Medicine

In: Historical Events

Submitted By td9dafalla
Words 512
Pages 3
TOPICS FOR THE 2ND ESSAY (Introduction to Problems of Philosophy, Weeks 6–10)

REVISED DUE DATE: THUR NOV 14th

* Matthews believes that Merleau-Ponty gives us better advice on how to treat demented patients than does Locke and Parfit. To what degree is Matthews right about this? * "There is a body and there is a mind. They are two radically different types of stuff. Merleau-Ponty's idea of a body-subject is incoherent." Do you agree? Why or why not? * Matthews believes that the demented patient John is the same person as the earlier non-demented John. If the earlier non-demented John wrote an advance directive, stating that in the event of incompetence he was not to be offered any life-saving treatment, what would Matthews say the doctor should do, and why? * Assess Nixon's contention that any belief that a radical sceptical scenario is possible – including Neo's belief that he was previously in the Matrix – must in fact be ‘self-defeating’. * Both Erion and Smith (22-25) and Nixon (28-30) argue that a distinction between ordinary versus philosophical conceptions of knowledge enables a successful response to the radical sceptical challenge. Do you agree? (Would Stroud agree?) * Does ‘the Matrix Possibility’ (or radical sceptical scenarios in general) even make sense? Assess Nixon's answer to this question. * Assess J. L. Austin’s criticisms of radical philosophical scepticism as discussed by Stroud. * Explain and evaluate the use to which Stroud puts the distinction between conditions of appropriate assertion and conditions of truth (Stroud 103–106). Do you agree with Stroud or Austin on this and why? * In relation to Stroud and Austin’s arguments, what do you think our everyday standards and procedures show – or fail to show – about radical scepticism in relation to the truth of our ordinary knowledge claims? *…...

Similar Documents

Personalized Medicine

...Running Head: PERSONALIZED MEDICINE PERSONALIZED MEDICINE Margaret Barnes SCl115-Introduction to Biology November 07, 2012 PERSONALIZED MEDICINE Personalized Medicine and Modern Genetics Technology: “Introduction” In today’s world DNA sequences are frequently and constantly improving, modern instruments can analyze DNA by the millions within a twenty-four hour period (Mader, 2010, P.178). Because of technology, these instruments have been made available now and in the future for the use of personalized medicinal products. This paper provides an overview of how modern genetic technology may lead to personalized medicine, and to give examples two or more specific benefits of personalized medicine: a discussion of its drawbacks and limitations of the approach to human medicine. “Modern Genetic Technology and Personalized Medicine” Modern technology is constantly growing in our world, for us to understand how modern genetic technology may lead to personalized medicine and the importance personalized medicine. Personalized medicine is the tailoring of medical treatment for an individual with the unique characteristics for each patient. This approach is a......

Words: 821 - Pages: 4

Hellenistic Medicine

...areas he conquered. Some important advancement in medicine and science were thus made, owing to the collaborative work of many Hellenistic intellectuals from Alexander’s former empire. The source of Greek knowledge about medicine came from Egypt, which was fairly well-developed by the Greece was entering its Golden Age. Greek figures such as Pythagoras traveled widely, and picked up discoveries from places and brought them back to Greece. Thales gained first-hand experience of medicine when he was training in Egypt. Similar to Greek medicine, Egyptian medicine also lied in religion and spirituality. The Egyptian god of medicine was Imhotep, whose role was analogous to that of Asclepius. People would pray to him and other gods for healing, and it was believed that gods played a role in matters of health and disease. Despite these religious origins and beginnings, Egyptian medicine was rather rational and scientific. Blood was thought to be an important nutritive and regulatory substance, and the heart was considered to be the center of the circulatory system. Along with the circulatory system, the influence of the respiratory system was also recognized. Being excellent recorders that Ancient Egyptians were, they recorded medical recipes that attributed to their god of healing. Other papyri records discussed the effects of various drugs and catalogued various diseases and their symptoms (“Greek Medicine: The History of Greek Medicine”). Hippocrates was an early physician......

