Free Essay

Media Literacy

In: English and Literature

Submitted By leatherback
Words 3495
Pages 14
Media Literacy I have advocated for 30 years that, in order to preserve our democracy and protect ourselves against demagogues, we should have courses in schools on how to watch TV, how to read newspapers, how to analyze a speech – how to understand the limitations of each medium and make a judgment as to the accuracy or the motives involved. (Cronkite) Media’s influence on society is powerful and far-reaching because they introduce us to new and different images that affect our personalities and perceptions of the world we live in. A report by the Free Expression Policy Project has shown that media glamorize violence, sex, drugs, and alcohol; reinforce stereotypes about race, gender, and class; and prescribe the lifestyle to which one should aspire, and the products one must buy to attain it (Hines and Cho 2). If society wants to correct these negative influences of media, Walter Cronkite’s message on the need for media literacy is therefore imperative. Media literacy, defined by AMLA as the ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and communicate information in a variety of forms, will empower us to be both critical thinkers and creative producers of a wide range of messages using image, language, and sound (Center for Media Literacy). By becoming media literate, it is hope that we will have a better understanding of ourselves, our communities, and our diverse culture. To showcase the importance of media literacy, analyses of news and commercial media are presented and discussed. News media are responsible for presenting current news and events to the public. An essential component of this category of media is photojournalism. However, questions are raised whether photojournalism is still essential to news media. One photograph that will reinforce the ever critical role of photography in news media is “China. Beijing, Tiananmen Square 1989” by Stuart Franklin. This photograph put into visual context the atrocious incident in China that has forever touched many lives around the world. Discussion and analysis of this photograph will show that it surpasses its purpose of conveying the news; becoming a universal symbol of human character. On the other hand, commercial media, like fashion magazines, contain a variety of articles usually associated with their advertisements that finance them. While photojournalism has a positive impact on human character, fashion magazines have negative influence on people. Their advertisements purposely normalize unrealistic standards of beauty in order to create demand for their advertised products and gain huge profits for the magazine and the advertisers. Discussion and analysis of the visual and verbal elements of the covers and selected advertisements in the November 2008 issues of GQ and Glamour magazines illustrate how this strategy of creating an unattainable desire is utilized and adversely affected the issues of health, gender roles, sexuality, and changing norms in our culture. Because of the changes that is happening to media and the subsequent challenges they pose to us, it is therefore imperative that that a media literacy program be included in the educational system of this country. By doing so, we will be equipped with the tool that will make us critical thinkers and consumers. By becoming media literate, we will have a better understanding of ourselves, our communities, and our diverse culture. Has it led you to the conclusion that photography is an art? Or is it simply a means of recording? I’m glad you asked that. I’ve been wanting to say this for years. Is cooking an art? Is talking an art? Is even painting an art? It is artfulness that makes art, not the medium itself. Of course photography is an art—when it is in the hands of artists. (Sharf) While newsworthy events were photographed as early as the 1850s, the practice of illustrating news stories with photographs occurred between 1880 and 1897 (Photojournalism). Since then, photojournalism has been an essential component of print media. It changed how news is communicated to the people. A photograph’s visual characteristics make the news more eye-catching to consumers. It gives consumers a visual preview of the content of the news. However, growth and changes to the media industry bring challenges to the role of photojournalism in print media. Questions are raised whether photojournalism is still essential to news media in particular. But this anticipated demise of photojournalism has so far remained a question. Events like 9/11 and the Iraq War have shown the resiliency and unique role of photojournalism in news media. The magnitude of such events captured in still images has forever changed our lives. Such photographs surpass their purpose of conveying the news; becoming universal symbols of human character. This led Michael Kimmelman to suggest that some news photographs are worth calling art. To him, a news photograph is an art when not only it is complete, beautiful, historical and enduring in its own way but transcends its event. This transcendence entails a novel composition, an expression, the echo of some previous images we have seen so that the photograph by conscious or unconscious association and special variation is elevated from the specific to the universal (Kimmelman 639). One such photograph that I consider to have been transformed into art is “China. Beijing, Tiananmen Square 1989” by Stuart Franklin. It depicts the Tiananmen Square protest between April 15 – June 4, 1989 calling for economic liberalization and democratic reform within the Chinese government structure and its culmination in which the military cleared the square resulting in the massacre and arrest of many protesters (Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989). This photograph, which was taken at an angle from a distance by the photographer, is now famously known as the “The Tank Man” or “The Unknown Rebel.” It shows a man with his back to the camera standing in the middle of the Avenue of Eternal Peace, a road near and leading to the Tiananmen Square. The man, wearing a long sleeve shirt and black pants, holds bags in both hands. In front and very close to him, four Type 59 tanks advance with a fifth tank lagging closely behind as partially seen at the right upper edge of the photograph. The tanks occupy the left turn lane of the approaching traffic as indicated by the directional arrow on the lane. He is in the way of the advancing tanks. Seen at the top of the photograph are shadows of tree branches which get less prominent from