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Mechanical Elbow Unit

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PROJECT REPORT
“WORKING MODEL OF MECHANICAL ELBOW UNIT”

SUBMITTED BY
Gautam M. Dobariya

A PROJECT REPORT
On
“Working Model of Mechanical Elbow unit”
Submitted by

GAUTAM M. DOBARIYA -110210125040
In fulfillment for the award of the degree
Of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
In
PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

Government Engineering College,
Bhavnagar

Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad
DECEMBER- 2014.

Page | 2

GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE,
BHAVNAGAR
PRODUCTION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
DECEMBER 2014

CERTIFICATE

Date:

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “WORKING
MODEL OF MECHENICAL ELBOW UNIT” has been carried out by GAUTAM M. DOBARIYA (110210125040) under my guidance in fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in
PRODUCTION

ENGINEERING

(7th

semester)

of

Gujarat

Technological University, Ahmadabad during the academic year
2014-15.

GUIDE
(Prof. C.D. DOKAL)
Department of Production Engineering,
Government Engineering College,
Bhavnagar, Gujarat-364002.

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT
(Prof. A.G. KUNTE)
Department of Production Engineering,
Government Engineering College,
Bhavnagar, Gujarat-364002.
3|Page

IDP/ UDP Project Statement Form

(This is a sample format and departments can modify it if they need as per required scenario and sector)

TITLE OF
PROBLEM/PROJECT

“WORKING MODEL OF MECHENICAL ELBOW UNIT”
DICIPLINARY
DICIPLINARY | INTER-DICIPLINARY

SR.NO.

DISCIPLINE/S

Production Engineering

MOBILE NO

EMAIL ID

DOBARIYA GAUTAM M.

1.

NAME

8866734486

dgautam8832@gmail.com

COLLEGE NAME

Government Engineering College, Bhavnagar

COLLEGE CODE

021

BRANCH

Production Engineering

SEMESTER
TEAM CODE ( to be given by the institute )

7TH

YEAR

2014-15

14384

SIGNATURE OF STUDENTS
(TEAM MEMBERS)

Page | 4

Contents






Acknowledgement
Abstract
AIM
Objectives
Object

No.

Topic Name

Page No.

1

CONSTRUCTION

12

2

HARNESS

15

2.1 Definition of Harness

15

2.2 Standard transhumreal harness

17

3

SOCKET

18

4

CONTROL CABLE MECHANISM

19

5

PRINCIPLE & WORKING

21

5.1 Principle

22

5.2 Working

23

REAL LIFE APPLICATION

24

6.1 Introduction

24

6.2 Working way of elbow unit

25

6

5|Page

7

26

7.1 Aren’t interesting compare to other joints

26

7.2 Disadvantages

8

ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES

26

SUMMARY

27

List of figures

No.

Figure
Construction cable operated mechanical elbow

Page No.

1.1 unit

12

1.22 Mechanical elbow unit

14

2.1 Harness

15

2.2 Below elbow harness & cable control

16

3.1 Socket

18

4.1 Control cable

19

5.1 Working mechanism 1

21

5.2 Working mechanism 2

22

5.3 Gear locking mechanism

23

6.1 Image of real life application

24

Page | 6

Acknowledgement

I wish to express my sincere gratitude and regards to my project guide,
Prof. C. D. Dokal. His guidance and support throughout the program has been a major factor in the successful completion of the present work. This work would not have culminated into the present form without his invaluable suggestions and generous help.

I am especially thankful to Dr. C.M. Patel (manager at Rajkot branch,
Endolite India.) for providing their valuable suggestion for the project.

I am thankful to all faculties and friends at Government Engineering
College, Bhavnagar who not only provided valuable suggestions and constant help during my work but also made my stay at the college an enjoyable experience. Above all, I am forever thankful to my parents & sister for their love and encouragement. Yours faithfully,
GAUTAM M. DOBARIYA
7|Page

ABSTRACT

It is mechanical elbow unit operated by cable. All body powered elbow operated by cable system. It is opened by shoulder depression, shoulder abduction and extension.

