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Mentoring Program and Its Impact on Employee Job Performance

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Mentoring Program and its impact on employee job performance

Table of Contents 1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………. ...3
1.1 Preamble……………………………………………………………………………3 1.1.1 Historical development …………………………………………………….. . 4 1.1.2 Benefits of mentoring program ……………………………………………….4
1.2 Research problem…………………………………………………………… ….. ..5
1.3Research questions……………………………………………………………….....5
1.4 Objectives of the study………………………………………………………….....6
1.5 Scope……………………………………………………………………………....6
1.6 Limitations………………………………………………………………….. …....6
1.7 Assumptions ………………………………………………………………...........7
1.8 Keywords…………………………………………………………………………7 2. Methodology………………………………………………………………………….8
2.1 Research design…………………………………………………………………...8
2.2 Steps to conduct research ………………………………………………………...9
2.3 population …………………………………………………………………… …..8 2.3.1 Frame of reference………………………………. ……………………………8
2.4 Sample and sampling methods……………………………………………………9
2.5 Instrument selection ………………………………………………………. …….9
2.6 Variables ………………………………………………………………….......... 9
2.7 Hypotheses ……………………………………………………………………….9
2.8 Statistical tools ………………………………………………………………………...10
2.9 Required resources……………………………………………………………….10
References …………………………………………………………………………...11

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1. Introduction
1.1 Preamble
A mentor is an individual, who is more experienced and helps another individual in career advancement, development and general guidance about personal life. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines a mentor as "a trusted counselor or guide." An individual always seeks guidance from his mentor before taking any descision related to professional or personal life, however what level of guidance is taken from the mentor depends on the relationship between the mentor and the protégé, one who seeks guidance from the mentor.
Changing trends regarding managerial learning has emphasized on the job relationships for better job performance. Informal developmental relatioships can be seen in an organization since they occur naturally between senior manager, manager or junior staff members. Such relationships do improve the employee job performance, consistency and provides feedback but recents trends in the bussiness environment such as competition, new technologies and changes in the demographics has gradually declined the opportunities for such relationship. Therefore now organizations have formally introduced mentoring program for their employees, so that they can improve their job performance under appropriate guidance and leadership. Formal mentoring p-rogram are different from informal mentoring program since they are designed, maintained and monitored by the organization.
Organizations do have introduced formal mentoring program for their employees better job performance but it is still a dilema to identify as which kind of mentoring has greater effect on employee job performance, either formal or informal mentoring program. Employee job performance is asses at the end of the year by their supervisors, who in most of the cases are their mentors as well. These peformance evaluation actually tell how well an employee is performing in his job and what are the resons of his such performance. Few of the studies have revealed that formal and informal mentoring produces different outcome for protégé.