left to right. At the middle of the top of the photograph is a burnt bus. At the foreground and to the back of the man is a cross-walk with the large white lines disappearing from left to right. The road on which the man stands is painted with solid yellow lanes, broken white lanes, and directional arrows for vehicular traffic. When this photograph circulated, it showed the desire for freedom by the Chinese people and exposed the brutality of the communist regime of the People’s Republic of China. But to the people around the world who saw the photograph, it meant something more than that. It showed courage and freedom. It showed the kind of heroism and self-sacrifice that individuals like Nelson Mandela of South Africa and Benigno Aquino of the Philippines showed in their struggle to free their countries from tyranny. To those of us living in a free world, it made us realize how fortunate we are to be free. The photograph allowed us to form a bond of solidarity with those who are trying to achieve freedom throughout the world. Because of the photograph’s ability to transcend its event and provide a universal meaning, it is art. It rose beyond its basic purpose of news dissemination becoming iconic and timeless. This photograph captured our emotions and shared our ideals in life. It also became a symbol of non-violent fight for freedom around the world. What all the ads and all the whoreoscopes seemed to imply was that if only you were narcissistic enough, if only you took proper care of your smells, your hair, your boobs, your eyelashes, your armpits, your crotch, your stars, your scars, and your choice of Scotch in bars—you would meet a beautiful, powerful, potent, and rich man who would satisfy every longing, fill every hole, make your heart skip a beat (or stand still), make you misty, and fly you to the moon (preferably on gossamer wings), where you would live totally satisfied forever. (Jong) Media have a powerful influence on us because they introduce us to new and different ideas and images that affect our personalities and perceptions of culture. This premise is utilized well by advertising agencies and fashion companies to sell their products. In order to create continuous demand for their products and gain huge profits, they purposely normalize unrealistic standards of beauty. This observation is supported by Paul Hamburg, an assistant professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School: “The media market desire. And by reproducing ideals that are absurdly out of line with what real bodies really do look like… the media perpetuates a market for frustration and disappointment. Its customers will never disappear” (Media and Eating Disorder). Huge profits by the media and the advertisers confirm that this marketing strategy is successful. Discussion and analysis of the visual and verbal elements of the covers and selected advertisements in the November 2008 issues of GQ and Glamour magazines illustrate how this strategy of creating an unattainable desire is utilized. Such an analysis reveals that due to profit motive, the use of unrealistic standards of beauty in advertisements has adversely affected the issues of health, gender roles, sexuality, and changing norms in our culture. The cover of GQ shows Jimmy Kimmel waist up, seated with his hands in front of him with the right hand on top of the left hand. He is wearing a black suit and a black tie with red diagonal stripes. Kiss marks from a red lipstick are on his face, neck and the collar of his long-sleeve shirt. Behind him is a Marilyn Monroe look-alike whose right cheek is touching the back of his head. Her eyes are closed, lips parted, and hands touching portions of his ears, neck and shoulder. On the sides of the cover are statements, “The choice of a lifetime, How to dress for the big job, and The 25 sexiest women in film of all time.” On the other hand, Glamour features Nicole Kidman on the cover wearing a violet dress, awkwardly seated on a chair, and leaning forward. Her arms are crossed with the right hand touching her covered lower left leg while the left hand is touching an exposed right knee. Her legs are positioned in such a way that her knees are close to each other and her lower legs are far apart. The end of her long wavy blonde hair is on her shoulders and the style of her dress shows a bit of her cleavage. She is wearing a light make up and lipstick accentuating her green eyes, smiling lips and flawless complexion. On the sides of the cover are statements, “Great sex for every woman, 25 ways to never look tired, Women of the year, and Eat what you like.” The covers of both magazines reinforce stereotypes on gender. The cover of GQ implies the dominance and superiority of the male gender and the treatment of women as sexual objects while the cover of Glamour portrays the unrealistic standard of beauty imposed on women by society. Traits of success and confidence which are expected from every man are projected realistically by Jimmy Kimmel who is a famous comedian and late night talk show host. His pose and clothing reinforce this observation. The half smile - half smirk in his kiss mark-filled face seem to tell men to emulate him so they can have all their material wants. Also, the Marilyn Monroe look-alike suggests to men that beautiful women will be easy picking once you’re successful. Unfortunately, this portrayal reinforces the issue on sexual objectification of women, which is a factor on women’s abuse. Meanwhile, the statements on the cover would like men to believe that if they follow these to do list, they will attain success and get what they want. On the other hand, Nicole Kidman personalizes society’s definition of beauty; long blond hair, blue eyes, smooth complexion, thin and sexual. She reinforces the perception that in order to be desirable, a woman has to be physically beautiful and sensual. But what is not shown is the fact that despite her being naturally beautiful and a famous award-winning Hollywood actress, her photograph has to be enhanced to meet the unrealistic standard of beauty set by society due to the influence of images in the media. Meanwhile, the statements on the cover would like women to believe that if they do the suggested actions, they will become beautiful and desirable to men. Selected advertisements inside the magazines reinforce the analysis of the covers. In GQ, on the left page of a double spread, black and white Movado watch advertisement, an unshaven Tom Brady wears a black shirt. The caption, “Tom Brady. Strategist, athlete, mvp. the art of performance,” is on the bottom left corner of the page. On the