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Metaparadigm

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Describe the definition of nursing as put forward by the American Nurses Association. How does it address the metaparadigm theories of nursing?

Nursing is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations.
A metaparadigm is a concept that is extremely general, one that serves to define an entire world of thought. "Meta" means "that which is behind," in Greek, and refers to that which under-girds something else, serving as a conceptual basis. In her seminal (1984, cited in Slevin) work, "Analysis and Evaluation of Conceptual Models of Nursing," Jacqueline Fawcett developed the basic four metaparadigms of nursing. More recently, these have been revised by Basford and Slevin (2003) and serve to underpin the entire conceptual universe of the nursing profession.

1. Person * This paradigm refers to the sick individual not as a "patient," but as a "subject," a person in the full sense of the word. This includes families and social groups that have come to define the person as such. This person is unique and autonomous, and should be treated as such. A real person is not a mere object of professional care and surveillance.

 2. Health * Like all meta-concepts, health is immensely general. It does not deal with health in a strictly clinical manner. It concerns nurses as medical professionals (rather than as mere adjuncts to doctors). At the same time, it defines "health" in abstract terms, in that health is "negotiated" and "contextual," in the words of Slevin. Health is not an absolute concept, but exists in the context of the health problems of the individual. A person suffering with cancer considers a good, healthy day as one…...

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