although many people will deny it, many of people’s actions and beliefs are linked to what they are exposed to in their daily life. From fashion sense, to political views, to the cars we drive, our minds have been led that way with the help of entertainment media. Each time any form of entertainment media is accessed, American values are influenced. Through television, the younger generations of the world are being taught that it is acceptable to lie, cheat, steal, use vulgar language and behave inappropriately in public. Many people look up to the President of the United States, but how is one to explain their wrongdoings? President Clinton had an affair, but the media portrayed it as if it were no big deal. President Obama refused to produce his original birth certificate for Americans to see and again this was acceptable. Both of these leaders, that many Americans look up to, have shown that it is okay to lie, cheat and withhold information. As Americans, we see it as “if they can do it, so can we”. Another poor form of entertainment media is video games. Most of these games are full of violence, drugs and vulgar language. For example, in the game Grand Theft Auto, you are on a mission to steal cars, fight with others, and run from...

Words: 483 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mass Media

...Effects of Mass Media Paper HUM/186 September 4, 2013 Effects of Mass Media There have been major developments in mass media since the beginning of the century. Once upon a time, the use of the radio, newspapers and magazines ruled the way information was sent out into the world. As the years turned, things like Cinema, Television, Cable, Computers, Lap Tops, Compact Discs, Digital Video Discs, and Internet gave mass media a whole new perspective. No longer will you have to wait to get the information you want, it is readily accessible at the tip of your fingers. It is not unusual to hear stories of how people got their information in the old days. Grandmother, Grandfather, Mother, Father, and children used to sit by the radio after dinner to listen to their favorite broadcasts, ball games, and the news. Newspapers and magazines also contributed to American culture by being readily available on almost every corner and newsstand. Newspapers were how people got their day-to-day information brought fresh to them every morning and in some cases with the evening paper as well. Magazines on the other hand, were available weekly and monthly and told fiction and non-fiction stories, along with current events around the world. Cinema is another form of culture; movie theaters and drive-ins were a big part of growing up in the era of the 1940s thru 1980s. Movies were a way of communicating and meeting up with each other. Family outings would be a regular for......

Words: 866 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Why People Are Chutiya?

...Shannon model and social model Look at the message itself and think about the idea in message itself. How message is constructed? How media content constructed? Talking about process… process can be also of : “Signification” - The process of creating “signs” – (anything that you can read meaning into) Semiology or semiotics: the study of signs and sign systems(understanding of sign) |Signifier what we see |Signified what is in our head | |Sign anything we can make meaning of | Words are also signs The thing you see (hear, feel, etc.) – signifier -- and what the thing you see (hear, feel, etc.) stands for -- signified; (also “referent”) 3 kinds of signs (multiple choice test) Icon: looks like the thing (photo, map) apple Index(indicates): associated with its object (smoke indicates fire, animal droppings) tree Symbol: arbitrary/abstract relationship (language) Collection of signifiers is: Text: Any collection of signs from which meaning is made. (Book, TV show, film, radio, sky, map, etc.) Any collection of sign, which has meaning Mix and match signifiers to create signs with new/different meaning (e.g. underwear; beer ad) signifies bad prostate treatment. Underwear signifies good treatment of prostate. Women wearing beer bottle cloths signify that it was very sexist ad and deliver message that women can be consumed. What flag signify: flag of US signifies corporate companies. Show America is......

Words: 881 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Audience Perception of Broadcast Media Influence in the Fight Against Youth Restiveness in Nigeria

...INTRODUCTION Restiveness among youths globally and those in Nigeria has become a behaviour pattern which has degenerated into a topical global issue. Youth restiveness portrays man’s negative side of social development. This negative development is rather unfortunate and has become one of the many security challenges facing man in the contemporary society. In many occasions, lives and properties worth millions of naira have been lost or vandalized and some razed down by restive youths. As observed by Chukwuemeka and Agbara (2010), human society and in fact the entire universe is simply and squarely a complex entity. In view of this, individuals and groups have their complexities, needs, aspirations, hopes, goals, opinions, views and values which could be social, economic, religious, psychological or political. Consequently, there is bound to be restiveness among different groups of people especially youths who are at their prime age. The term youth has been variously defined. Ndu (2000) and Yusuf (2001) saw youths as neither adolescents nor children characterized by excessive energy that needs to be exerted, which if not guarded, is channeled into negative tendencies. The United Nations General Assembly and World Bank cited in Adewuyi (2008) defined the youth as people between ages 15 to 24 years. In Nigeria, the people within the age limit of 30 years are considered as youths hence they are allowed to participate in the National Youth Service Scheme (NYSC). For this paper...

Words: 5667 - Pages: 23