right page is a colored picture of the watch with black background and the caption, “MOVADO SERIES 800.” A Versace cologne advertisement shows an unshaven man in a white suit positioned sideways but looking straight forward. At the same time, he is holding on the neck a naked lady in front of him whose body is leaning towards his right shoulder. Her eyes are closed, nose touching his right cheek, and parted lips close to the man’s mouth. At the bottom of the advertisement is a picture of the cologne and the caption, “VERSACE. pour hoMme. THE NEW FRAGRANCE FOR MEN.” In Glamour, a colorful advertisement for a TAGHeuer watch features a smiling Uma Thurman dressed in black. She is standing sideways on the left side of the page with her head turned sideways looking straight forward. Her right arm, with the TAGHeuer watch on the wrist, is flexed on the elbow and reaching for her left shoulder while her left arm is wrapped across her abdomen. On the right side of the page are the logo of TAGHeuer and a picture of the watch. A caption, “WHAT ARE YOU MADE OF?” is also on the page. The advertisement for Dior perfume features Charlize Theron. In it, she is seated and wearing a gold-colored midrib dress. Her right arm is on her side while her left arm’s elbow is resting on her right thigh and the forearm touching her right shoulder. Her golden hair is complemented by her golden complexion. In the middle portion of the bottom of the page is the picture of the perfume with the caption “J’adore and Dior.” The advertisements showcase the notion that men are supposed to be successful in order to get whatever they want while women need to accessorize themselves with the latest fashion trends in order to be beautiful and attract men. Wearing watches and perfumes that are expensive and worn only by people of high stature will showcase a man’s success and his place in that segment of society. Men are also made to believe that by using these products, women will want them since they find them irresistible. The model in the Versace perfume advertisement points out this observation. In it, he ignores the woman and looks straightforward as if telling men that this is what they will get if they use this perfume. For women, using these products will supposedly enhance their physical beauty. Just as these famous and beautiful women are using them, women are made to believe that they need to use these products also. If they use them, they will supposedly look more attractive to men and will get their man. Having famous individuals as endorses of the products seem to give credibility to such claims. When someone not famous endorses a product, the use of a sensual woman as an advertising tool helps sell product. However, the woman becomes an object in the advertisement and appears submissive. This can have an impact on gender role, stereotyping, and sexuality. The discussion above shows that messages imparted by advertisements are nice and inspiring but in reality are hard to achieve. But despite being unattainable desire, consumers still buy these advertised products. Why? According to Susan Bordo: It increases our fascination with the possibilities of reshaping our bodies and selves in radical ways, creating new bodies according to our mind’s design. Such images carry fantasized solutions to our anxieties and insecurities. They speak to us not just about how to be beautiful or desirable but about how to get control of our lives, get safe, be cool and avoid hurt. (380)
In terms of gender, a study of advertisements reveals that men usually appear taller than women, implying male superiority. Women, by contrast, are more frequently presented lying down or seated on the floor like children. Men’s facial expressions and behavior give off an air of competence and imply dominance; women often appear childlike, submissive, and sexual. Men focus on the products being advertised, and women focus on the men (Macionis 278). In terms of beauty, Naomi Wolf contends that certain cultural patterns create a “beauty myth” that is damaging to women. This happens because society teaches women to measure their worth in terms of physical appearance. Society also teaches women to please men who they assume are attracted by their beauty and avoid challenging male power (Wolf 10). This has lead to so much focus on body image, particularly being thin, that incidence of eating disorders among women is on the rise. However, this myth also affects men. Men are told repeatedly that they should want to possess beautiful women. Such ideas about beauty reduce women to objects and motivate men to think of women as if they are dolls rather than human beings (Wolf 10). Media in the 21st century pose a great challenge to society. Technological advancement is changing media and is allowing society easier and faster access to information. This calls for the need by the consumers to be media literate in order to properly access, analyze, evaluate, and communicate the varied information they are getting. By doing so, we will be equipped with the tool that will make us critical thinkers and consumers. By becoming media literate, we will have a better understanding of ourselves, our communities, and our diverse culture. The discussions and analyses on photojournalism in news media and advertisements in commercial media show how society can become media literate; hence become critical consumers of information put forward by media. With respect to photojournalism, it was shown that a news photograph can be an art as defined by Michael Kimmelman. It can transcend the event it portrays and provides a universal meaning which makes it iconic and timeless. On the other hand, advertisements in fashion magazines reveal the media’s willingness to create unrealistic standards of beauty in order to profit with no regards to its ill-effect on issues of health, gender roles, sexuality, and changing norms in our culture. These two exercises on how to be media literate are a good case for the incorporation of a media literacy curriculum in the educational system of this country. This is advocated by various non-governmental organizations, educational institutions, and individuals. In fact, some academic institutions of higher learning are already offering courses on media literacy. However, there is a call for such course offering to be expanded to all universities and colleges. Likewise, there is an advocacy to have similar programs in the secondary and elementary schools. If these will be implemented, then Walter Cronkite’s message will finally be answered; democracy will be preserved and society protected against demagogues.

