Premium Essay

Measurement

In: Business and Management

Submitted By rodrigo1976
Words 523
Pages 3
Definitions are commonly used in technical documents to help audience members who are unfamiliar with the terminology in a technical field. In this conference, we look at definitions in terms of their audience. 1. Select a term commonly used in your major or field of study/work. For example, if you are a computer science major or work in information technology, you might select the term "kernel" related to an operating system. 2. Find a definition of the term on a credible website and post the definition or a link to the definition in your response. 3. Evaluate the definition in terms of its effectiveness for the audience. Give us your reasons for why the definition is effectiveness or not. This term is introduced to accounting students on their first introduction to accounting classes and it is also mentioned on the major headline news such as the Enron and WorldCom financial fraud cases. This term, although its main audience is people in the accounting field, has become very effective due to the major financial fraud cases such as Enron, WorldCom, Bernard Madoff and others. The main audience for this term are individuals who are related to the accounting field. Learning that an organization has been cooking the books instantly portrays that a financial fraud has occurred. Also, this term has become a part of the English language due to the major financial fraud cases such as Enron, WorldCom, and Bernard Madoff. This term is effective in its way that it portrays that when it is mentioned that when an organization is cooking the books Accountant students are introduced to this term on their first introduction to accounting classes and 4. Select at least one other response--try a response for a definition not related to your major or field of study/work--and see if you understand the definition. Post your thoughts about the definition in a...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Measurement

...Vershire also has some issues on the performance measurement report and evaluation system. Besides the inefficient way to measure manufacturing efficiency, performances of plant managers are measured based on the metric that they cannot directly control, i.e. sales. Therefore the related compensation packages and promotions mislead and lack sufficient incentives to motivate plant managers. As illustrated before, it is inappropriate to treat a plant as a profit center, rather than an expense center. Due to the manufacturing nature, plants have fully control on costs and should be motivated to lower the cost to make contributions to the revenue. Monthly performance evaluation report and supporting report for a plant showing both sales and costs in Exhibit 2 and 3 are submitted by each plant and reviewed by corporate management. Items that failed to meet the budgeted targets require explanations from plant managers, no matter it is cost-related or sales-related. Moreover, sales report on plant basis is confusing by itself since products are sold on district basis. The sales department had sole responsibility for the price and delivery schedules, which are not identical in each order because of contingencies such as traffic, weather, and sick staff. Plant managers have no way to explain the detailed decision making process of sales department to provide a sufficient explanation to sales failures without asking sales department. Furthermore, second-hand information tends to be......

Words: 629 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Measurements

...Measures of Intelligences 1. Francis Galton a. Measured head circumferences in a first attempts to measure intelligence 2. Binet-Simon intelligence scale a. Developed by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon, this test was used to evaluate the performance of children based on a chronological age. This Measure was used to identify the mental quotient and learning potential of that child. Notes. Galton’s was a pioneer in the applied science of eugenics. He took notice to similarities passed down from one family member to the next and believed certain characteristics like intelligence had something to do with cranial circumferences (Galton, 1869). Though, Galton’s methods of investigation may have been valid according the means of the time the judgments made toward these account were more accurate. This improved over time as Galton was able to pioneer his techniques for measuring head sizes. He was also able to identify differences in races as one of the remaining differences based on brain-body allometric regressions (Rushton, 1990). Binet and Simon were asked by the French government to help identify children who may need help with education as new laws made it mandate for all children to attend school. Based on the challenge that presented them they created a series of test questions focusing on a range of measures that the schooling did not teach. During his study, Binet was able to identify that the children ranged in how they answered, some could answer more......

Words: 325 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Measurement

...MEASUREMENT: Measurement is the heart of scientific discipline. It is the process of assigning numbers to objects or observations, the level of measurement being a function of the rules under which the numbers are assigned. According to Zikmund, “Measurement is the process of describing some property of a phenomenon of interest, usually by assigning numbers in a reliable and valid way”. In our daily life we are said to measure when we use some yardsticks to determine weight, height or some other features of a physical object. We also measure when we judge how well we like a song, intelligence, achievement, attitude, perception regarding quality. We, thus, measure physical object as well as abstract concepts. Measurement is a relatively complex & demanding task, especially so when it concerns qualitative or abstract phenomena. So, technically speaking, measurement is a process of mapping aspects of a domain onto other aspects of a range according to some rule of correspondence. It is a collection of quantitative data. TYPES OF MEASUREMENT: 1) Nominal measurement: All qualitative measurements are nominal, regardless of whether the categories differ from one another only in names. Nominal measurements represent the most elementary level of measurement in which values are assigned to an object for identification or classification purposes only. In nominal level of measurement, the categories differ from one another only in names. In other words, one category of a......

