Premium Essay

Methicillin

In: Science

Submitted By franchi63
Words 1314
Pages 6
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus An important pathogen in humans is the Staphylococcus Aureus bacteria, which is also known as Staph. Staph was first discovered in the 1880s. It is a gram-positive bacterium that looks like grapelike clusters when looked at under a microscope. During that time staphylococcus aureus was known to cause painful skin, boils, impetigo. S.aureus could progress into serious forms of bacteria in the bloodstream and bacterial pneumonia, both of them could be fatal. This bacterium can cause diseases because of infection of many tissues. In fact, several people have some of this bacterium that live on your skin and can also be found in your nose, which can cause an infection on any part of the body, but in most cases it doesn’t cause a disease. Antibiotics are known to help fight off infections, the type of antibiotic you need depends of the sensitivity of the staphylococcal. Unfortunately, the overuse and misuse of antibiotics has made the microbes become resistant to the drugs that help treat the infections. This can be seen with a staph infection called Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, MRSA. The first case or report of MRSA was in 1968 in the United States. MRSA is a type of staphylococcus (staph) bacteria that is resistant to various antibiotics. MRSA is different than any other type of staph because it is not treatable with some types of antibiotics like methicillin. The only time that staph becomes a problem is when it causes an infection. Infections could become serious for people who are weak and ill. Since Methicillin and other types of antibiotics don’t have any effect on the infection, the infection becomes even harder to get rid of. So MRSA is difficult treat than any other type of staph infections. When the antibiotics aren’t used properly or when they are used too frequently it makes the MRSA bacteria...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Staphylcoccus Aureus

...I chose the bacteria Staphycoccus aureus because I find the bacteria to be very complex and intriguing. It ranges from no infection at all, yet can still be as servere as death. However, newer studies and technology are helping scientist outsmart this bacteria by genome sequencing and other means of testing. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus or MRSA is a type of staph bacteria, a methicillin-resistant strain of the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Meaning it is resistant to certain antibiotic medications such as methicillin, oxacillin, penicillin and amoxicillin, four of the more commonly used antibiotics. In 2012, researchers for the first time ever have been able gain knowledge on this "superbug" by performing a technique known as Genome sequencing. "What we have glimpsed through this pioneering study isa a future in which new sequencing methods will help us to identify, manage, and stop hospital outbreaks," said Nick Brown, an infection control doctor at Addenbrooke's Hospital Cambridge, who led the study and presented his presented his findings at a briefing. During the study a team was formed to analyze, record, and maintain data amongst 12 patients to try to do better develop a cause and effect for the "Baby outbreak of MRSA" within the hospital. The results over a six month period proved to be more intense than anticipated even. The team then screened 154 staff members by using the DNA sequencing and confirmed a staff member was unknowingly carrying and......

Words: 340 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Explaining Abt Resistance

...Mr. and Mrs. Green I have asked you into my office today to discuss your son’s MRSA infection. MRSA stands for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. What that means is that the antibiotic, methicillin, which is normally used to kill this particular bacteria, doesn’t work. If you have ever heard the old adage “What doesn’t kill you, makes you stronger”, this is exactly how this “super bug” came to be. Due to the overuse of antibiotics over the last few decades the staph bug has learned how to beat the drugs we use to kill it. The bacteria is exposed to just enough medication to “wound” it or make it uncomfortable in its surroundings, but isn’t killed (Seppa, 2014). Similar to how vaccines work on our immune system, the exposure is enough to allow the bacteria to develop a resistance. This resistance is then passed on to the bacteria’s offspring and even other bacteria species (McKenna 2011) making infections harder to control. What we will do is take a sample of the bacteria that your son is carrying and run some lab tests to find out what this particular strain is sensitive to; in the mean time we will start him on an antibiotic to get the ball rolling. Depending on the results of the lab work we may continue this medication or we may change it to something more effective for his particular strain. It is imperative your son complete his full regimen of antibiotics because not doing so could lead to an even more serious infection that may be even harder to......

Words: 347 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mrsa

...of it are and how it can be prevented. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium that causes infections in different parts of the body. It's tougher to treat than most strains of staphylococcus aureus (staph) because it's resistant to some commonly used antibiotics. The symptoms of MRSA depend on where you're infected. Most often, it causes mild infections on the skin, like sores or boils. It can also cause more serious skin infections or infect surgical wounds, the bloodstream, the lungs, or the urinary tract. Though most MRSA infections aren't serious, some can be life-threatening.. Because it's hard to treat, MRSA is sometimes called a "super bug." Staph is a common bacteria that can live in our bodies. Plenty of healthy people carry staph without being infected by it, one-third of everybody has staph bacteria in their noses. Staph can be a problem if it manages to get into the body, often through a cut or leasion. Once there, it can cause an infection. Staph is one of the most common causes of skin infections in the United States. These are usually minor and don't need special treatment. Sometimes, staph can cause serious problems like infected wounds or pneumonia. Staph can usually be treated with antibiotics. But over the decades, some strains of staph, like MRSA, have become resistant to antibiotics that once destroyed it. MRSA was first discovered in 1961. It's now resistant to methicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, oxacillin, and......