Works Cited
Bordo, Susan. “Never Just Pictures.” Seeing and Writing 3. Ed. Donald McQuade and Christine McQuade. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2006, p. 380.
Center for Media Literacy. What is Media Literacy? AMLA’s Short Answer and a Longer Thought. 2007. .
Hamburg, Paul. (1998). “The Media and Eating Disorders: Who is Most Vulnerable?” Public Forum: Culture, Media and Eating Disorders, Harvard Medical School.
Heins, Marjorie, and Christina Cho. “Media Literacy: An Alternative to Censorship.” Free Expression Policy Project. New York, NY, 2003, p. 2.
Kimmelman, Michael. “150th Anniversary: 1851 – 2001 The Assignment Is to Get the Story, but the Image Can Rise to Art.” Seeing and Writing 3. Eds. Donald McQuade and Christine McQuade. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2006, p 639.
Macionis, John. Society: The Basics. New Jersey, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007, p. 278.
Photojournalism. 14 October 2008. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 18 October 2008. .
Tiananmen Square Protest of 1989. 15 October 2008. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 18 October 2008. .
Wolf, Naomi. The Beauty Myth: How Images of Beauty Are Used Against Women. New York: Morrow, 1990, p. 10.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Media Literacy

...One way or another, media literacy has some affect on your life. I use media outlets for school, socially and for my job. I believe myself to be highly exposed to media and am working on raising my knowledge of media literacy. I often find myself duped by advertisements and buying into media agenda setting. I am trying to teach myself to not take something at face value but to instead take a media piece, understand it and then be able to enjoy it because of that connection (Baran, 24). It is important to dissect a media outlet, understand what their agenda is and form my own educated opinion on the product. Before I returned to school, I had earned an Associate’s Degree and had an impressive resume as far as occupations go. What I found is that because of the rise in competition and media literacy in the past five years, my previous job occupations mattered little. But was I being stereotypes as an uneducated female? Information is so easily accessible now that the bar has been raised. If you don’t allow your media literacy to become stronger you will be left behind. Students are being pushed because the information they need is there with a click of a button. When I was in high school, I was using a card catalog at the library. Now according to W. James Potter, 50% of 17.4 million incoming students arrive with a laptop and spend an average of 3.5 hours per day on the internet (Potter, 5). In order to get ahead, I have rejected media’s influence in some areas......

