Free Essay

Mentally Ill Inmates

In: Other Topics

Submitted By latina661
Words 2481
Pages 10
Introduction 3
Population of Mentally Ill Inmates in the Correctional Facilities 3
Mentally ill inmates: The Cost 4
The Treatment of Mentally Ill Inmates 6
Selection Process for Mentally Ill Inmates 7
Isolation and Restraints 9
Conclusion 11
References 12

When a person thinks about a correction facility many only think that there is only regular criminals that are perfectly well, but what they neglect to know is that it is also housed with mentally ill inmates as well. Many of the people has been brained washed by media and movies that prisoners are to be normal criminals who have done things wrong in which has lead into a correction facility but what the fail to publicize is that they are also house by people who are not mentally stable, and who may receive different treatment from regular inmates. Correctional facilities have many types of inmates and undergo various dilemmas therefore they must try to deal with the cost of the inmates, provide different treatment and must undergo special screening in order to determine if they are ill or not.
Population of Mentally Ill Inmates in the Correctional Facilities
The country that has the greatest rate of adult imprisonment is the United States; it has 2.2 million presently in the correctional facilities (Annaceri, 2007). Individuals with psychological problems have been progressively more imprisoned within the last three decades, most likely the consequence of the deinstitutionalization of the state psychological system (Annaceri, 2007). Correctional institutions have developed into the in effect state hospice, and they are much dangerously and indefatigably psychologically ill in jail instead of a regular state hospice (Annaceri, 2007).
An efficient analysis of “ 62 assessment of the imprisoned populace from 12 Western countries 3 found that, amongst men, 3.7 percent had psychotic problems, 10 percent had serious depression, and 65 percent a behavior disorder, including 47 percent with unsociable behavior disorder. Amongst women, 4 percent had psychosis, 12 percent had serious depression, and 42 percent a behavior disorder (Annaceri, 2007).” Additionally, a considerable number of inmates suffer from anxiety disorders, which include post-traumatic stress disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, such as psychological retardation (Annaceri, 2007). Many of these prisoners were underprivileged and not well-educated. In 2006 the U.S. Department of Justice conducted a study and establish that more than half of all correctional facilities’ prisoners have a psychological dilemma weighed against that 11 percent of the common inhabitants, but it was found that one out of three convicts will obtain some type of psychological help (Annaceri, 2007).
Mentally ill inmates: The Cost
The correctional facilities provide their own employees and clinics that are certifying to provide medical care to the convicts. Do to the escalating health, staff expenses, it causes to be deficient in having competent health care experts to be employed in penitentiaries, not having a visionary correctional leadership, and rising legal action, increasingly states have private psychological and medical treatment (Hills, Ickowitz & Siegfried, 2004). Approximately 25 states and many inner-city detention centers have agreements with private companies to obtain health treatments. Presently, some states for example, Connecticut, Oklahoma and Texas they obtain their health services by using medical schools entirely. Other help array from undersized personal companies for psychological treatments with a variety of contracts for employees and services to assist with private correctional health corporations as long as mutually medical and mental health care (Hills, Ickowitz & Siegfried, 2004).
The medication expenses are a considerable factor to the general mental treatment costs in corrections, and normally it has elevated approximately 15 to 20 percent yearly. Consequently, prescription drugs frequently grow to be the objective of belligerent cost decrease by private health care providers. A frequently utilized approach to manage expenditure is to institute a controlled list of elder age group psychotropic’s and basic agents that are a lesser amount of cost and persist the psychiatrist to order medicine from a restricted list (Prins & Draper, 2009). Control and cost inhibition measures are interceded by means of a coexisting non formulary evaluation of the course in which takes time away for the psychiatrist. The assessor that is in employment is placed in a position in which they have to administer the psychopharmacologic practice steady with conventional principles while having to manage expenses to compose a revenue, even at the expenditure of eminence of care (Prins & Draper, 2009).