Words: 1106 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Mrsa

...Running head:INFECTIOUS DISEASE 1 Infectious Disease Paper Brandie Evans University of Phoenix June 11, 2013 Sherrie Sheets INFECTIOUS DISEASE 2 Infectious Disease Introduction Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is produced by a strain of staph bacteria that's become resistant to the antibiotics generally used to treat normal staph infections. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was first discovered in 1961. Today In present time MRSA has turned out to be a dangerous health problem, Bacteria are always altering because of genetic reasons and the continustened change. Therefore, because of the change numerous bacteria begin to increase the resistant to a specific antibiotic. As soon as the less resistant and weaker bacteria come into contect with that identical antibiotic, and so they stop living. However, the resistant and more stronger bacteria remain before they disappear. If these more tougher and stronger bacteria happen to live then they can duplicate. The newly Once more the dublicated bacteria hold the same to the antibiotic and extra variations diffrenceces in their genetic influence refer that a large number of these off-spring bacteria will be even morestronger and tougher. As time goes on, the frequently change of bacteria genetics and the population favoring of one form of a medication over another has indicated to the more thougher and stronger types of Staphylococcus aurous. But......

Words: 1899 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Phytochemicals of Bacteria

...and evaluate their antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus specie. Indigenous plants possess the ability to produce phytochemicals which they use to protect themselves against insect infection and environmental harsh conditions. Currently, the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance is the greatest challenge on the treatment of bacterial infection in Zimbabwe (Weinstein R.A, 1998). In Zimbabwe vanocomycim, meropenem, imipenem are antibiotics which are being used against methicillin resistant S.aureus specie and are considered very expensive because they are not manufactured in Zimbabwe. Combretum molle is an indigenous plant which produces phytochemicals which possess the ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria and have several biological activities like antioxidant, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial activities. These phytochemicals can be used in rotation with the conventional drugs since they possess a different structure which is new to the bacteria. Using phytochemicals as antibacterial agents from Combretum molle plant can be of great advantage since it is readily available in Zimbabwe thereby cutting cost of importing and they do not cause undesirable toxic effects because they are natural. 1.1 Problem statement Currently, the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance is the greatest challenge on the treatment of bacterial infection in Zimbabwe especially the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus specie. The......

Words: 2390 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Chain of Infection

...How can communicable diseases be broken at a link within the communicable disease chain? Are there steps that a nurse can take to facilitate this process? Give a specific example. Use an example that is different than the postings of other students.   There are six links in the Chain of Infection. Those areas include:  1. The infectious agent itself-  2. The reservoir where the infectious agent can live and multiply or lie dormant until the organism can find the opportunity to cause disease  3. The susceptible host  4. A means of Transmission 5. A portal of exit  6. A portal of re-entry    Each link in this chain must be intact for a disease to be transmitted and infect another person. There is the potential to defeat a communicable disease process by disrupting the link in this chain at any point along the way thus preventing infection in another person.  An example of the simplest chain of infection is an infected patient cared for by a health care worker who doesn't wash their hands before caring for another patient. Human sources of microorganisms are healthcare workers, patients themselves and visitors, any of whom may be individuals who are in some stage of an incubation period of a disease process, may already have a disease, or may be a chronic carrier of an infectious agent. The patient may be their own source of infection. (Baldwin, 2008)   The bacteria must be able to find a susceptible host. Some individuals are immune to infection or are able to......

Words: 2021 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Microbiology in the News

...Microbiology and Infection Control Adrian Loadholt 1/15/2015 Dr. Momeny The article I read was entitled ‘putting it into practice: Infection control professionals’ perspective on early career nursing graduates’ microbiology and infection control knowledge and practice. Healthcare associated infections are most common but preventable infections in hospital patients. Control and prevention of healthcare-associated infections is a major focus and challenge for healthcare institutions worldwide. The article was related to a study conducted in Australia. The study included all females, who qualified as registered nurses and had spent at least 5 years working as a registered nurse before commencing their current infection control practitioner role. Half of the nurses were aged 35–59 years and had completed their undergraduate training in the university setting, while the other half were hospital-trained nurses aged 40 years or older. All but one participant had taken training in infection control. All participants indicated that many new graduates had deficits in their infection control and associated microbiology knowledge, with some describing graduates’ level of infection control knowledge as ‘very poor’ or ‘basic’. One of the participants thought that the new graduates’ would lose knowledge after a period of time in the workplace. The participants agreed that increasing the amount of microbiology in the curriculum would improve graduates’ understanding and......