Words: 4319 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Performance Measurement

...Introduction The topic of contrast and comparison contained within this paper consists of the evaluation of three individual performance measurements that exist in management. The individual performance measurements are broken down in order to better understand the inner workings of such measurements goals. Therefore the end result will be measured by how important performance management actually is. In the world of business there are many cliché’s about how performance measurements are implemented and what they actually do such as “if your company doesn’t measure results then you can’t tell success from failure.” http://www.balancedscorecard.org/Home/tabid/36/Default.aspx The key focus on strategic objectives should always articulate precisely what the organization wants to accomplish which is the key to finding accurate, true, strategic measurements. The strategic performance measures will allow the organization to monitor the implementation and effectiveness of the operational efficiency. The best performance measures will provide a way to monitor and see if that strategy is actually working. Focusing on the importance of the employee’s contribution to the success of the organization is another important measure that can be added along with providing a common language for the communication of everyone. Performance measurement is so vital in the structure of an organization because it is an ongoing and constant reporting and monitoring of accomplishments. ......

Words: 735 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Levels of Measurement

...Normally, when one hears the term measurement, they may think in terms of measuring the length of something (e.g., the length of a piece of wood) or measuring a quantity of something (ie. a cup of flour).This represents a limited use of the term measurement. In statistics, the term measurement is used more broadly and is more appropriately termed scales of measurement. Scales of measurement refer to ways in which variables/numbers are defined and categorized. Each scale of measurement has certain properties which in turn determines the appropriateness for use of certain statistical analyses. The four scales of measurement are nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. Nominal: Categorical data and numbers that are simply used as identifiers or names represent a nominal scale of measurement. Numbers on the back of a baseball jersey and your social security number are examples of nominal data. If I conduct a study and I'm including gender as a variable, I may code Female as 1 and Male as 2 or visa versa when I enter my data into the computer. Thus, I am using the numbers 1 and 2 to represent categories of data. Ordinal: An ordinal scale of measurement represents an ordered series of relationships or rank order. Individuals competing in a contest may be fortunate to achieve first, second, or third place. first, second, and third place represent ordinal data. If Roscoe takes first and Wilbur takes second, we do not know if the competition was close; we only know that Roscoe......

Words: 574 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Measurement Scales

...MEASUREMENT SCALES PAPER; Measurement Scales Paper University of Phoenix MKT/441 In a questionnaire there are many types of scales used to obtain different forms of data. This all depends on which information the questionnaire is looking for exactly, but there are different ways of collecting the data and different types of scales needed for each answer. This paper is to help determine the differences between the ordinal scale, the nominal scale, Interval scale and the ratio scale. Also will be described is a few examples on each scale and a brief description of each scale. Ordinal Scales Ordinal scales are best described as a scale that can measure something like satisfaction. For instance, if someone had developed a new stove that was installed in peoples homes and wanted to know their satisfaction level with the stoves in measurements such as not satisfied, somewhat satisfied, or very satisfied based on various types of questions with the same three as answers, would classify as a ordinal scale. This type of research would be best used in a questionnaire when getting a general response from the people being questioned. This is could also be used as a 1-4 type scale where 1 is not satisfied and 4 being very satisfied. In a questionnaire a good example of an ordinal scale would be a recent visit to a doctors office in which customers are asked to answer questions based on their experiences. So some questions may be from 1 to 4 1 being did not enjoy, 4 being......

Words: 723 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Performance Measurement

...Performance Measurement Robert Campbell MGT/437 March 14, 2011 Sunil Mehta Performance Measurement According to NY Government (n.d.) website, “Strategic, performance measurement-based management systems allow an organization to align its business activities to its strategy, and to monitor performance toward strategic goals over time” (para. 1). Each measurement should be objective, easy to understand, controllable by minimizing outside influences, timely, accurate, cost-effective, useful, motivating, and trackable (NY Government, n.d.). The use of performance measurement is important because the stock market’s volatility has shown that financial measurement is not the only measurement. By using measurement techniques companies can compare themselves to established norms. In this discussion there will be a look at three different types of performance measurement systems, what they do and how they are used. These systems identified are the balanced scorecard, performance dashboards, and the economic value added. The balanced scorecard is a strategic planning and management measurement style widely used throughout the business world to bring its business activities in line with the vision and strategy of the organization (Balanced Scorecard Institute, 1998-2010). According to the Balanced Scorecard Institute (1998-2010) the implementation increases focus on strategy and results, increases organizational performance by measuring what is important, and aligns......