Modern drugs progress the eminence of existence of criminals. The most important thing is that they aid to diminish largely health expenses by plummeting enduring hospitalization, urgent situation admittance to psychiatric and circuitous expenses linked with transport of criminals to DMH facilities. (Prins & Draper, 2009). According to a recent study on drug costs: it is known that prescribed drugs are expenditure as a portion of health care expenses in the U.S., comparing it to a hospital and physician treatment: 32 v. 22% correspondingly, being that pharmaceuticals to contain health treatment charge is doubtful as a momentous reduction method and possibly will outlay the health system dollars if it allows restrictive admittance. The incongruity to facilitate cost cutback actions can be capable to raise the expense of care perhaps accurate of the correctional organization too. (Prins & Draper, 2009).
The Treatment of Mentally Ill Inmates
Treatment dilemma and troubles is a consequence do to the escalating frequency of the acutely and indefatigably psychologically ill in a penal complex are outstandingly considerable, the condition of an emergent keen care psychiatric housing in corrections by state finances to correctional facilities from the mental health department. Several correctional facilities have decided with state division of psychological health for giving sharp care (LasKlugiewiczt, 2011) This method generates everyday expenditure related with the convey of criminals from coming and going and security apprehension, as well as interdepartmental inconsistency and contact tribulations intrinsic in the differentiation among managing criminals and managing patients (Faiver, 1998).
Inconsistency usually entail admittance criterion, stage and category of treatment, formulary distinctions, and restrictions of any method can and cannot do concerning accommodating and subsidiary rehabilitation and ability to see any medical records. In addition, divergence might also take place in the part of managing behavior breaches when the convict proceeds back into jail (Faiver, 1998). The compensation of psychiatric care division in detention centers incorporates generating a therapeutic environment dependable as correction method of a mission; secure and appropriate performance of specific cures, for instance an obligated administration of any medication without the consent of the prisoners such as Washington v. Harper criterion for the grimly disabled criminal who is uncooperative; and proper implementation of therapeutic restraints and isolation (LasKlugiewiczt, 2011)
Suicide is foremost cause of fatality in United States and centralized prisons, surpassing only by AIDS and natural causes. Complete suicide deterrence curriculums in corrections are escalating significance to professionals in mental health, correctional administrators, and others as it is a search for to revitalize criminals and keep away from lawsuits that frequently take place from convict suicides (Prins & Draper, 2009).
An inclusive analysis of national and international research visibly show that “Convict suicide occur from a multifaceted collection of consistent and self-reinforcing risk factors. These danger issues include psychological illness, substance misuse, prior serious suicide attempts; chronic stresses of incarceration. As for acute psychosocial stressors it includes parole delay, death of someone who is important to them, rape and personnel inaccuracy or omission (Prins & Draper, 2009). “ Ground-breaking and complete help programs in correctional facilities, a few with modern leisure activity procedures for psychologically ill criminals and prisoner community reentry plans, are needed to be followed to avoid a soaring rate of relapse and the existence of illness or disease of prisoners and to assist their modification into society. (Prins & Draper, 2009).
Selection Process for Mentally Ill Inmates
The growing figures of criminals with considerable psychological illness and substance abuse disorders that go into correctional facilities have made it crucial for correctional administrator to develop guiding principle and measures that will categorize and treat the individuals. Applying effectual test and assessment practices facilitates maintaining the finest stage of security and protection for workers, inmates, and the community. Moreover, implementing nationwide selection and review procedures diminishes the danger of lawful action against the correctional facility. The procedure of distinguishing and assessing these inmates are done with the national standards and guidelines, which are shown below. These procedures summarize and consist of information on arrangement, employees, and follow-up. Criminals that are incoming to the prison system are to be tested for psychological health and substance abuse for clinical and legal grounds (Hills, Ickowitz & Siegfried, 2004). Selection and evaluation for psychological illness:
• recognize persons at danger for injuring themselves and others.
• establish if the prisoner is able of carrying out normally in the correctional facility.
• verify if the prisoner ought to be relocated to the psychological department.
• conclude if the prisoner can be helped with the treatment that the prison provides.
(Hills, Ickowitz & Siegfried, 2004).
The majority of correctional facilities authorities recognize the knowledge and lawful requirement of selecting and evaluating convicts for psychological problems. To determine if they are mentally ill inmates is still very challenging. The correctional staff, occasionally with imperfect guidance, has to differentiate between prisoners who are showing signs of a severe psychological illness from individuals that are indolent or in result of an adjustment disorders. An obscuring aspect is that a numerous number of people that do have a mental illness do not admit that they have it or they just do want anyone to know (Hills, Ickowitz & Siegfried, 2004)..