1.1.1 Historical development
The concept of mentoring is back old during the times of ancient Greek literature, when a story “The odessy” written by horner, highlighted the importance of mentoring. In this story, odessy told his friend, a mentor and a guide to teach his son about the important tips of handling challenging lifestyles before he left for Trojan war. Traditionally a mentor was an old man with experiences, who was trusted to guide and teach young man with less experiences just like odyessy trusted his friend to teach his son through his experiences.Organization was so inspired by this concept that they started developing mentoring pragrams in the context of organzition development.
In an organizational context mentoring program act as a training and development department for all the employees, where the managers or the supervisor act as a mentor guiding their mentees in all aspect of job performance, working projects and career advancemnts. However different organizations use different framework to implement mentoring program. Mentoring models vary according to different organizational context and there is no one best model to fit the needs of all organizations (Ismail et al., 2009; Irving et al., 2003). They have to be specially designed and administered based on the differences and uniqueness of an organization in terms of beliefs, values, orientations, stress, strengths and weaknesses (Hawkey, 1997;Irving et al., 2003; Ritchie & Conolly, 1993; Ritchie & Genoni, 1999). These factors have affected the implementation of mentoring type as to whether formal and/or informal mentoring activities should be implemented.
A formal mentoring program is designed, maintained,implemented and checked by the organization. Usually in formal mentoring program, the mentors are senior supervisors or managers who act as a role model and is knowledgeable and experienced person in an organization. They are the source of motivation for the mentees and they encourage teamwork in an organization.Conversly. In an informal mentoring program, the relationship is built on the bases of achieving certain demands. Such relationship last for long and the mentor and mentee choose with whom they want to work.
Surprisingly, extant research in this area show that the Organization that run a combination of formal and informal mentoring programs achieve greater employee job performance, however very few organization that runs the combination of mentoring program, considering it as not so important factor in employee job performance.
1.1.2 Benefits of mentoring program
In this fast pace of competition, organziation are developing different startegies to reach their employees full potential. Efficent mentoring programs if implemented in an organization can bring the best out of the employees and they will be motivated to work and achieve organizational goals.
Mentoring programs not only enhances employees targeted competencies but also develop different leadership skills, which help them in working as a team and achieving targets more efficentlly. It helps in retening employees as they are satisfied by the career advancement and the guidance they need.
Mentoring enables each of your employees to reach their full potential at your organization. Mentoring programs promote your employees' personal and professional development in a strategic and supportive way, leading to enhanced return on investment per individual.
1.2 Research problem:
Mentors are the one who act as a trusted guidance for the protégé and help them in improving his/her performance and achieving the organizational goal. Formal and informal mentoring program has been a great source of employees better job performance, however the intention of this research is to identify the impact of mentoring program on employee job performance, with particular refrence to whether the employee job performance is effected by formal mentoring p-rogram in an organization or informal mentoring p-rogram.
Research questions:
This research is intended to get the answer of the folowing questions: 1. What is the role of a mentor to bring about positive attitude towards performance? 2. Are employees performing better because of mentoring program? 3. Which mentoring program is more effective in employee job performance, formal or informal mentoring program? 4. What kind of a relationship is built between employee and mentors, that bring some changes in employee job performance?
1.3 Objectives of the study * To demonstrate the role of a mentor as a source of guidance for the mentees. * To identify the relatioship between mentors and mentees. * To determine the relationship between mentoring program and employee job performance. * To analyse the impact of formal mentoring program on employee job performance. * To analyse the impact of informal mentoring program on employee job performance.
1.4 Scope 1. This study will take into account the small and medium organizations in karachi and the recommendations and conclusions will be beneficial to the managers, supervisors and employees of small and medium organizations of Karachi. 2. The research will take into account the companies’ perspective; as to how they carry out mentoring programs, whether or not it is a beneficial for the employees job performance.

1.5 Limitations 1. This study will only take into account small and medium organizations of karachi due to the limited time period of the research; and the recommendations and conclusions will be beneficial to the managers, supervisors and employees of small and medium organizations in Karachi 2. Sample size is another limitation since a large sample may be more desirable to the aims of the present study, however costs and practicability issues limited the size of sample selection. 3. In order to remain focused, this study will only consider the impact of mentoring programs on employees job performance leaving behind the alternative variables that are effected by formal and informal mentoring programs.

1.6 Assumptions 1. The data that will be gathered from companies will be considered as truthful and will reflect the overall actions of all other companies in Karachi.

2. Another assumption made in this study is that informal and formal mentoring relationships differ in terms of their effect on emplyee job performance. As Kram (1985) suggests, whatever differences formal and informal mentoring have, they are not to be treated as “trivial.” Because informal mentoring assumes a more spontaneous nature, mentor-mentee relationships that are produced with this type of mentoring are more motivated and sustainable
1.7 Definition of keywords: * Mentor: A mentor is a trusted individual, who is more experienced and act as a guidance in an individuals personal and professional life. * Mentee/ protégé: A mentee or protégé as it is called, are an individual who are guided and supported by an inflential and more experienced person. * Formal mentoring: A formal mentoring program is structured and coordinated relationship between mentor and the mentee, and they have particualar target, task and objectives to achieve together. * Informal mentoring: Informal mentoring is initiated by mentor or mentee and may last for long, usually such realtionship is built out of similar likes and dislikes and is more of an emotional commitment. * Employee job performance: An employee job performance refers to, how well an employee is working during a given time period and is he able to achieve the goal through his performance.or not.

2 Research Methodology

2.1 Research design: This study will allow the researchers to integrate literature review and survey questionnaires as a major procedure to gather data.This research will be primarily quantitative in nature and will be conducted through gathering of numerical data. The main focus of this research is on the relationship between mentoring program and employee job performance. Therefore survey questionaire will be used to identify and analyse the relationship between thses two variables.