Words: 1326 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Stack Measurement

...Timber Stack Measurement It is important to estimate timber volumes accurately either in the forest or when leaving. A number of methods can be used:  Crop inventory carried out by a qualified professional in the forest prior to felling  It can be calculated by modern thinning machines as harvesting takes place  The timber can be measured in the stacks at roadside (see method described below)  Weighing of the timber as it passes though the mill gate Timber Stack Measurement Advantages It is useful to estimate timber that is stacked at roadside:  It can be done quickly by the forest owner  It is useful to know how much timber is leaving the forest  It is useful to calculate the volume of different individual stacks, which is important if different timber products are being sold separately from the one harvesting operation Disadvantages All logs in a stack must be of uniform length and the stack should be built neatly and tidy for easy measurement and accuracy. Large stacking space is required to ensure that all harvested material can be stacked at roadside before any removal is carried out by timber trucks. Length * Width * Height = Volume (unit = m3) Some definitions  Stack width The width is the specified length of the timber product in the stack. A number of sample lengths (billets) should be checked to verify the stack width.  Stack length Stack length is the average length of the front and back face of the stack. The stack should......

Words: 622 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Electrical Instrumentation and Measurement

...Pharos University EE212_ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENT & Interface Prepared By: Dr. Sahar Abd El Moneim Moussa Dr. Sahar Abd El Moneim Moussa 1 CH1_ ERRORS IN MEASUREMENTS Dr. Sahar Abd El Moneim Moussa 2 INTRODUCTION  Measurement involves using an instrument as a physical means of determining a quantity or variable.  A measuring device: a device used for obtaining a value which nearly represents an unknown variable or quantity.  The advancement of science and technology leads to the progress in the measuring techniques. Dr. Sahar Abd El Moneim Moussa 3  Classification of Measuring Instruments: 1- Mechanical Instruments: • These are the first type of measuring instruments. Since they have moving parts then they are useful for stable operation but due the inertia of the moving elements are slow then they are not suitable for measuring dynamic variables and transient operations. • Dr. Sahar Abd El Moneim Moussa 4  Classification of Measuring Instruments: ( cont.) 2- Electrical Instruments: • Since 1801. By discovering electricity, the electrical measuring instruments appear. Electrical instruments have in general electric circuit consisting of some resistors and a magnetic circuit consisting of either a permanent or a coil with an iron core. It depends upon the interaction between the electric circuit and the magnetic circuit. • • Dr. Sahar Abd El Moneim Moussa 5  Classification of...

Words: 1749 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Performance Measurement

...Performance Measurement Linda Tate MGT/437 April 21, 2014 Michael Koma Performance Measurement Performance measurement is an essential part of the company; it provides a stage for managers and supervisors, as well as, the performance of its employees. It helps them determine whether or not employees are meeting the company’s expectations. Performance measurement methods differ according to the work surroundings, such as, the company, and the occupation of the employee. It can determine an employee’s employment status, and his or her compensation, as well as, their opportunity for advancement. Because of this performance management should consist of methods that use fair and correct assessments of the employee’s performance. To help employer’s measure employee’s performance, they must establish performance standards, which define what employees need to meet or exceed the company’s expectations (Ruth Mayhew, 2014). This paper will compare and contrast three performance measurements for the working environment of the company, and then the importance of performance measurements within a project. Graphic Rating Scales This is the first performance measurement; it is perfect for production work environments, like fast food restaurants. A list of job duties and performance standards is listed on a scale rating from 1 to 5, which rates the employee’s performance. This method requires preparation and can be completed quickly; this is superb for managers who...

Words: 1040 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Measurement Theory

...2- Measurement Theory Definition Measurement is being defined by many researchers. According to Campbell it is the assignment of numerals to represent properties of material systems other than numbers. A similar definition was given by Stevens who states measurement as the assignment of numerals to objects or events according to rules. Whatever the definitions given by all the researchers, they all bring about to the same meaning and understanding. Based on my understanding, measurement is the process of observing, recording and calculating the observations that are collected as part of a research effort which is usually represented by units. These units possess values and are often numerical. Importance Everyone uses measurement without even noticing it sometimes. In studying measurement theory, I realised that measurement involve in many of our daily activities without us even noticing it sometimes. Some examples include measuring our heights and weights, measuring the nearest and shortest distance to get to class, measuring the time taken to complete an assignment and many more. Therefore, it can be said that measurement theory is definitely important and useful for everyone. Understanding the importance of measurement theory is crucial to address issues in business, accounting, social and economics. Importance of measurement in Accounting Why is measurement theory important? Well, it is important for three simple reasons. It is important to make decisions, assess......