An inmate’s apparent expression of peculiar thoughts or actions or any type of miss behavior will place them under suicide watch, and will be giving medication or be placed on lock down. Additionally, inmates often take advantage of other peers’ weaknesses. The consequences of that is that convicts might not to report their problems, and significant time could go by prior to a convict’s psychological problems is revealed and identified. Alongside with preliminary testing, enduring techniques are required to recognize developing psychological health problems within the convict population. A few convicts do not have any prior psychological condition but as soon as they go into the correctional facilities the problems may develop (Faiver, 1998).
The quicker these troubles can be recognized and treated, the faster these inmates can amend and handle with their surroundings. As a result, it is imperative that all correctional officers be taught to identify symptoms of mental illness. A prisoner with psychological problems are more visible and causes troubles quicker than regular inmates because they just want the attention and for those that are quiet or depressed are much harder to distinguish. In which it makes it harder for correctional officers to notice if they do have any problems. Counselor and nursing employees usually should be careful of all the inmate population as well to observe those who have psychological problems (Faiver, 1998).
Isolation and Restraints
It is very difficult to find secure, humanitarian, and disciplinary techniques in order to manage convicts who are having any symptoms of psychological problems are an unending test for correctional employees. The temperament of severe psychological illness may generate foremost troubles for running the actions of these convicts. Various warning sign of severe psychological problems might have consequence in inmates’ in which they violate the prisons regulations. Prison employees must toil to sustain regulation in their correctional facilities other than working to evade punishing inmates with psychological problems for misconducts that caused by their illness. Convicts with psychological disorders which do not understand the regulations or are incapable to manage their actions frequently find themselves into problem and are discipline yet when they have moderate accountability, conception, or self-control (Hills, Ickowitz & Siegfried, 2004).
The American Psychiatric Association has articulated distress that convict that have complexity of understanding the prisons regulation do to their mental illness in which will results into segregation rooms in correction facility with not enough psychological services (APA, 2000).This apprehension is delicate when it comes to maximum secure facilities, in results that prisoners could waste time in separation in the rooms. Solitary confinement can cause tremendous amounts of anxiety for a psychologically ill being and be able to endorse and intensify their sickness (Faiver, 1998).
Both isolation and motorized things that are used in certain situations are to protect psychologically ill prisoners from doing harm to themselves and others. Since of the soaring of possible mishandling of these equipment for example to control or penalize an convict instead of a therapeutic intervention, to be more precise the articulated policies and measures ought to be placed to only allow the use of the equipment and what circumstances they can be used. When the restraints are utilized for therapeutic interventions by the staff, there are certain requirements that are needed to be followed such as:
• The facility need to have written rules and regulations.
• Allowed to use soft restraints.
• A medical doctor or health provider is allowed by law to request restraints or seclusion.
• Health employees are allowed to use restraints or seclusion of a method a treatment and not for penalizing or detention motive.
• The use of restraints or seclusion can only be used for less than 12 hours.
• Criminals in restraints or seclusion are required to be checked by the corresponding officer for every 15 minutes.
(Hills, Ickowitz & Siegfried, 2004)
After all the research that has been collected and analyze it is found that there are many mentally ill inmates in the correctional facilities. There are very important issues with these inmates such as not having funding to provide the medications required and not having enough staff that are trained to take care of these inmates. They have problems also with taking advantage with the restraints because many of the employees take punishment into their own hands and do not follow the rules at all. I think that from everything that I have read and written I think that issues that arise now should taken into more consideration and seriously because it is important to keep these inmates safe and secure form other inmates because they can be taken advantage of.