Words: 2680 - Pages: 11

The Medicines Company

...In 1996, Clive Meanwell formed the Medicines Company whose corporate objective was to “acquire, develop and commercialize pharmaceutical products in late stages of development”. The company looked for abandoned drugs that met four specific criteria: 1) Required less than four years to get to the market 2) Required less than $60 Million to get to the market 3) Had at least a 65% chance of getting to market 4) Had the potential to generate at least $100 Million per year in sales In March 1997, the company got control of the rights to an anticoagulant called Angiomax which has been developed by Biogen but abandoned after test results showed it to be no more effective than the cheaper, entrenched alternative, Heparin. In December 2000, the Medicines Company received FDA approval for the use of Angiomax to prevent blood clots during angioplasties and by early 2001 had taken the drug to the market. The Value of Angiomax to hospitals Angiomax is a blood thinning drug, or anticoagulant which achieved Phase III clinical trials with Biogen, its pharmaceutical creator, in 1994. Upon trial III completion, further investment and trials for the drug were abandoned due to what was understood as marginal results and the forecast of high production costs. Its rights were later purchased by The Medicine Company who continued clinical trials, securing FDA approval and introducing Angiomax to the U.S. market in 2001. Heparin, is the most widely used prescribed drug for acute coronary......

Words: 689 - Pages: 3

Alternative Medicine

...Alternative medicine is not new. It is accepted that it pre-dates conventional medicine and it is still used by many people all over the world. I am unconvinced that it is dangerous, and feel that both alternative and conventional medicine can be useful. There are several reasons why the conventional medical community is often dismissive of alternatives.  Firstly, there has been little scientific research into such medicine, so there is a scarcity of evidence to support the claims of their supporters. Furthermore, people often try such treatment because of recommendations from friends, and therefore come to the therapist with a very positive attitude, which may be part of the reason for the cure. Moreover, these therapies are usually only useful for long-term, chronic conditions. Acute medical problems, such as accidental injury, often require more conventional methods. On the other hand, there remain strong arguments for the use of alternatives.  Despite the lack of scientific proof, there is a lot of anecdotal evidence to suggest that these therapies work. In addition, far from being dangerous, they often have few or no side effects, so the worst outcome would be no change. One of the strongest arguments for the effectiveness of alternative therapies in the West is that, whilst conventional medicine is available without charge, many people are prepared to pay considerable sums for alternatives. If they were totally unhelpful, it would be surprising if this continued. I......

Words: 283 - Pages: 2

Alternative Medicine

...Alternative Medicine vs. Conventional Medicine Nolan Roberts September 23rd, 2011 CHLH 100 Discussion: Thursday 9am Instructor: Charles Holmes When it comes to the use of alternative medicine, approximately 40 percent of the U.S. population has used alternative medicine in the past year (Nahin, Dahlhamer, and Stussman 2010). These days more people are turning to new areas when it comes to their health care and medication. Patients are looking for something different, not only because of the rising costs of conventional medicine, but also because of the dangerous side effects of conventional medicines. They are also trying to be more environmentally sound. Furthermore, people just aren't getting the care they want, or deserve, from their doctors. Alternative medicine has helped many people by giving them an alternative to conventional medicine's negative side effects, high costs and less natural development. Conventional medicine, though tested in laboratories and approved by the AMA and FDA, still has many side effects that seem to sometimes harm patients more than it helps them. This is partially due to negligent doctors who don't pay attention to all the medications their patients are taking. Also, because most of these drugs are synthetically made in a lab, rather than by nature, it can have negative effects on our bodies. They are given stamps of approval even when their side effects may harm people. It seems as long as the good they do outweighs......