Words: 1075 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Measurement Scales

...Measurement Scales Tina M. Biebl MKT / 441 Marketing Research University of Phoenix Introduction A poorly designed questionnaire may not obtain the results the firm or organization is looking for. There are four categories in which numbers are generally grouped. In increasing order of sophistication, they are (1) nominal numbers, (2) ordinal numbers, (3) intervally scaled numbers, and (4) ratio-scaled numbers. This paper will examine each briefly and how they can be used effectively in the design of a survey questionnaire. Qualitative Data Data that can be categorized into one of several non-numerical categories is qualitative. You are recording some quality that the data possesses. Care needs to be taken to avoid assigning numbers to the categories then computing with them. This type of data is either nominal or ordinal. Nominal The number we assign to some object, idea, or behavior is entirely arbitrary, although in some cases a tradition may establish the rules of assignment. If measurements are assigned arbitrary numbers, they are called nominal numbers, and their sole purpose in the analysis is to differentiate an item possessing one characteristic from an item possessing a different characteristic. Nominal data is a type of categorical data in which objects do not have a natural, meaningful order. You can count but not order or measure nominal data. Only calculations based on the frequencies of occurrence are valid. Nominal scales have no......

Words: 758 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Scales of Measurement

...are the four key scales of measurement of these variables. Nominal, Ratio, Ordinal, and Interval. Each scale also contingent on the variable. Nominal scale of measurement is used with variables that have numbers with no value or that are not numeric. They cannot go in any order. “Nominal measurement scales denote to those measurements when the only meaningful results are the delineations that one thing is different from another (www.adprima.com).” Nominal scales label variables with no quantative worth. The advantage of using the nominal scale of measurement is classification, by names or labels only. The disadvantage is it is the nascent structure with no quantative value being found. Some examples of using a nominal scale are such as multiple choice questions, or such as going to the hospital and they ask you to rate your pain on a scale of one to ten. Having a true or false question or asking your gender on a questionnaire is also examples of the Nominal scale of measurement. The Ratio scale of measurement provides the decisive interval value and order. True zero can be identified which allows for one to calculate ratios which is a big advantage. Ratio scales” are the same as ordinal scales but with the important difference of one thing, the Ratio scale contains a zero, which allows for negative values to be expressed in relation to positive values (www.adprima.com).”Some examples of the ratio scale of measurement are height and weight measurements, map scales,......

Words: 644 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Industrial Measurement

...Scheme-G Sample Test Paper- I Course Name :- Diploma in Electronics Engineering Group Course Code :- EJ/EX/ET/EN/IS/IC/IE/IU/ED/EI Semester :-Fourth 17434 Subject Title :- Industrial Measurements Marks :-25 Time:-1 hour Instructions: 1. All questions are compulsory. 2. Illustrate your answers with neat sketches wherever necessary. 3. Figures to the right indicate full marks. 4. Assume suitable data if necessary. 5. Preferably, write the answers in sequential order. Q1. Attempt any THREE of the following. (9 Marks) a. Define i.) Active transducer ii) Passive Transducer b. List any three non elastic pressure transducers. c. Draw a neat diagram showing the construction of C type bourdon tube pressure transducer and label it. d. State the principle of operation of piezoelectric transducer. Q2. Attempt any TWO of the following. (8 Marks) a. Draw constructional diagram of U tube manometer, label it and write the working of U tube manometer. b. State the reason for connecting the secondary coils in series opposition in LVDT. What is residual voltage in LVDT.? c. Draw and label the neat diagram for pressure measurement using bourdon tube and LVDT. Q3. Attempt any two of the following. (8 Marks) a. Define Primary and secondary transducer. Give two examples of each. b. Is piezoelectric transducer active or passive? Give reason. Also state the principle of operation of piezoelectric transducer. c. Draw and label the block diagram of instrumentation system. State......

Words: 1264 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Laboratory Techniques and Measurement

...Title: Laboratory Techniques and Measurements Purpose: To become familiar with common laboratory equipment and to become proficient in measuring volume, mass, length, temperature, density, and concentrations. Procedure: Length Measurements were determined using a metric ruler and measuring to the nearest mm. Temperature Measurements of boiling and ice water were measured using a thermometer and measuring to the nearest degree. Mass was measured using a digital scale in grams. Volume and density were determined by using a beaker of liquid and a digital scale for liquid measurements. Voume and density of solids were determined by calculating the volume with a ruler and measuring mass with digital scale. Water displacement was measured by placing an object in a container of water and measuring change in volume. Archimedes’ Method was determined by submerging an object which was hanging from a string into the liquid. The density of concentration was measured using volume and mass and also using different concentrations of liquids. Data Tables: Data Table 1: Length Measurements Object Length (cm) Length (mm) Length (m) CD 12 120 0.120 Key 5.3 53 0.053 Spoon 16.9 169 0.169 Fork 17.7 177 0.177 Data Table 2: Temperature Measurements Water Temp (C) Temp (F) Temp (K) Hot From Tap 39 102.2 375.35 Boiling 100 212 485.15 Boiling for 5 min 100 212 485.15 Cold from Tap 26 78.8 351.95 Ice water-1......

Words: 929 - Pages: 4