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Psychiatric services in jails and prisons, Second Edition.Washington,DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Annaceri, D. (2007, December). Journal of the american academy of psychiatry and the law online. Retrieved from
Faiver, K.L. (Ed.) (1998). Health care management issues in corrections. Lanham, MD:American Correctional Association.
Hills, H., Ickowitz, A., & Siegfried, C. (2004). Retrieved from National Institute of Corrections website:
LasKlugiewiczt, G. (2011, October 24). Responding to mentally ill inmates. Retrieved from
Prins, J., & Draper, L. (2009). Improving outcomes for people with mental illness under community correction supervision. New York: MacArthur. Retrieved from

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Mentally Ill in Prison

...Mentally Ill in Prison PSCH/610 Mentally Ill in Prison Abstract The increase in incarcerated individuals with mental illness in the preceding decades has made the prison system a prevalent mental health provider even though they are not prepared or equipped for such task. Prison life is tough on an individual’s mental health; overcapacity, lack of privacy, violent behavior, lack of activity, inadequate health services, seclusion from family and friends, and the insecurity of what life holds after prison contribute to the inmate’s mental health. Inmates whose judgment is altered or impaired by depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and other severe mental illnesses are impacted more severely by the tribulations of prison life. Inadequate mental health services is also something mentally ill inmates face, this absconds them undertreated or mistreated. Numerous prisoners do not receive proper psychotropic medication due to the lack of mental health services and care, further impairing their capability to function. The security mission of prisons tends to overlook mental health considerations. Prison rules and codes of demeanor teach staff about security, safety, supremacy, and power. Coordinating the needs of the mentally ill with prison regulations and goals is almost impractical. Factors of the sources and effects of the concern between prison and mental illness will be observed in this research proposal. Reforms will be provided to improve mental health...

Words: 4562 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Special Offenders

...alcohol addicts or abusers, the emotionally disturbed, mentally retarded, suspected mentally ill, physically handicapped, chronically ill, the disabled or infirm, those with documented custody issues and those with limited academic ability or learning disability “(Prison Glossary)”. With that being said there are many special needs prisoners, one that many people are familiar with are the mentally ill, and substance abusing. There are many other illnesses then obvious ones, some prisoners have physical problems, others have infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, while some have serious substance abuse issues. One special offender no one thinks about is the elderly offenders in 2007 over ten percent of inmates in prisons were 50 years or older and many with serious health problems. Mentally ill and substance abusing prisoners In this paper I will be discussing the two common types of special needs offenders, the mentally ill and the substance abusing offenders. Among the prison population there are mentally ill prisoners, special needs offenders, and substance-abusing offenders. These special offenders affect the jail and prison systems at state and federal levels because they require special attention. If they do not receive special attention like doctor supervision or prescribed medication, they can harm themselves or others, and become sick from substance related illnesses. Mentally ill offenders must have access to mental health......

Words: 958 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Inmate Disciplinary Concerning Mental Health

...An effective system of inmate discipline is very important when running a prison or jail. Usually, mentally ill inmates have had few or no protections against discipline routinely applied to their non-mentally ill peers. Arising from recent class action lawsuits challenging the quality of mental health care delivery in the nation’s prisons, prison mental health professionals have been called on to play an increasing role in the inmate disciplinary process. Referral questions include whether an inmate is competent to proceed with disciplinary proceedings and whether mental illness may have contributed to the rule violation. Prison mental health professionals participating in inmate disciplinary proceedings must therefore be familiar with relevant clinical, legal, and ethics issues. Little has been written in the psychiatric literature, however, examining this important role for prison mental health professionals. After first reviewing core legal and constitutional concepts, the author presents the results of a nationwide survey examining the role for mental health professionals in the inmate disciplinary process. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first study to provide a comprehensive review of this subject. Most prison systems have procedures for punishing prisoners who violate prison rules and for removing inmates from the general population for disciplinary or safety reasons. (For the purpose of this article, the terms “prisoner” and “inmate” will be used......

Words: 4795 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Treatment of Mentally Ill Prisoners

...Assignment 2: Treatment of Mentally Ill Prisoners 1.0 The Treatment of Mentally Ill Prisoners The treatment of mentally ill inmates has been not only a public concern, but has also been identified by Canada’s Correctional Investigator, Howard Sapers as an issue of concern in his 2014 report to parliament. Between 1997 and 2007, offenders entering the prison system with a mental disorder grew 71% in men and 61% in women (Canadian Mental Health Association, 2012). The problem at hand is that correctional institutes and their staff are not widely trained to deal with inmates who suffer from mental disorders. The result then, is that use-of-force interventions, and placement in solitary confinement, often for extended periods of time, are used as methods of dealing with unruly behaviours exhibited by these mentally ill offenders. While there are various issues surrounding mental health in the Canadian judicial system, for the purpose of this report, the discussion will be focused around inadequate methods for dealing with behaviours presented by these inmates, namely by use-of-force and solitary confinement 1.1 Use-Of-Force Techniques In Sapers 2014 report, it is reported that “28% of all use of force interventions involved an offender with a mental health concern as identified by the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC)” (Ministry of Public Safety, 2014). This is likely due to the fact that mentally ill inmates are more likely to self-harm, have unpredictable......