There are approximately 5000–10,000 major upper limb amputations per year, and they are most commonly caused by trauma. The most common group is males aged 15–
50 years. In the younger age group of 1–15 years old, congenital deficiency and cancers can also lead to upper limb amputation. The distribution of amputation is generally twothirds below the level of the elbow and one-third above.

The Mechanical Locking Elbow is a cable-operated elbow system with an alternating lock. The system is designed for rapid assembly, and the socket can be attached by either laminated or riveted construction.

It is very simple to maintain and operate.
A prosthetic elbow for an amputee. First and second connector parts are adapted to be connected to an artificial upper arm and an artificial lower arm, respectively, for the amputee.The system mechanical efficiency is a key factor of the whole project.

A lock is used for selectively stopping the rotation between the first and second part.

Page | 8

AIM
Mechanical elbow unit is prosthetics device operated by cable. The system is designed for rapid assembly, and the socket can be attached by either laminated or riveted construction.
The system has one principal element: the Elbow Mechanism. The elbow mechanism is controlled by an operating cable, which is activated by body movements. The user can lock and unlock the elbow mechanism by sequential operations of the control cable. The elbow module includes a humeral rotation unit, which is supplied with a positive lock.
While the prosthetic systems for hands amputation are fairly common, the active prostheses for the other joints of the upper limb are rarer. In addition to commercial reasons undoubtedly related to the low number of trans-humeral amputations than the hands amputations are crucial.

OBJACTIVE

Internal elbow with rotating turn table allows limited rotation of forearm stimulating internal and external rotation of arm.

All body powered elbow operated by cable system. It is opened by shoulder depression, shoulder abduction and extension.

Flexion and extension of the elbow is either passive, with the help of the opposite hand, or active, through shoulder harness activation.

Inside-locking mechanical elbow units permit amputee to lock elbow in eleven positions of flexion

9|Page

OBJECT

It is mechanical device. Which operated by cable. Elbow lock in 11 positions for achieving various positions.

A prosthetic elbow for an amputee. First and second connector parts are adapted to be connected to an artificial upper arm and an artificial lower arm, respectively, for the amputee.
The second connector part is rotatable mounted on the first connector part.

A gear assembly having an outer gear part with gear teeth therein; a hub separate from and for the gear part; means rigidly connecting the hub to one of the connector parts; a resilient member connected to the gear part and hub and providing there between a resilient mounting; A locking member; means for movably mounting the locking member on the other of the connector parts so as to enable selective engagement between the locking member and gear teeth to thereby stop relative rotation, through the resilient means, of the first and second connector parts.
The locking member is selectively moved into and out of engagement with the gear teeth. Page | 10

and second connector part adapted to be connected to an artificial lower arm for the amputee.

11 | P a g e

1. Construction
Cable operated mechanical elbow unit following main parts.


Slotted gear with shaft, Harness.



Locking mechanism, Control cable, Cable housing.



Shoulder unit, hexagonal thread bolt.

1.1 Fig. mechanical elbow unit
Page | 12

 Gear: A Half slotted gear use for locking mechanism. It is made of metal material like stainless steel.

 Shaft: A shaft of 8 mm dia. Use for rotationally movement. A gear is mounted on shaft.  Cable housing: The cable housing is an integral part of the Trans radial singlecontrol system. In effect, the housing maintains a constant length of the control cable regardless of the angular attitude of the anatomic elbow joint

 Locking unit: It consist various elements like hexagonal bar for lock the position, spring, etc.

 Friction wrist: It consist elements like friction ring, protective ring. Friction wrist adapter plate and friction housing.

 Conduit for cable: It is a hollow part in which cable are pass.
 Other part use like;
 Spring
 Button screw
 Slotted screw
 Elbow dome
 Spacer etc.