Words: 351 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mrsa

...Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) With a show of hands, how many of you have heard the term “super bug”? How many of you have heard the term “MRSA” or mersa? Tonight it is my goal to educate you on MRSA. First, we need to understand what a super bug is or what does this term mean. It does, in reality, sound quite science fiction and quite scary doesn’t it? A “super bug” is defined as a strain of bacteria that is resistant to antibiotics. Now, how many of you are familiar with the term staphyloccus aureus or “staph” for short. All of us have many microorganisms that live in harmony on our skin and for the most part, we don’t even know they are there. Staph is one of these microorganisms, or “bugs” that live on our skin. When we get a cut on our skin and it becomes infected, most of the time staph is the responsible party. Next, lets break down the big scarry words methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureaus. Methicillin is a drug. It is in the penicillin family and is most commonly used to treat infections caused by staph. So, if you combine the words methicillin resistant ……. It simply means it is a strain of staph infection that is resistant to the antibiotic most commonly used to treat staph infections. So, methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureas simply means it is a staph infection resistant to the drug methicillin. It is also resistant to amoxicillin, oxacillin, penicillin, and many other antibiotics. Are there drugs available......

Words: 456 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Mrsa

...Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in state of Michigan MRSA is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA is a potentially dangerous type of staph bacteria that is resistant to certain antibiotics and may cause skin and other infections. According to Haddadin and Fappiano in “Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the intensive care unit” MRSA is a Gram positive organism. The individual cocci measuring from 0.5-0.7 μm in diameter; it can come singly, in pairs or in short chains (2002). There is both MRSA that is developed while in the hospital and out. Community Associated (CA) MRSA starts as red bumps or boils which can turn into more serious painful puss filled bumps. Healthcare Associated (HA) MRSA can lead to more severe illness to the vital organs and can lead to widespread infections. According to Methicillin- Resistant Staphyloccus aureus Infections by John Jernigan and Alex Kallen, once acquired, MRSA can be long-lasting. A patient that gets MRSA during a hospital stay has increased risk for MRSA infections after they are released. MRSA carriers also have the potential to further transmission as they move through and across healthcare facilities. The quality of MRSA control in one facility may influence the MRSA experience in others. If MRSA is not controlled it can result in severe illness. For example, if it reaches your blood, lungs, or joints more serious illness can happen or even pneumonia. The......

Words: 468 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

...antibiotic and you take it for only for a few days instead of going through the whole course, you may have killed some of the bacteria, but some of it still lives. That small amount of bacteria that is partially alive is going to end up becoming resistant to that antibiotic and we don’t want that to happen because then the bacteria can then start multiplying and replacing all the killed bacteria with a new stronger type of bacteria that is going to harder and much more expensive to kill. . Also the antibiotic resistant bacteria is very dangerous because it can spread very quickly between your family members, schools, or co-workers, which will threaten everybody lives. One dangerous antibiotic resistant bacteria that exist today is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or better known as MRSA and its usually known for causing skin infections in humans. Statistically this bacteria takes over 19,000 peoples live per year in the United States but has number has drop 28% in 2008. This bacteria is usually contracted by physical contact and the symptoms are boils, abscesses or impetigo and usually what this bacteria does is it starts eating your flesh and can spread all the way to...

Words: 483 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Mrsa

...bacterium that is nearly present on everyone’s skin has been the cause of thousands of deaths every year. It has gained virulence that helps it survive a host’s immune system and many common antibiotics. This bacterium produces biofilms and toxins which allows it to survive in a host’s body. This bacterium has increasingly new strains that have evolved genetically. With new genetic strains it because more resistant to many different antibiotics. Global pandemic: Of the Purple Cocci Bacteria are living organisms and just like any other living organism, it wants to live and survive, even when it’s trying to be killed. It is this survival instinct that has lead certain bacterial strains to evolve and grow, to become a global pandemic. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA is a group of bacteria leads to thousands of deaths every year. In order to understand MRSA, you first need to know about the bacteria’s original characteristics, and then you learn about this bacterium’s evolution over the years, and finally learn the current way in which MRSA is treated with antibiotics. S. aureus is a very common bacterium that lives on or in people; it usually lives on the skin, inside your nostrils, stomach and intestines. Many people are carrying it and are totally unaware that it is colonizing in or on them. Colonization is the establishment and growth of pathogens without causing signs or symptoms of it being there (Lilley, Collins, Harrington & Snyder, 2011, p.......