3.2. Steps to conduct research: * First, researcher should have the indepth knowledge of the research area and the participants required to conduct this research. * Next, contact will be done to all the small and medium organizations in Karachi , in order to know who are willingly ready to participate. * Then, a quota sampling will be used to determine the number of respondents based on the duration of the study and budget constraints. * Finally, the survey will be conducted and the results will be interepreted by the researcher. 3.3. Population

2.3.1 Frame of reference:
The population of this study consist of managers, supervisors and junior staff memebers of small and mediem organizations in karachi. Since this research is about the impact of mentoring program on employee job performance therefore this population is probably the best to study, since they can provide relevant details regarding the subject of knowledge. Managers, supervisors and junor staff members are experiencing formal and informal mentoring in there day to day professional and personal life, therefore they are best suited for this research.

2.4 Sample and sampling methods
A quota sampling will be used to determine the number of respondents based on the duration of the study and budget constraints. Besides that , due to limited time a convinent sampling technique will be opted for distrubuting the survey questionaires to the employees, who are willing to be the participants of the research. The sample size will be around 100 to 150 participants, this size might extend or reduced depending on the total number of particpants willing to participate.

2.5 Intrument selection
Both primary and secondary data will be collected. Secondary data will be extracted for information of successful mentoring program and what impact it has on employee job performance by using the research articles and literature provided online. Primary data will be gathered through survey questionaires from small and medium organizations in Karachi. . A Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 15.0 will be use to analyze the validity and reliability of the measurement scales and then the four research hypotheses of the study will be tested.

2.6 Variables
The variables of this research are, formal and informal mentoring as indepandant variable and employee job performance as depandant variable.

2.7 Hypotheses
This research is based on four hypotheses: * H1: Formal mentoring program has positive impact on employee job performance. * H2: Informal mentoring program has positive impact on employee job performance. * H1: Formal mentoring program has no impact on employee job performance. * H2: Informal mentoring program has no impact on employee job performance

2.8 Statistical tools * Firstly, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) will be use to assess the validity and reliability of the measurement scales (Hair et al., 1998; Nunally & Bernstein,1994). * Secondly, Pearson correlation (r) analysis and descriptive statistics will be employed to analyze the constructs and the usefulness of the data set (Tabachnick et al.,2001; Yaacob, 2008). * Finally, stepwise regression analysis will be done to test the direct effect model because it could assess the magnitude of each independent variable, and the relationship between many independent variables (IVs) and one dependent variable (DV). * Standardized coefficients (standardized beta weights) will be use to show the results of relationship between each independent variable and dependent variable. Based on the value of standardized beta (β), the results determined which independent variables were dominant in affecting the dependent variable (Baron & Kenny, 1986; Foster et al., 1998; Jaccard et al., 1990).
2.9 Required Resources
The resources required to conduct this research primarily will be contacts of the small and medium organizations in Karachi and secondly the permission to collect the data

References
Christina A. Douglas. "FORMAL MENTORING PROGRAMS IN ORGANIZATIONS." Center for Creative Leadership, 1997. Web. 04 Sept. 2015.

AzmanIsmail1 , Muhammad M. Abdullah2 , Sebastian K. Francis3. "Mentoring Program and Its Impact on Individuals’ Advancement in the Malaysian Context." Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 2009. Web. 04 Sept. 2015.

Whitaker, Amy. "The Effects of Mentoring and Coaching Programs." The Effects of Mentoring and Coaching Programs (2003): n. pag. 30 Apr. 2003. Web. 04 Sept. 2015.

Essays, UK. (November 2013). Effects Of Mentoring Programs.

Mentoringtalent.com. "Mentoring Program Benefits." Corporate Mentoring Programs. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

Mariani, Bette. "The Effect of Mentoring on Career Satisfaction of Registered Nurses and Intent to Stay in the Nursing Profession." The Effect of Mentoring on Career Satisfaction of Registered Nurses and Intent to Stay in the Nursing Profession. College of Nursing, 19 Feb. 2012. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall International.

Baron, R. M, & Kenny, D. A (1986). This moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.

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