13 | P a g e

1.2 Cable operated mechanical elbow unit

Page | 14

2. Harness

2.1 Fig. Harness

2.1 Harness
Harness is a component made by supporting belts, hooks, pin for attachment of elbow unit to the body. Made out of strong and durable webbing material with buckles for adjustment to ensure proper fitting. It is washable.
To obtain maximum efficiency in functioning, the harness kit must be used with corresponding control cable system
Harness loops around the axilla on the sound side. This anchors the harness and provides the counterforce for suspension and control-cable forces. On the prosthetic side, the anterior (superior) strap carries the major suspending forces to the prosthesis by attaching directly to the socket in a Trans humeral prosthesis or indirectly to a Trans radial socket through an intermediate Y-strap and triceps cuff.
The posterior (inferior) strap on the prosthetic side attaches to the control cable. For heavier lifting or as an alternative to the harness, a shoulder saddle with a chest-strap suspension can be used with a Trans radial prosthesis. A chest strap alone is sometimes used
15 | P a g e

to suspend a Trans humeral prosthesis. Self-suspending and suction sockets are capable of

2.2 Fig. below elbow harness and control system

providing adequate prosthetic suspension without the use of a harness. However, either design can also be used with a harness suspension to provide for a more secure suspension of the prosthesis.

2.2 STANDARD TRANSHUMERAL HARNESS

Full operation of the terminal device of a Trans radial prosthesis requires only 5 cm (2 in.) of cable excursion. More than twice that amount of excursion is required for full elbow and terminal device operation of a trans-humeral prosthesis.

Page | 16

Continue.
Consequently, much greater attention must be paid to the details of fitting the transhumeral harness. Precision in the location of the harness and control system components is essential for achieving satisfactory comfort and function.
Like the standard Trans radial harness, the Trans humeral harness consists of a system of interconnected elastic straps. The common elements of the standard trans-humeral harness are the axilla loop, anterior support strap, lateral support strap, control attachment strap, and elbow lock control strap.
The axilla loop acts as the fixed anchor from which other harness components originate. Some of the straps originating at the axilla loop serve to suspend the prosthesis on the residual limb, while others provide the amputee with volitional control of the prosthetic components. A second function of the anterior support strap is to help prevent rotation of the prosthetic socket on the residual limb during prosthetic usage.
The Trans humeral amputee uses glen humeral flexion on the amputated side to flex the prosthetic elbow and/or operate the terminal device. Since the proximal control cable housing is attached on the poster lateral surface of the humeral section of the prosthesis, glen humeral flexion tends to cause the socket to externally rotate on the residual limb.
The anterior support strap running downward mediolaterally resists external rotation of the socket.
With the control attachment strap firmly fixed at its proximal end by the axilla loop, it is easy to visualize how shoulder flexion on the amputated side creates both the cable tension and cable excursion required for elbow flexion and terminal device operation.
The proper location of the control attachment strap as it passes from the axilla loop to the elbow flexion/terminal device control cable is important. If the control attachment strap lies too high on the amputee's back, shoulder flexion will not produce sufficient cable excursion for full operation of the mechanical elbow and terminal device. Too low a strap position requires the amputee to use unnecessarily forceful shoulder flexion for full operation. 17 | P a g e

3. Socket
The socket of upper extremity prosthesis typically has a dual-wall design fabricated from lightweight plastic or graphite composite materials. In this design, a rigid inner socket is fabricated to fit the patient's residual limb and the second, outer wall is added, designed to be the same length and contour as the opposite, sound limb. Comfort and function are directly tied to the fit of the inner socket.
An alternative approach parallels the rigid frame, flexible liner approach sometimes used in lower extremity socket fabrication. The inner socket is fabricated from flexible plastic materials to provide appropriate contact and fit.
Surrounding the flexible liner, a rigid frame is utilized for structural support and for attaching the necessary cables and joints as needed

3.1 Fig. socket

The windows in the outer socket allow movement, permit relief over bony prominences, and enhance comfort.
Page | 18

