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Merck Case

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DESARROLLO DEL RECURSO HUMANO

TAREA No. 3

El CASO MERK & CO., Inc

La problemática que se identifica en el caso Merk & Co., Inc, compañía farmacéutica estadounidense, trata acerca de los problemas de relación con el personal que incluyen las formas de mediciones en las evaluaciones del desempeño y su sistema de incentivos, lo que repercutió en el desplome del rendimiento de activos de dicha empresa, hasta antes de la conformación de un comité de estudio para mejorar resolver dicha problemática en el año de 1985. Merck & Co., es una farmacéutica que tuvo sus inicios en Alemania en 1668; en el año de 1887 apertura su sucursal en la ciudad de New York, Estados Unidos; en primera instancia para comercializar los productos alemanes, posterior a ello se dedicó a fabricar medicamentos y productos químicos que hasta la actualidad gozan de fama y prestigio. Merck & Co., ocupó titulares de renombre y gozó de prestigiosos premios, además de la fama que incluían su solidez financiera, calidad en sus productos, innovación, y capacidad para desarrollar talento de su personal, su rentabilidad era superior a las otras corporaciones de su medio. Sin embargo y pese al éxito, en 1983 Merck & Co., empezó a experimentar un declive en sus activos, el rendimiento de la misma quedó rezagada en esa fecha, debido a varios factores económicos del medio, y del descontento existente entre el personal debido a la aplicación no adecuada del sistema de medición del desempeño por ende de las recompensas. Introdujo por primera vez en 1978 el programa de administración de salarios y evaluación del desempeño de Merck, en el que los supervisores evaluaban en una escala del 1 al 5 a sus empleados, designando al 1 como rendimiento inaceptable y 5 como rendimiento excepcional. La escala era absoluta y la calificación asignada a un individuo solo reflejaba el rendimiento de la persona independiente del desempeño de los demás. El salario era determinado con base en las características del empleo y medido a méritos y Puntos Hay; método, donde los evaluadores asignan valores numéricos a factores específicos del puesto, como el conocimiento requerido, responsabilidad, solución de problemas y elementos compensables adicionales, y la suma de estos valores proporciona una evaluación cuantitativa del valor relativo de un puesto, estos puntos se convierten en puntos de control, el salario real como porcentaje se denomina compa-ratio. Compa-Ratio es una medida de posesionar al rango según los meritos y para calcular el compa-ratio de un individuo, se divide el salario real por el punto medio del rango de salario asignado, a mayor compa-ratios, mayor las probabilidades de ascenso, aumenta cada vez que se consigue un incremento por mérito, y varía siempre que aumentan los puntos de control. El problema en el sistema de evaluación radicaba en estructurar los parámetros a considerar para evaluar y recompensar el rendimiento; los supervisores no evaluaban adecuadamente al personal, no otorgaban el puntaje adecuado a cada trabajador acorde a sus logros, por más que este haya realizado los méritos necesarios para ser reconocidos y ser retribuido con primas por el buen desempeño, incluyendo el ascenso interno dentro de la organización; el sentimiento desalentador de que sus méritos no eran reconocidos por sus supervisores, y que su aumento salarial era solo marginalmente superior a aquellos trabajadores que obtuvieron una puntuación media, era un desmotivante que repercutió en las cifras de la empresa. Otros de los problemas en la evaluación del desempeño es que los supervisores homogeneizaron las calificaciones, no se atrevían a puntuar con calificaciones bajas al personal con experiencia, u otorgarle la puntuación de 5 al personal que tuvo un rendimiento excepcional, era más fácil colocar un 4 a todo el personal y un 3 a los elementos nuevos de la corporación; la no identificación clara de las actuaciones destacadas se convirtió en un obstáculo para otorgar justicia al momento de evaluar y las diferentes ideas sobre cómo estructurar una evaluación de sistema del desempeño. Al no tener una filosofía de compensación definida, no podían evaluar si sus prácticas de pago están alineados con sus políticas de compensación, por lo que el cálculo de compa-ratio para cada empleado, no estuvo apegada a la realidad, por ende las remuneraciones variables para los empleados de Merck, no eran un aliciente para su motivación, pese a que la corporación mantenía un rango de sueldo muy por encima que los ofrecidos por la competencia. Siendo el compa-ratio el posicionamiento salarial en el rango respecto al mérito, y al no ser medido adecuadamente al momento, uno de sus posibles efectos es el de que exista deseos de