Words: 346 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mass Media: Development and Literacy

...University of Phoenix Material Mass Media: Development and Literacy Mass Media Developments in American Culture Place the following examples of mass media in the order of their appearance in American culture, from 1–4, in in the table below. Next, write a 250- to 350-word summary describing how each example of media affected American culture. Examples of Mass Media: • Television • The Internet • Print Newspaper • Movies |Examples of Mass Media |How did they affect American culture? | |1. Internet |Mass media affect American culture by allowing you to get a different point of view or | | |perspective from the people around you or across the world. When pertaining to the internet | | |you are able to connect with loved ones or family members across the country or even the | | |world through social media sites. Since the internet is so assessable to basically everyone | | |with the use of their smart phones it makes it very easy to look up anything at your | | |fingertips. You can use this for anything when wanting to find something. You are able to | | ......

Words: 724 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Media Literacy Education: Its Level of Implementation in Amontay National High School, Pitogo, Quezon

...to this progress as bounded by technologies, the generation is conceived to be known now as generation “M”. Media as the core of this generation is delivered such that it remarkably influences greater people globally. It is one of the most dominant forces as its messages are decoded by the youths which lead them in shaping their own perceptions. Research studies showed 2/3 of toddlers view television daily for 2 hours, and kids and teens view television daily for 4 hours plus 2 hours exerted for staying on a computer (www.articlesphere.com, 2010). New Generations Philippines (2009) revealed that 63 percent of children aged 7 to 14 years old regularly use the Internet (play games, watch videos, or access information for school requirements). About 62 percent of kids in that age group (13 to 14 years old) go online to access social networking compared to the 44 percent of users aged 11-12 years old. 43 percent of pre-teens also use the Internet for instant messaging. An alarming truth may be set with this situation; that an average Filipino child who reaches age 18 would have spent 16,000 more hours or a total of 667 days or 22 months watching TV than attending school (www.gmanews.tv). Hence, media literacy should be carried among the youths that this may be used to teaching-learning process. Hobbs (2004) indicated that students are growing up in a world saturated with media message yet, they receive little or no training in the skills of analyzing or...

Words: 755 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Thesis

...they are exposed to through media instead of simply living healthfully as they try to copy what they see as desirable in the media and are therefore losing their individuality. Annotated Bibliography: Alexandra Ossala (2010). The Media's Effect on Women's Body Imade. New York: Hamilton College. In this article, Arielle Cutler, explores the emphasis that woman have on how they view themselves, beauty standards set by society, how body image is impacted by the media and the impacts of all of this on young women. It goes on to explain how she spent a summer exploring the efficacy of media literacy programs to use as a solution to the cycle of media affecting women and their body image. Arielle Cutler's findings are that the cultural standards in American society believes that the beauty standard is to be thin. Cutler explains that there is great concern for this as being thin is accepted over being average and that the norm of being thin is obsessive and unhealthy in American society.  A study of girls, whom are European American and African American that are ages 7-12 years, when the media exposure is greater, such as television, they are more likely to have an eating disorder one year later and have a standard body image of being thin instead of average. The main people affected by higher exposure to media about body image are adolescent girls. As people are more aware of the effect that the media has on beauty standards and body image literacy programs have been started......