Words: 657 - Pages: 3

Nuclear Medicine

...Nuclear Medicine Argosy University Nuclear medicine is a specialized branch of modern medicine that exploits the process of radioactivity for imaging, diagnosis, and treatment. Many imaging techniques inject small amounts of radioactive material into the body, which are then tracked by a sensing device specific to the type of radiation emitted from that material. Radiation has also been used to destroy diseased tissue, typically beyond the reach of standard surgical techniques. Nuclear Medicine is the medical specialty that uses unsealed sources of radiation (liquids and gases) for diagnosis and therapy. These unsealed sources are known as radiopharmaceuticals, drugs that emit radiation. Depending on the type exam a patient needs, the radiotracer is injected into the body, swallowed or inhaled as a gas. It will then eventually accumulate in the organ or area of the body being examined. Radioactive emissions from the radiotracer are detected by a special camera or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. Another radioactive treatment that’s used is called radioactive iodine therapy. It offers therapeutic procedures that use small amounts of radioactive material to treat cancer and other medical conditions affecting the thyroid gland. How to prepare for a nuclear medicine exam varies because each study is different but otherwise, the patient is given a small amount of radioisotope, either orally or by injection, to enhance the......

Words: 613 - Pages: 3

Medicine

...over the telephone, and overlooked changes in status.1 Lack of communication creates situations where medical errors can occur. These errors have the potential to cause severe injury or unexpected patient death. Medical errors, especially those caused by a failure to communicate, are a pervasive problem in today’s health care organizations. According to the Joint Commission (formerly the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, JCHAO), if medical errors appeared on the National Center for Health Statistic’s list of the top 10 causes of death in the United States, they would rank number 5—ahead of accidents, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease, as well as AIDS, breast cancer, and gunshot wounds.1 The 1999 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System, revealed that between 44,000 and 98,000 people die every year in U.S. hospitals because of medical errors.2 Even more disturbing, communication failures are the leading root cause of the sentinel events reported to the Joint Commission from 1995 to 2004. More specifically, the Joint Commission cites communication failures as the leading root cause for medication errors, delays in treatment, and wrong-site surgeries, as well as the second most frequently cited root cause for operative and postoperative events and fatal falls.1 Traditional medical education emphasizes the importance of error-free practice, utilizing intense peer pressure to achieve perfection during both......

Words: 7203 - Pages: 29

Nuclear Medicine

...Nuclear Medicine Radioactive tracers is the form of radiation they use within the human body when doing procedures such as CAT, MIBG, MRI, PET, and Gallium scans. Patients who undergo radioactive procedures are first given a small amount of radioisotope one of two ways oral or by injection. This radioisotope is pertinent to the procedure because it enhances the visualization on vascular structures and organs. The preparation is varies upon ordering physician however are relatively similar in protocol. For vascular patients it is recommended that the patient not have any caffeinated beverages 12 hours prior to the procedure and nothing to eat at least 4 hours before a procedure. Nuclear Vascular stress tests take approximately 3 hours to complete. All patients should wear comfortable lose fitting clothing and tennis shoes for comfort ability due to the nature of the testing which is done on a treadmill. The treadmill however, does not always provide enough information pertaining to the heart and hearts circulation. Nuclear stress tests then become the next phase which includes putting an IV into the arm and injecting a dose of radioisotope. The radiologist will then have you wait approximately 30 minutes and then take you down for pictures of your heart. After this is done the patient will begin walking on the treadmill and right before the procedure is over the radiologist will inject the patient again with radioisotope and then eat. After about a......

