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Mental Illness

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MENT Mental Illness Paper 1

Mental Illness Paper HCA/240 Maria Rios February 4, 2012 Latrina Frazier

Mental Illness Paper 2 Mental Illness Paper ADHD is a neurobehavioral disorder generally characterized by the following symptoms: inattention,

distractibility, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. There are different types of ADHD. ADHD is classified into three

subtypes: predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type, which is behavior marked by hyperactivity and

impulsivity, but not inattentiveness. Predominantly inattentive type, behavior marked by inattentiveness, but not

hyperactivity and impulsivity. Combination type, this is a combination of hyperactivity/impulsivity and

inattentive symptoms. This is the most common type of ADHD. In the United States, about 4.7 million children

ages 3-17have been diagnosed at some point with ADHD. This accounts for 7.4% of all American children in

this age range. Symptoms of ADHD usually occur around the age of 7. Studies indicate that ADHD symptoms

in preschool children with ADHD do not differ significantly from older children. The classic ADHD symptoms

do not always adequately describe the child's behavior, nor do they describe what is actually happening in the

child's mind. Some researchers have focused on deficits in "executive functions" of the brain to understand and

describe all ADHD behaviors. Such impaired executive functions in ADHD children can cause the following

problems: inability to hold information in short-term memory, impaired organization and planning skills,

difficulty in establishing and using goals to guide behavior, such as selecting strategies and monitoring tasks,

inability to keep emotions from becoming overpowering, inability to shift efficiently from one mental activity to

another. Misconceptions about ADHD are there is no such medical condition as ADHD. ADHD is caused by

bad parenting. All child needs is good discipline. ADHD is a life sentence. The diagnosis of ADHD is

confirmed if certain medications have positive effect on what seems to be symptoms of ADHD. Medications

prescriptions for ADHD have greatly increased in the past few years because the condition is being over-

diagnosed. Psychostimulants are no longer useful after puberty. Children with ADHD are learning to use the

condition as an excuse for their behavior. Children outgrow ADHD. And if a child has ADHD, he or she can

always be diagnosed in the health professionals’ office.

It isn’t that children with ADD/ADHD can’t pay attention: when they’re doing things they enjoy or

hearing about topics in which they’re interested, they have no trouble focusing and staying on task. But when

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the task is repetitive or boring, they quickly tune out. Staying on track is another common problem. Children

with ADD/ADHD often bounce from task to task without completing any of them, or skip necessary steps in

procedures. Organizing their schoolwork and their time is harder for them than it is for most children. Kids with

ADD/ADHD also have trouble concentrating if there are things going on around them; they usually need a

calm, quiet environment in order to stay focused. The most obvious sign of ADD/ADHD is hyperactivity.

While many children are naturally quite active, kids with hyperactive symptoms of attention deficit disorder are

always moving. They may try to do several things at once, bouncing around from one activity to the next. Even

when forced to sit still which can be very difficult for them their foot is tapping, their leg is shaking, or their

fingers are drumming. Symptoms of inattention in children are: the child does not pay attention to details,

makes careless mistakes, has trouble staying focused, appears not to listen when spoken to, has difficulty

remembering things and following instructions, has trouble staying organized, planning ahead, and finishing

projects, gets bored with task before its completed, and frequently loses or misplaces homework, books, toys,

and other items. Symptoms of hyperactivity in children are: constantly fidgets and squirms, often leaves his or

her seat in situations where sitting quietly is expected, moves around constantly, often runs or climbs

inappropriately, talks excessively, has difficulty playing quietly or relaxing, is always “on the go,” as if driven

by a motor, may have a quick temper or a “short fuse”. ADHD neurotransmitters could very well be the key to

performing at the highest level in professional, academic, and athletic situations. Neurotransmitters are tiny

little molecules in your brain that allow different parts of the brain to communicate with each other. These

molecules convert electrical signals from the brain into chemical signals. The messages remain in their chemical

form until they cross the gap between neuron cells. The chemical messages are then converted back to electrical

signals and transmitted through other neurons until the signals reach their final destination in the brain or other

part of the body. The ability of your neurotransmitters to function properly, that is to receive and transmit

signals effectively, is dependent on several factors. ADHD neurotransmitters can also be improved by the

edition of b-complex vitamins such as vitamin B3 and vitamin B12. In addition, neurotransmitters can be

improved by participating in activities which are not normally part of your daily routine. These new activities

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help stimulate different areas of the brain that are not normally used. The bottom line is that the brain enjoys

change and it rewards those who activate as many parts of it as possible with improved neurotransmitter


No single test can diagnose a child as having ADHD. Instead, a licensed health professional needs to

gather information about the child, and his or her behavior and environment. A family may want to first talk

with the child's pediatrician. Some pediatricians can assess the child themselves, but many will refer the family

to a mental health specialist with experience in childhood mental disorders such as ADHD. The pediatrician or

mental health specialist will first try to rule out other possibilities for the symptoms. For example, certain

situations, events, or health conditions may cause temporary behaviors in a child that seem like ADHD. A

specialist will also check school and medical records for clues, to see if the child's home or school settings

appear unusually stressful or disrupted, and gather information from the child's parents and teachers. Coaches,

babysitters, and other adults who know the child well also may be consulted. ADHD ahs no cure but there are

many treatments to decrease the symptoms. In return you will improvement in school or work performance,

relationships with others will improve and self esteem will increase. No single treatment works for every

individual. Treatment options should be explored with a health care provider who will consider the patient's

needs, and family, medical, and personal history. Some people respond well to medications, some to behavioral

interventions, many respond to a combination of the two. Counseling, education, and support services are often

helpful. Typically, a multimodal approach to treatment works best. Medications that have been found to be

effective are Ritalin, Dexedrine, Concerta, Metadata, Focalin, and Adderall.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was recognized and described long before it became

known as ADD and eventually as ADHD. In 1902, an English pediatrician, Sir George Still, described a group

of children who were disobedient, emotional, and uninhibited. He blamed these behaviors on biology, having

discovered that some of the children had other family members with psychiatric disorders. Early theories were

that these children were the victims of poor parenting, and more discipline was the best treatment. As our knowledge of ADHD has evolved, so have the name of this commonly diagnosed disorder and recommended Mental Illness Paper 5

treatments for it. Today we know that younger children are more likely to show hyperactivity ADHD symptoms and older children or adults are more likely to have symptoms of inattention. For most people with
ADHD, symptoms are mixed and they change over time," explains Hunter. To be diagnosed as one of these
ADHD types, children must have six or more symptoms that fall into that category type. Examples of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms include inability to sit still, constant talking, and constant interruptions.
Symptoms of inattentive ADHD may include being easily distracted or bored, difficulty focusing, daydreaming, or being unable to follow directions. As the symptoms of ADHD have been categorized, doctors and mental health professionals have created a checklist of symptoms that define ADHD and the subtypes of hyperactive- impulsive and inattentive ADHD.ADHD is now one of the most common childhood disorders diagnosed and it is increasingly recognized as continuing into adulthood.

Mental Illness Paper 6 Resource

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