promoción inapropiados, emerjan temas de dimensionamiento de plantilla, problemas de retención de profesionales valiosos para su explotación intelectual y que aporten para el progreso de la corporación, presión creciente sobre las clasificaciones debido a puestos nicho y fragmentación de puestos, presión creciente sobre los costes laborales. Las opciones de compensación de esta etapa serían los programas de recompensas, el foco en oportunidades de desarrollo y rotación, el cross-training, las herramientas de retención para los profesionales claves, los incentivos basados en acciones u opciones de compra de acciones. (Escuela de Negocios EOI, 2006) Dentro de esta farmacéutica reconocida a nivel mundial y que se caracteriza por tener los sueldos de los empleados por encima de la remuneración promedio del resto de su competencia, se observa una disyuntiva en la que sus empleados aun teniendo sueldos elevados en comparación con los que trabajan en puestos similares en otras empresas, se sentían insatisfechos de acuerdo a lo expuesto por el comité de estudios de las relaciones con el personal, ya que tenían claro que el sistema de recompensa no estaba siendo aplicado correctamente; es aquí que se da a notar la poca importancia a la evaluación del desempeño de los empleados, sea éste excepcional o no; esto genera que recurran a formas de trabajos en las que no se esfuercen mas de lo establecido, se encierren en un circulo de confort, se cumpla con las responsabilidades que implica el puesto pero que no exista el debido compromiso, esto impide lograr una la fidelización del empleado en la empresa. Al no aplicar adecuadamente el sistema de recompensa se da paso a que presenten posibles consecuencias o daños colaterales, afectando en un todo a la empresa, entre las cuales se hace mención a la rotación de personal, debido a que al no estar a gusto los profesionales optarán por buscar otras oportunidades que les permitan no solo tener una remuneración acorde al cumplimiento de sus funciones, capacidades y méritos sino en la exista un programa de compensación competitiva en donde el esfuerzo sea un factor a tomar en cuenta a la hora de analizar el aumento de sueldos y conceder otros beneficios. La rotación del personal es muy costosa para la empresa ya que impide que se mantenga la ética de trabajo en la misma. Dentro de este sistema de recompensa es ideal que a la hora de exponerlo, se dé una perspectiva corporativa en crecimiento en donde la remuneración se muestre competitiva de la mano de los paquetes que incluyen la obtención de beneficios para tentar a los trabajadores. Este sistema de recompensa puede ayudar a atraer los talentos necesarios a la empresa. Cuando un sistema de recompensas no muestra cambios a corto plazos visibles, da como resultado que el personal se sienta inestable y con poco interés para seguir dentro de la organización. Todo lo contrario sucederá si se practica correctamente el sistema de recompensa teniendo en consideración que no solo el personal está dentro de la organización por la remuneración que obtienen, sino también porque esta organización es más que eso, es una parte estructural de su vida, en la que la estabilidad y la integración son parte fundamental para ganar un alto rendimiento de trabajo y alcanzar los objetivos de la empresa, que tiene connotaciones no solamente de carácter económico sino también de salud emocional del trabajador. La participación del personal y las buenas relaciones en el trabajo, fomentan la confianza entre los empelados, resultado de esto se obtiene un circulo de trabajo de calidad que utilice factores motivantes, que generen un personal comprometido, capaz de asumir responsabilidades, cumplir con sus labores útiles, llegar a comprender adoptar y ejecutar correctamente la política de la empresa y obtener reconocimientos por ello. Por último, para qué la organización retome el nivel de rendimiento de sus activos como en los años de apogeo, y establecido que dicha baja se debió al descontento del personal ante las erráticas formas de evaluar su trabajo, es necesario que el sistema de recompensas sea claramente establecido bajo parámetros medibles sin espacio a la subjetividad de los supervisores, en las que se provean los materiales adecuados y el incentivo necesario para el desarrollo del talento de sus empleados, que les permita concentrarse en sus labores y generar ideas innovadoras ; de esta manera la tarea de evaluar el desempeño del personal pasara de ser tediosa a productiva, necesaria e imprescindible.

Bibliografía

Corral, F. (2006). Escuela de Negocios EOI, Recursos Humanos, Compensacion. Recuperado el 31 de agosto de 2014, de http://api.eoi.es/api_v1_dev.php/fedora/asset/eoi:45119/componente45117.pdf

----------------------- EL CASO MERCK & CO., INC

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