Words: 1157 - Pages: 5

Western Medicine Versus Traditional Medicine

...Jyn Allec R. Samaniego HNF 61 Z Mam Ma-Ann Zarsuelo May 7, 2015 Position Paper: Western Medicine versus Traditional Medicine The Limitations of Traditional Medicine from the Needs of the Society In this time of modern technologies, we have found new ways of treating and curing disease. However, traditional medicine that was derived from old cultures is still available. Some people still prefer this kind of method, but some stick to conventional one which is the western medicine. Western medicine is related to scientific method and emphasize measurable biochemical processes that drive disease, treatment and health. It relies on new modern technologies to alleviate disease and cure symptoms (“knowledgewharton”, n.d.) On the other hand,traditional medicine is the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness (Qi,n.d.) Is it still better to use traditional medicine? It may be natural, has less side effects and holistic but I think that is too old and slow compared to the western medicine which is more accurate, more advanced and is readily available. Traditional medicine may heal you but it is not optimized for effectiveness. It also takes time before it works. It may also contradict to your condition and may not be effective (“holistic”,n.d.)......

Words: 963 - Pages: 4

Medieval Medicine

...David Dubkov 24. Mar.2016 EAC 150 - Aleksandra Bida In the Middle Ages, medical knowledge was limited and remedies were not as effective as they are in the twenty first century. This is because the people of the Middle Ages did not have the vast and in depth knowledge of the human anatomy the way, we do today. They were not able to pinpoint the causes of most diseases, and as a result, were not able to cure them as effectively. People in the Middle Ages also had certain personal beliefs, which affected medical treatment. For instance, the people of medieval England believed that infectious diseases occurred due to the wrath of God because that individual was practicing unethical behaviour (Truman, Health and Medicine in Medieval England). Doctors of the Middle Ages even cured migraines by digging a hole into the skull. They believed that evil spirits were the cause of one’s pain and this was the way to release them. This method was ineffective, and was due to their beliefs, the lack of knowledge of the human body, and the use of unsanitary and dangerous methods of treatment (Trueman). The lack of knowledge stemmed from the fact that dissection was not commonly done. Nowadays, it is routine practise for a medical student to dissect dead animals and perhaps even a human body. This has allowed modern society to understand the workings of the human body on a deeper level. In this essay, I will explain how current day medical professionals have had more......

Words: 1216 - Pages: 5

Medicine

...vulnerable to coercion or undue influence, additional safeguards have been included in the study to protect the rights and welfare of these subjects." These regulations do not provide a definition of vulnerable subjects or an explanation of the causes of vulnerability, but they do provide the following list of examples of vulnerable subjects: "children, prisoners, pregnant women, handicapped, or mentally disabled persons, or economically or educationally disadvantaged persons." Other examples include: * Patients in emergency situations * Subjects who are marginalized in society (for example, Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual/Transgender individuals, undocumented workers) * Members of a group with a hierarchical structure, such as students in medicine, pharmacy, dental, and nursing subordinate hospital and laboratory personnel, and members of the armed forces * Patients with fatal or incurable diseases * The elderly * Persons in nursing homes * Unemployed or impoverished persons * Ethnic minority groups * Homeless persons, nomads, refugees While vulnerability is not a term clearly defined in the regulations, thinking of vulnerability as a limitation on autonomy provides a valuable tool for considering whether there are sufficient safeguards in a given research project to protect the rights and welfare of these subjects. Regulations for Waiving Informed Consent Sometimes, under specific circumstances with IRB approval, informed consent can be......

Words: 3525 - Pages: 15

Personalized Medicine

...Personalized Medicine SCI 115 Abstract Personalized medicine is a healthcare field that deals with the different and unique genomic, genetic, clinical, and environmental information of each person. Personalized medicine is based on making treatment or prevention of disease focus on the individual and the factors that do or will affect that particular individual. Some of the advantages of personalized medicine are the ability to make more informed medical decisions, earlier disease intervention, and reduced probability of negative side effects. Although there is a large upside to personalized medicine and the medical advantages that come along with it implementation, there lyes the challenge. The implementation of personalized medicine is the largest limitation. Whether it is lack of push from the healthcare industry or lack of proven technology to properly diagnose individual patients, personalized medicine is very young and has a long way to go. Personalized medicine or medical treatment that is unique to the individual definitely has it advantages. Some of those advantages are the ability to make more informed medical decisions, earlier disease intervention. Laberge and Burke (2008) describe personalized medicine as health care that is tailored to the individual. They go on to say that (Laberge and Burke 2008) recently the term has been used to refer specifically to genetically-based health care. Some of the drawbacks to personalized medicine according to......