Words: 444 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Pre School Literature Program

...Jump to Navigation View your Cart Main menu * Home * Our Story * Blog * Store About 21st Century Skills * What are 21st century skills? * What are learning skills? * What are literacy skills? * What are life skills? * How can I teach 21st century skills? What are literacy skills? Literacy skills help students gain knowledge through reading as well as using media and technology. These skills also help students create knowledge through writing as well as developing media and technology. Information Literacy Students need to be able to work effectively with information, using it at all levels of Bloom's Taxonomy (remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating). Information literacy involves traditional skills such as reading, researching, and writing; but new ways to read and write have also introduced new skills: * Consuming information: The current excess of information requires students to gain new skills in handling it. When most information came through official publications like books, newspapers, magazines, and television shows, students encountered data that had been prepared by professionals. Now, much information is prepared by amateurs. Some of that work is reliable, but much is not. Students must take on the role of the editor, checking and cross-checking information, watching for signs of bias, datedness, and errors. Students need to look at all information as the product of a communication...

Words: 979 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Cdg218 Visual Literacy in Business

...surrender or to give up. That is a universal to all people regardless of a language barrier. When I think of visual literacy I immediately think of what I see and how I interpret what I see. Adding visual literacy to business now mean interpreting what I see while engaging with others. After breaking down what I think visual literacy is I can draw a educated conclusion that I agree with the text book more than Brian Kennedy’s video. The text book states that “a group of vision related competencies a human being can develop by seeing, and at the same time, having and integrating other sensory experiences… to communicate with others… and comprehend and enjoy visual communication” Visual Literacy learning to see William Ryan Copyright © 2012, Bridgepoint Education, Inc. That definition seems to hit it right on the head whereas in Brian Kennedy video he explains visual literacy as “the ability to construct meaning from images”. Mr. Kennedy definition seems to be missing important aspects when used in a particular subject. Taking what you can see and not only get meaning but relate that meaning to the subject at hand with your peers would be a more complete definition. The text book definition would be more accurate in today’s world. Being able to comprehend which is to understand what you see and discuss your understanding with other’s for class, on any social media site can help you engage in an informative discussion. Having a full understanding can also be......

Words: 412 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Musical Literacy

...Musical Literacy: The Stuff of Genius Keith Rulli COM 156 December 7, 2012 Karen Nowak Musical Literacy: The Stuff of Genius Literacy is the ability to read and write, which implies knowledgeability and capability of exercising one's ability through comprehension and expression. It is developed through learning and training in the intellectual and formal standards of a language. It is not a natural talent or innate capacity, therefore, it is not to be underestimated in importance. Standard, or formal English, differs from substandard, or informal English, as well as broken English and slang, because it is contrained by formal rules and elements. Language of a higher caliber is of greater worth because of its sophistication which breeds sophistication. People with a feebly sentimental attachment to their own nature and its affections may be complacently stifled from pursuing a sophisticated consciousness. Fluency and literacy are not the same. Fluency only requires a degree of understanding that gives one the ability to easily and readily express oneself. Often, illiterate or borderline illiterate individuals are able to speak and understand the English langauge in a basic way. People who speak the same language often speak different dialects identifiable by characteristic nuances. The concept of musical literacy is one that many people are unfamiliar with. Musical literacy is partially an understanding of the notation system that enables one to read......