Words: 1710 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

The New Asylums

...March 26, 2012 Frontline “The New Asylums” In this video, Frontline discuss the high number of the mentally ill that are incarcerated in prison. Looking at Ohio’s correctional system the video attempts to claim many of societies criminals are mentally ill. While the video does show there is a problem in the prison system with mentally ill inmates not receiving the required help that they need it doesn’t touch on the point that the majority of those inmates are trying to work the system. Alternatively, the inmate is attempting to get away with the crime based on a defense of mental illness. As a former Deputy Jailor with a Sheriff’s Department with 5 years experience I have first hand knowledge of the penal system. The jail I worked at could house any type of inmate for up to ten years. We served some inmates who did have a lifetime sentence but they would only be at our facility for ten years or less. I had a variety of responsibilities while I was there to include: dispensing medication, having one on one contact, and extractions from cells when an inmate failed to comply with directions. The majority of the inmates received medication many of which would never take these medicines when released. A great majority of these meds were for mental illness. The majority of those who received such medication were quite functional, and compliant to jail directives. These inmates were choosing to follow directives, which had nothing to do with the medication. I’ve seen these......

Words: 713 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ip English

... 2/19/12 SUFFERING 2 ABSTRACT The mentally ill unfortunately commit crimes that they may or may not be aware of. The problem is that there needs to be a system put in place that will work for the criminal justice system the potential criminal. We need to be able to identify what type of person we are dealing with and do what is best per that situation, not just assume everybody is guilty and possibly ruin their life. SUFFERING 3 The mentally ill often times make mistakes or are accused of crimes that usually send them to jail. The problem (for me) is knowing when it is okay to justify these criminal like acts or decided whether the person should be put into a situation where they can get help or go to jail. Is it really safe, necessary, or proper precaution to incarcerate a mentally ill person? Safety should be the main concern for a mentally ill person that is institutionalized. Putting them in big populations of people could be dangerous. Their reactions to situations are usually different than most normal thinking people. With that being said, they could actually end up spending way more time......

Words: 1045 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Chemical Dependancy

...privately owned prisons. With that said, the system has evolved through trial and error. Some prison systems are agricultural and are found mostly in the southern states where inmates work on farm systems. These systems were products of the pre-civil war days of slavery where the inmate works in the cotton fields, hoe squads and planting vegetables for the prison. Some states have abandoned this method because negative reactions from farm organizations, whose members argue that competition from state prisons, were unfair with the free labor from prisoners. Correctional functions prisons provide essential medical, dental, and mental health services. Correction clients may also have access to legal books and or services to aide in their legal research and to prepare legal documents. Some institutions even offer various programs in literacy, parenting skills, adult continuing education and provide library services. In addition to what might be considered the "traditional" institutions, there are many other alternatives that corrections may choose to use. Some of these options include Pre-trial Release, Parole, Probation. Some prisons offer on-the-job-training through institution job assignments. All in all, corrections encompass a large part of our criminal justice system. The inmates are entitled to medical care and attention as needed to treat both short-term conditions and long-term illnesses. The medical care provided must be adequate. Another legal......

Words: 825 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Who Distinguishes Evil from Illness?