Words: 1227 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

The Advancement of Technology in the Medical Field

...The Advancement of Technology in the Medical Field Technology in general has greatly improved in the last 50 or 60 years, but especially in the medical field. A lot of what drives the medical field today is computers. Computers have gone from being the size of a small room to being able to fit in the palm of your hand. The first computer was actually a calculator. With the advancements in being able to reduce the size of the integrated circuit or IC chips, also known today as microchips, they have gone from being able to fit a couple transistors on a chip to being able to implement billions of transistors on a single chip about the size of $.50 piece. With this we have really been able to advance the technology in the medical field. We have also been able to improve microscopes to be able to better see inside cells and to identify the different bacteria and viruses that infect humans and other plants and animals. Being able to better identify what is causing an illness, treatment can be greatly improved. Today there are cameras the size of a pill that you can swallow and a computer outside the body records it for the doctor to review. This makes it more appealing to the patients since it is less invasive. Technology in the medical field has come a long way in the past century. We have went from tonics that some Dr. and concocted in his office to being able to perform the major transplants that we can today. 50 years ago people would've never thought that a doctor would be......

Words: 734 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Mrsa

...MRSA decontamination using octenidine-based products Mindaugas Danilevicius, Audra Juzéniené, Indré Juzénaité-Karneckiené, Anželika Veršinina Key words: Decontamination ■ Hospitalised patients ■ Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ■ Octenidine Mindaugas Danilevicius, 2UAB ‘Apiterapija’, Vilnius, Lithuania, Audra Juzéniené, Indré Juzénaité-Karneckiené, Republican Vilnius University Hospital, Department of Infection Control, Vilnius, Lithuania Accepted for publication: July 2015 S36 I British Journal of Nursing, 2015 (Tissue Viability Supplement), Vol 24, No 15 © 2015 MA Healthcare Ltd Abstract Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are an increasing problem worldwide with a high risk of severe illness and mortality in hospitalised patients. Patients with chronic wounds are at particular risk of developing MRSA infections. As octenidinebased products have shown promising success in decontamination in the past, the aim of the present study was to determine its efficacy, safety, and tolerability in decontaminating hospitalised MRSApositive patients. Methods: From 1 April 2011 until 9 November 2012, 36 patients were screened MRSA-positive at the Republican Vilnius University Hospital, Vilnius, Lithuania. At least three swab tests were performed for each patient to screen for MRSA, one from each nostril and one from the perineum. In patients with wounds, an additional swab was taken from the wound......

Words: 3211 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Adverse Trends and Data Management

...Read the following case study regarding an adverse trend in a health care setting. An elderly patient has been admitted to the medical/surgical unit from the local nursing care facility. The new lab results in her electronic health record (EHR) indicate that she has methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in her urine. She is placed on contact precautions per the hospital guidelines. The health care provider arrives to examine her new patient and inquires about the need for contact precautions. The nurse explains the lab results reveal the patient has MRSA in her urine. The health care provider states that she reviewed the patient's lab results in the emergency room and the urine results were normal. The unit coordinator reveals to the staff nurse and nurse manager that this is the third incident this month of lab results being uploaded to the wrong patient's EHR when admitted from the emergency department. Write a 1,050 to 1,400-word paper based on the case study in which you: Analyze the adverse trend, including how it affects patient care. Evaluate the data that needs to be collected, reviewed, and applied in the decision-making process to address the adverse trend. Evaluate the information system methods that will be used to collect the data needed in the decision-making process, including the source(s) of the data. Evaluate the information technology and tools needed in each step of the decision-making process. Evaluate any regulatory, legal,......

Words: 324 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Clinical Safety

...What I Learned about Clinical Safety Taking clinical safety is a very important thing to learn. We learned many things in this course, but I picked four of the main safety hazards to discuss. The four topics we covered were preventing fires, oxygen safety, operating room safety, and work place violence and harassment. Our first topic we researched was about preventing fires in the operating room. Fires in the operating room are something I never knew that could happen. Fires occur when oxygen, lasers, or electrical sources spark and ignite when they come into contact with linens or drapes. Fires can occur also when using cleaning solutions during prepping a patient for surgery and the solutions have not been allowed to dry. Also, if the oxygen is left on, this can have detrimental problems. Hospitals have universal and/or standard guide-lines to follow for all procedures. Fire extinguishers are used to put out fires that cannot be controlled when using saline solution or by smothering the fire with a damp towel. I learned that you need to cut off all oxygen and turn off all electrical sources to help kill the fire. There are steps to follow when a fire occurs. You should always report any incidents after they have happened by using a code for the type of incident. Another topic we learned about is safety when using oxygen. When oxygen is being used in the operating room you also need to make sure the draping is not pooling and creating an air pocket. When...

Words: 617 - Pages: 3