Words: 2324 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Hci for Illiterates

...Human Computer Interaction Contents 1:Human Computer Interaction .....................................................................................................1 2:User's Classification Based on Literacy .....................................................................................1 2.1:Functional Illiterate .....................................................................................................1 2.2:Absolute Illiterate .........................................................................................................1 3:Interfaces for Absolute Illiterate...................................................................................................2 3.1:Visual Aids..............................................................................................................2 3.2:Audible instructions. ...............................................................................................2 3.3:Easy Navigations.....................................................................................................2 3.4: Text Free User Interfaces. ......................................................................................2 3.5:Combination of Visual and Audible instruction......................................................3 4:Recent Works for Illiterate ..........................................................................................................3 4.1:SmartPhone Application for Farmers ....

Words: 1195 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Government Transformation

...2.0 Defination Read phonetically   Dictionary - View detailed dictionary Government Transformation Programme (GTP) is the blueprint in Malaysia and designed to provide all Malaysians access to improved public services irrespective of race, religion and region. GTP was devised in accordance with the principles of 1Malaysia, People First, Performance Now. 3.0 Objective 1. To transform the Government to be more effective in it delivery of services and accountable for outcomes that matter most to the rakyat. 2. To move Malaysia forward to become an advanced, united, and just society with high standards of living for all. This is in line with the national mission of achieving Vision 2020 – for Malaysia to become a fully developed nation. 4.0 Strategy Dato Seri Najib Tun Razak (Prime Minister of Malaysia) introduced a series of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) in order to measure and improve the efficiency and quality of government services as well as realizing the 1Malaysia concept. KPIs were implemented to ensure the public satisfaction which is they are satisfied or not about the government’s service and whether the government had solved their problems. Dato Seri Najib Tun Razak has identified six major policy areas in which KPIs will play an especially important role in improving the effectiveness of the Malaysian government. These are known as National Key Result Areas (NKRAs). Challenges within each area have been divided into...

Words: 843 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Introduction to Research

...concerns which is known to be an essential part of developing globally-competitive and productive citizens. To achieve this, one of the best ways to build a strong foundation of technological literacy is to implement the use of digital media in schools to assist the teaching-and-learning process. Technology in classroom serves as a great partner of teachers to deliver a complete package of standard teaching. Learning process equipped with various visual media incorporated in lessons are much likely to awaken the learners’ interests to get involved than that of dominated by traditional way of teaching in which the center of information source are the teachers themselves. Gone were the days where Filipino children read passages from the back of used calendars. Teachers are also challenged at the same time that since one of the goals is to produce learners who will be able to respond to the current demands of the market, they must be very careful in using technology in teaching and bring out the best of it and ensure that this technique will heighten the learners’ skills and abilities. Moreover, technology in classroom is as much helpful to learners. With this, the first graders in school become oriented at their young age of different forms in technology which include computers and visual media. As K-12 learners, it will also be a requirement for them since the workforce nowadays demands for an individual to be literate in computers and other technological tools for them to......

Words: 396 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

E-Commerce

...average population growth rate of 1.41%, this is a clear indication that this population will increase more with time. When looking at the age structure, people who are 15-64 years old make up 65% of India's population and only 30% being under 15 years of age. This clearly indicates that India is composed of a rather young population. As per the 2011 census, literacy levels stand at around 74.04% and this is a significant progress from the 14.5% rate at the time of India’s independence in 1947, though the census still reveals that the adult literacy rate in India was more than 11% lower than the average World Adult Literacy Rate of 84% (Census of India, 2011c, p.101). Despite major reforms and programs intended to develop the education system, India is still struggling with low rates of illiteracy, especially in the country’s rural parts. Different states have been experiencing different rates of increase in literacy levels, although with very high disparities caused by the different classes of the Indian society. For instance, Kerala and Mizoram states are above the national average at 82.14%, while others like Bihar have a literacy level of about 65.46%...