...Who Distinguishes Evil from Illness? By age 30 Andrea Yates had been high school class valedictorian, captain of the swim team, an officer in the National Honor Society, graduated from the University of Houston as a registered nurse, wedded and had her first child. It seemed Yates’s ambition of fulfilling her life with all her hopes and dreams could not be diverted. The Yates family was very religious and Bible reading was an enjoyed pass time within the household. Around 1990, Andrea’s internal issues came to the surface with her self-mutilation accompanied by a suicide attempt, which was followed by a short admission into a psychiatric ward. When released her mood had stabilized from a newly prescribed anti-psychotic with her life looking up. This cycle, unfortunately, insisted on continuing on three separate occasions before Andrea was diagnosed with major depressive disorder and post-partum depression. Yates was warned that if she were to become pregnant again it was highly likely the episodes of psychotic behavior would resurface. She began to grasp the magnitude of her mental health and was readily taking her medications despite the begging and pleading from her husband for another child. Nonetheless, Andrea gave in and the pregnancy of her 5th child began in 2000. In the events of her newborn’s birth, discontinuation of her anti-psychotic, and the passing of her father, Andrea’s spiral into depression was more catastrophic than ever. June 20th, 2001, her husband......

Words: 2291 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Prisoners with Special Needs

...Special Needs There are many inmates in prisons that have different special needs. Some of these needs are based on whether the inmates are male or female. Males have some special needs to take care of their selves that females do not and vice versa. Then there are those who suffer from a mental illness. Their special needs are much different than those who have basic needs. People who suffer from substance abuse have needs in the area of addiction. All these different kinds of people with diverse needs effect the jails and prisons in various ways. If people were not cared for properly there would be negative repercussions. There are programs in prisons that allow these prisoners to be cared for properly.  There are many special needs prisoners, one that many are familiar with are the mentally ill, and substance abusing. In 1955 there weren’t any mental institutions being built, and there were forty that were shut down about a decade ago. As of today there were more prisons opening up, and many people seemed the most qualified to care for and house these patients. Today prisons have taken on the lead role of caring for mentally ill patients, housing 45,000 in prison to 3,000 in mental institutions. Rehabilitation programs are lacking in the mentally ill category, therefore mentally ill prisoners usually return to prison. There are many inmates in prisons that have different special needs. Some of these needs are based on the sex of the inmate. Male’s prisoners have a......

Words: 917 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Prisoners with Special Needs

... CJA/234 July 9th, 2013 University of Phoenix George king There are many special needs prisoners, one that many are familiar with are the mentally ill, and substance abusing. In 1955 there weren’t any mental institutions being built, and there were forty that were shut down about a decade ago. As of today there were more prisons opening up, and many people seemed the most qualified to care for and house these patients. Today prisons have taken on the lead role of caring for mentally ill patients, housing 45,000 in prison to 3,000 in mental institutions. Rehabilitation programs are lacking in the mentally ill category, therefore mentally ill prisoners usually return to prison. There are many inmates in prisons that have different special needs. Some of these needs are based on the sex of the inmate. Male’s prisoners have a lot more special needs to take care of their selves as the females prisoners do not. You also have inmates who suffer from a mental illness. Their special needs are much more different than those who have basic needs. People who suffer from substance abuse have needs in the area called addiction. With having these different kinds of individuals it affects the diverse needs, and affects the jails and prisons in various ways. If people were not care for...

Words: 695 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Prison and Jails

...Prison and Jails Anthony Youmans CJA/204 Lexie Williams May 22, 2013 Prisons and Jails The American Judicial System has multiple types of facilities to house those convicted. Those facilities are known as federal prisons, state prisons, privately run prisons, and county jails. The main argument that plagues society today is private prisons. In this paper, one will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of private prisons and will also explain the conflict between safeguarding a prisoner’s constitutionally projected rights and the state’s authority to abridge those rights to protect its own interests and citizens interests. The most controversial argument in our society today concerning prisons is that of private versus state. “A private prison is defined as a correctional institute operated by a private firm on behalf of a local or state government” (Pearson-Prentice Hall, 2009). One advantage for privatization of prisons is private companies offer correctional facility designs are efficient to operate and are based on cost-benefit considerations. Also private prisons can mobilize quickly and specialize in facility missions. Private prisons helps the government reduce its liability exposure by contracting with private correctional companies. A disadvantage of privatization of prisons is that some private operators may be inexperienced and this could cause a problem within the management of the prison. Also the procurement process of having a private prison is slow,......