4. Control cable mechanism

Ready-made Control Cable systems for both, Below Elbow and Above Elbow prosthetic fitting for operation of elbow joint and terminal device are marketed independently. Supplied with prefabricated metallic components with special attachments for hook and hand functional systems.
Easy for quick changeover of terminal devices. Special grade monofilament nylon cable, ensures trouble free and reliable services for a long period

4.1 Fig. control cable
Body-powered prosthetic limbs use cables to link movements of one part of the body to the prosthesis in order to control a prosthetic function.
This usually is a movement of the humerus, shoulder, or chest, which is transferred via a Bowden cable (a single cable passing through a single housing) to activate the terminal device of the prosthesis.
A control cable used to activate a single prosthetic component or function is called a single-control cable, or Bowden cable system.
A dual–control-cable system uses the same cable to control 2 prosthetic functions
(such as flexion of the elbow and, when the elbow is locked, activation of the terminal device). This latter control cable setup is accomplished with a single cable passing through two separate cable.
19 | P a g e

Page | 20

5. Principle & working
Principle
The Mechanical elbow unit lock works on an alternator principle: pull and release to lock, pull and release to unlock. In short it works on lock –unlock-lock-unlock.

5.1 Fig. Working mechanism

21 | P a g e

The proximal end of the elbow lock control cable originates at the anterior suspension strap. Passing down the anteromedial surface of the humeral section of the prosthesis, the distal end of the cable engages the elbow locking mechanism. The elbow lock works on an alternator principle: pull and release to lock, pull and release to unlock. An excursion of 1.3 cm (½ in.) and a force of approximately 0.9 kg are necessary to cycle the elbow unit.

5.2 Fig. working mechanism
Page | 22

5.3 Fig. Gear lock

When the desired angle of elbow flexion is achieved, the rapid sequential application and release of tension on the elbow lock control cable locks the elbow; and when the elbow locked, the reapplication of tension on the elbow flexion/terminal device control cable permits operation of the terminal device.
To either lock or unlock the prosthetic elbow the amputee must first apply tension and then, in rapid sequence, relax tension on the elbow lock control cable. Although the cable excursion requirement for prosthetic elbow operation is small, approximately 1.3 cm (½ in.), the body motion is somewhat complex. The amputee applies tension to the elbow lock control strap and cable by slight extension and abduction of the gle-nohumeral joint combined with equally slight shoulder depression on the amputated side. This motion, in addition to exerting tension on the elbow lock control strap and cable, also stretches the elastic portion of the anterior support strap. With the rapid return of the prosthesis to the starting position, the elastic tension of the anterior support strap serves to complete the lock/unlock cycle.

23 | P a g e

6. Real life application
We lock an elbow unit in 11 different position for perform different real life application.

6.1 Image of Real life application

Page | 24

6.2 Working way process
 A first connector part adapted to be connected to an artificial upper arm for the amputee.  A second connector part adapted to be connected to an artificial lower arm for the amputee.  Means for rotatable mounting the second connector part on the first connector part.
 Means for locking the relative rotation of the first and second connector parts comprising.  A gear part having a convex, semi-circular periphery with gear teeth therein, resilient means,  Means for rigidly affixing said resilient means to said second connector part and to said gear part and providing there between a mounting,
 A locking member,
 Means for movably mounting the locking member on the first connector part so as to enable selective engagement between the locking member and the gear teeth to thereby stop rotation, through the resilient means, of the second connector part; and
 Means for moving the locking member into and out of engagement with the gear teeth. 25 | P a g e

7. Advantages and disadvantages
7.1 aren’t interesting it compare to other joints?

 Low cost
 Easy to operate
 Law cost for socket
 Long life
 No electricity or external power source
 Easy to maintain
 Very effective for Trans humeral patient
 Achieve 11 different positions
 High performance
 Maximum load capacity

7.2 Disadvantages compare to other joints

 Low efficiency compare to electric elbow unit
 Only achieving 11 different position compare to electric elbow unit.
 More weight compare to other joints
 Child can’t operate this type of elbow unit

