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Metabolism

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Submitted By aportis09
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Metabolism
Western Governors University
Aston Portis

1. All enzymes are catalyst because they cause a chemical reaction to take place faster than it would on its own. It also does not get used during the reaction (Hudon-Miller, 2012). 2.
(Hudon-Miller, 2012).

3.
(Hudon-Miller, 2012). 4. Fructose is component of sucrose, normal table sugar, along with glucose. Whereas glucose is able to immediately enter into glycolysis, fructose is not. Fructose is broken down via fructokinase into fructose- 1-phosphate. Fructose – 1-phospate then gets converted into DHAP+ glyceraldehyde via aldolase B. DHAP+ glyceraldehyde is used in glycolysis to produce pyruvate that goes into the citric acid cycle to produce ATP (Hudon-Miller, 2012). 5. In aldolase B deficiency the substrate fructose 1- phosphate is unable to produce DHAP+ glyceraldehyde but the fructose is still getting phosphorylated by fructokinase. This causes a buildup of fructose- 1-phosphate. It is not being used in glycolysis or gluconeogenesis. There is a buildup of phosphate which causes the phosphate to get stuck and the free phosphate to be depleted by because of so much is being used by the fructose 1-phosphate. Since our phosphate levels were depleted it slows production of ATP, phosphate is needed in the electron transport chain. Since ATP production has slowed and liver cells are low on energy liver damage can occur which can ultimately lead to liver failure. Fructose-1-phosphate buildup can act as a signal of increased blood sugar. It tells glucokinase to stay in the cytoplasm and because of this glucose-6-phosphate and it backs up the other systems and glycogen breakdown. Glycogen breakdown also backs up glucogenesis causing not very much glucose is being produced so he amounts of glucose is going down and that means the amount of glucose that we can release into the blood is also going down. Hypoglycemia occurs (Sanders, 2012). 6. When the muscles are anaerobic, instead of glucose being able to go through the Citric Acid Cycle, glucose is converted to lactate. Lactate is then converted back into glucose by the liver. The liver is using an aerobic reaction to produce ATP. It takes 6 ATP from the liver during the cori cycle to produce 2 ATP for the muscle cells. Cells would not be able to survive long in a single muscle cell because it does not have the liver to produce more ATP and to convert lactate back into glucose (Hudon-Miller, 2012). 7. (Sanders,J. 2015). 8. A deficiency of succinyl CoA synthase can cause a decrease in the production of ATP. The decrease in ATP is seen the substrate level phosphorylation of converting succinyl CoA succinate This would cause the cycle to become acidic due to the buildup of lactic acid. If the cycle continued it would not be functional due to the acid. There would also be a decreased production of ATP in the mitochondria. NADH and Carbon Dioxide would also be decreased. ATP would be decreased because of the deficiency of succinyl CoA synthase. The conversion of succinyl CoA to succinate, which is catalyze and act on by succinyl CoA synthase an associated production of ATP occurs (Sanders,J. 2015). 9. The movement of electrons form the proton gradient, the electron transport chain pumps Hydrogen plus from the matrix to the intermembrane space. This causes more protons outside than inside. The first and third complexes of the electron transport chain move the protons through the membrane. The first complex in the electron transport chain pumps the hydrogen plus ions from the matrix into the intermembrane space. In the second complex FADH2 is received and delivers the electrons to the electron transport chain. The third complex ubiquinone accepts the electrons and passes them to cytochrome c to transport to the fourth complex. In the fourth complex oxygen is reduced and is picks up two hydrogen plus from the surrounding to make water (Sanders, J. 2013).

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