Words: 976 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Executing Inmates described in a variety of ways. The American Heritage Dictionary (4th edit., 2000) describes it as: "Any of various conditions characterized by impairment of an individual's normal cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning, and caused by social, psychological, biochemical, genetic, or other factors, such as infection or head trauma. Also called emotional illness, mental disease, and mental disorder." Insanity or mental incompetency is a severe form of mental illness and is addressed separately by the legal system. Inmates who are insane, and so out of touch with reality that they do not know right from wrong and cannot understand their punishment or the purpose of it, are exempt from execution. The Supreme Court held in Ford v. Wainwright(477 United States 399(1986)) that executing the insane is unconstitutional. However, if an inmate's mental competency has been restored, he or she can be executed.  Inmates who are intellectually disabled (mentally retarded) also cannot be executed....

Words: 798 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Politcal Opinion

...on the stories of about five different mentally ill inmates who are incarcerated in an Ohio state corrections facility. Though most of the inmates in the documentary committed petty crimes such as purse snatching, a crime that will result in a maximum of three years imprisonment, many of them spent the better half of twenty years behind bars. The blame for their extended stay in prison can likely be put on their mental illness. It must be extremely difficult to be isolated in a prison cell no bigger than a medium sized bathroom for years while also being held prisoner by a mental illness such as chronic paranoia. The video shows examples of certain mental episodes the patients experience, the medicine they take and why it is important to take, the consiquences given if rules are not followed, but more importantly the documentary focuses more on the fact that there are too many mentally ill patients imprisoned because of the lack of mental hospitals in the United States. Currently, there are over two million people in America serving time for crimes committed and an appalling five hundred thousand have some sort of mental illness. “The New Asylums” FRONTLINE let us view what therapy inside a prison might look like. In one scene of the documentary we got to see an actual therapy session in progress. There therapist would ask the inmates questions about their progress and many of them could not answer on a positive note. One inmate, in fact, seemed to have tried to......

Words: 575 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Prisoners with Special Needs

...Stevens CJS/255 May 30, 2016 Sherri Webster Special needs, mentally ill, and substance-abusing prisoners affect the jail and prison systems at a state and federal level in a multitude of ways. One of the main issues within prisons is the fact that their mental health services can be seriously inadequate and lacking the proper staffing, all while operating in facilities that are not equipped to handle such prisoners, on top of a limited amount of programs to even help these prisoners with their problems. If these prisoners are not cared for properly, it could lead to deteriorating conditions for the prisoners. State and Federal Levels are Affected Jails and prisons are not meant to be home to the mentally ill, yet, when someone who is mentally ill commits a crime and cannot receive help outside of jail or prison, that is where they end up. Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression are just a few mental disorders that can plague prisoners in the criminal justice system. One of the main issues with prisoners having these mental health issues is the fact that prisons are not sufficiently capable of dealing with the increasing amount of prisoners coming into the system with mental health disorders (Human Rights Watch, 2016). Human Rights Watch (2016) goes on to state that “Unfortunately, prisons are ill-equipped to respond appropriately to the needs of prisoners with mental illness…Many seriously ill prisoners receive little or no meaningful treatment” and......

Words: 1110 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ann. Bibliography

...The purpose of this assignment is to create an APA formatted reference list for eight articles from reputable sources, and a one paragraph summary for each article selected, and a brief expression of intent on the selected articles. As clearly noted in Creswell (2009) literature review provides the ground work for a preparation of another scientific work. Creswell further notes… “ this literature review passage should summarize large groups of studies instead of individual ones”( Creswell, 2009, p.104). Rhodes, A.L. Total Confinement: Madness and Reason in the Maximum Security Prison (2004) is a book written by Dr. Lorna Rhodes. Her study explores, examines, and recognizes what life is like inside confined walls of solitary units inside prisons. Her study provides not only the image of solitary confinement- but the sense of loss and liberty of humanity when an offender is faced with long periods of extensive isolation from all; but those who feed you (correctional officers). Dr. Rhodes- explores and discusses the challenges that are faced both by the front-line-staff and offenders. Such as, psychological, emotional, and physiological changes- and provides her academic perspective with a scientific response. Rationale for Selection There are a lot of research currently available in-regards to isolation of offenders, and the biological effects on human body, mind, and perceptions. This study is valuable to my research even though the findings are not as scientific......

Words: 1850 - Pages: 8