Page | 26

8. Summery

The elbow mechanism is controlled by an operating cable, which is activated by body movements. The user can lock and unlock the elbow mechanism as per requirement by sequential operations of the control cable in different 11 positions. The elbow module includes a humeral rotation unit, which is supplied with a positive lock. So it is very useful for Trans humeral amputee. Its main advantage is minimum cost compare to electric elbow unit. 27 | P a g e

Page | 28

Note

29 | P a g e

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...The Skeletal System Overview Can you imagine what the human body would be like if it were devoid of bones or some other form of supporting framework? Picture a "blob" utilizing amoeboid movement. Ugh! The skeletal system consists of bones and related connective tissues, which include cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is a living tissue and is functionally dynamic. It provides a supportive framework for vital body organs, serves as areas for muscle attachment, articulates at joints for stability and movement, and assists in respiratory movements. In addition, it provides areas of storage for substances such as calcium and lipids, and blood cell formation occurs within the cavities containing bone marrow. The skeletal system consists of 206 bones, 80 of which are found in the axial division, and 126 of which make up the appendicular division. Many of the bones of the body, especially those of the appendicular skeleton, provide a system of levers used in movement, and are utilized in numerous ways to control the environment that surrounds you every second of your life. Few people relate the importance of movement as one of the factors necessary for maintaining life, but the body doesn't survive very long without the ability to produce movements. The study and review for this chapter includes microscopic and macroscopic features of bone, bone development and growth, location and identification of bones, joint classification, and the structure of representa......

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...Name: _______________________________________ Date: __________________ 1. What does meditation stimulate? a. pituitary gland b. parasympathetic c. sympathetic d. adrenals 2. Which BEST defines what occurs in the fight or flight response? a. increase in intestinal movement b. increase in heart rate and blood pressure c. decrease in muscle tension d. decrease in endorphins released 3. Exercise during which the patient does not assist the therapist is called? a. coordination b. resistive c. passive d. active 4. Migraine and cluster headaches are? a. tension headaches b. vascular headaches c. traumatic d. psychogenic 5. What do you do if you are working on a client and he/she complains of pain where you are working? a. say “no pain, no gain” b. back off and continue communicating to be sure they are comfortable now c. stop the massage d. only work areas that don’t cause pain 6. if you are using a technique which requires firm pressure and it’s causing pain, You should? a. have the client qualify the pain and then modify your pressure b. explain to the client why pain is necessary c. continue with the same pressure d. terminate the session 7. What is the best position for massaging a pregnant woman? a. prone b. supine c. on her side d. postural drainage position 8. Which BEST describes the location of the Yin channels? a. anterior b. posterior c. proximal d. distal 9. Where is the center of......

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Social Impact of Technology Report - Cyborgs

...Social Impact Report Document Author: John Doe Submission Date: 9/04/2013 Executive Summary: Cyborgs, seen in the ‘sci-fi world’ as humans with robotic parts on the outside of the body, have become a topic of great interest in the real world. Short for "cybernetic organism", the actual definition of a cyborg is a being whose physiological functioning is aided by or dependent upon a mechanical or electronic device, regardless of whether this device is within the body or an external component. A shorter, easier to remember definition is “a being who is made up of both biological and cybernetic parts. After a thorough analysis of Cybernetics, it was found that: * Cybernetics will continue to be used to increase human efficiency * Cyborg technology will get cheaper and more common as more technologies are discovered * Humans rely on technology to such an extent that they could not live without it * There will always be people who dispute Cyborg use, but that won’t stop them from being used Contents Executive Summary: 2 Introduction: 4 Part 1: A Critical argument of the use of Cyborgs in society 5 Part 2: An evaluation of the potential social impact of current and emerging technologies in my area 7 Part 3: A description of the role of technology from a personal perspective and a future scenario where this technology is evident 8 Conclusion: 10 Reference List: 11 Appendix: 12 Introduction: The purpose of this report is to......

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