Words: 26599 - Pages: 107

Premium Essay

Education

...ADULT LITERACY EDUCATION IN NIGERIA AND THE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. The need for adult literacy education in Nigeria cannot be over-emphasized. In the context of global economy and competitive markets, adult literacy is a key factor contributing to economic development. In all countries of the world, adults constitute a larger proportion of the work force. Therefore, human resource development through adult literacy education has become a key component within the overall strategy for economic restructuring both in the developed and developing countries. The future of global economy and democratic polity in the twenty-first century is likely to depend on skilled, educated, and enlightened adult citizens. It was the World Conference on Education for All, held in Jomtien, (Thailand) in 1990 that highlighted the critical importance of addressing the learning needs of adults. In the context of globalization, basic learning skills and competencies are necessary not only for children, but also for adults, who are valuable human resources of every society. The new technological developments in information and Communication technologies (ICTs), such as satellite radio and television broadcasting, long distance telephony, computers and telecommunications have dramatically expanded our options for engaging in learning and teaching at the individual, community and societal levels. The hallmark of ICTs is their distributive power and...

Words: 4411 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Pllp

...Bringing together creativity and literacy POSTED IN CREATIVE LITERACY We all know that literacy is the ability to read and write but the definition of creative is a little harder to define: it can be the ability to solve problems or being able to use your imagination. Bringing creativity and literacy together can be a powerful tool in teaching, writes Tonya Meers Creativity is characterised by originality and expressiveness, so it can mean making something or it can be something new and innovative. Sir Ken Robinson has said that “Creativity is about working in a highly focused way on ideas and projects, crafting them into their best forms and making critical judgements along the way.”       Bringing creativity and literacy together can be a powerful tool in teaching. It allows children to be active in literacy, from acting out plays through characters that they’ve made themselves or through making props. It allows children to explore their imaginations. Getting involved in a story re-enforces the learning and can also teach practical skills, for example, working with templates or basic sewing.      Children are naturally creative, if you stop and listen to them they often are natural storytellers. They love to make things up and will very often have imaginary worlds they will refer to. They also love to get involved in making things, giving them a sense of achievement.       If they are engaged they will learn more, so it’s about harnessing their ability to soak up......

Words: 4092 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Business

...Why is Visual Literacy Important? Traci Sizemore CGD 218 Visual Literacy in Business Stephen Simmons September 3, 2012 Why is Visual Literacy so Important? The ability to understand visual literacy you must be able to see your world, but is it the ability to just see things around you the clear definition of visual literacy? Of course not, it is much more than just being able to see. We will review the International Visual Literacy Association (IVLA) definition versus the information provided in a video “TedTalk” by Brian Kennedy, director of the Hood Museum of Art at Dartmouth College, how visual literacy is a universal language and finally how it impacts communication and global understanding. The International Visual Literacy Association (IVLA) definition of what visual literacy is A group of vision-related competencies a human being can develop by seeing, and at the same time, having and integrating other sensory experiences. [These competencies] enable a visually literate person to discriminate and interpret the visible actions, objects, and symbols that he [or she] encounters . . . to communicate with others . . . and comprehend and enjoy visual communication. (International Visual Literacy Association (IVLA, n.d.) (Ryan, 2012). This definition is stating that one should see the object but be able to critically think about the object. By critically thinking about the object we can view the object; understand and interpret it. When......

Words: 794 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Television over Paper

...Television over Paper There will always be news wherever you go. When you witness a certain event, the chances of you seeing a person or a group of persons reporting about that event will be high. Even the simple sharing of information around your friends is broadcasting news. There are many persons, groups, institutions, and media groups writing and reporting news; you can see them in television, newspapers, or even live from the event. In our society of today, you will observe many persons acquiring news on Television channels, and less people reading newspapers having almost 20 pages back to back. Both may have the same content, but many still choose television over newspapers. Filipinos resort to Television News over Newspapers because of Simple Literacy Status, Presentation, and the society we have now. Filipinos resort to TV news because a large percentage of Filipinos are only categorized as simple literate. Simple literate is defined as persons only understanding simple statements, and a survey from the National Statistics Coordination board gathered data stating that 93.4% of Filipinos are simple literate as of 2006 (NSCB). The language in written reports, papers, or novels differs from the language used when delivering it orally. For example, this is the 1st part of an article taken from the Guidon Newspaper: When putting it to oral presentation, the report can shorten the selection. It can be reported as: "The University President appealed...

Words: 800 - Pages: 4