Words: 839 - Pages: 4

Personalized Medicine

...have been breakthrough and impressive. The benefits of personalize medicine are easily recognized. The major benefits of personalized medicine are early diagnostics and, medication and treatments are personalized to an individual for maximum results. Diagnostics use molecules to measure the levels of genes, mutation, and proteins that can be used in the provision of specified therapy that fits the patient health condition. (Science daily, 2010). Our DNA and genes can determine the likelihood of an individual developing certain diseases and how an individual can react to certain medication and treatments. With personalized medicine, medical professionals can analyze a patients genome and identify risk factors to intervene and begin a treatment plan that will best cure/treat/delay the disease of that particular patient. Personalized medicine can change the way professionals approach diseases and illnesses. It has the ability to alter healthcare to further fit their individual needs. Using the individuals genome, personalized medicine has become a future possibility. Personalized medicine is developing medicine, specifically for the individuals genetic makeup and therefore, the effectiveness of treatments for diseases is more effective for each specific patient. Medicine and treatments can be customized to an individual's medical care, to better treat that individual's specific needs. Personalized medicine will be a huge part of the future of medical field. ......

Words: 577 - Pages: 3

Personalized Medicine

...Personalized Medicine Kenneth Weddle Strayer University Science 115 Professor Meri Stanec May 21, 2012 Personalized Medicine Personalized medicine refers to the medical model that entails the customization of healthcare. Under personalized medicine, all the decisions and practices relating to an individual patient are advanced using genetic or any other vital pieces of information. The emergence of personalized medicine has helped in the reduction of costs, time, and the rate of failure of pharmaceutical clinical trials, has eliminated trial and error inefficiencies in the diagnosis of diseases, and has aided in the prescription of effective drugs and averted those that pose dangerous side effects to patients. This essay explicates the manner in which genetic technology may contribute to personalized medicine, examples of the benefits of personalized medicine, and drawbacks of personalized medicine. Modern genetic technology has played an instrumental role in leading to personalized medicine. It has led to in depth understanding of the impacts of genetics in a given disease. The understanding of the impacts of the disease has helped in the development of personalized medicine, as practitioners are able to identify the correct prescription for different diseases. Modern genetic technology has also led to personalized medicine by helping practitioners understand the significance of genes in the normal......

Words: 680 - Pages: 3

Alternative Medicine

... There are many other alternatives to modern methods of medical treatment. With modern medicine being the standard there must be unconventional routes that one can take to achieve the goal of good health. Those alternatives include acupuncture, herbal remedies and yoga. Though modern medicine can be diverse it also can be very complex and in contradiction with the human body. Most medicine is animal based and experimented on animals and sometimes even humans. But can our expectations be a little euphoric for positive results set on miraculous when using animal based medicines? Moreover we cannot negate the fact that modern medicine and medical treatment has helped people avoid and control diseases for several decades. Reports show that since 1970 the death rate has decreased on average of 60% and strokes and death are down 70%. Cancer has dropped 16% since 1990 and HIV/AIDS death rate has decreased more than 75% since its peak in 1995. Therefore we cannot attempt to discredit the breakthroughs and innovations of modern medicine. Some of the biggest problems we can find in the way Medicine is practiced today are: 1. Modern Western Medicine is based on a narrow “scientific” model, and arrogantly ignores and rejects therapies and entire medical systems that don’t fit this model. 2. Doctors are trained in hospitals in “crisis care” medicine, not to take care of the “walking wounded,” which is the majority of people. They need to be trained to......

Words: 1775 - Pages: 8