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Methodology

In: Other Topics

Submitted By assellek
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Pages 36
Contents

Introduction 3

I. Theoretical part

1.1 What does it mean to know a word? 4 1.2 How important is vocabulary? 7 1.3 How is vocabulary learned? 8 1.4 How words are remembered? 10 1.5 Why do we forget words? 15 1.6 What makes a word difficult? 16 1.7 Psychological and linguistic factors which determine the process of T.V. 17

II Practical part
2.1 Techniques of teaching 19
2.2 Stages on Teaching English Vocabulary 23
2.3 Ideas for teaching vocabulary 23
2.4 Plan of a lesson 27

Conclusion 32

List of literature 33

Introduction Teaching English vocabulary is important. Just as important as teaching grammar and pronunciation. I still meet English teachers who tell me that teaching vocabulary is a waste of time. I disagree with this view and believe, from my own experience, and from the research I've read, that a focus on teaching English vocabulary is an important part of the English class. This coursework presents the process of learning vocabulary. The reason I’ve chosen this theme is the wish to know more about learning vocabulary and how to make the lesson more interesting and useful at the same time. Also I’m interested in finding more successful methods of learning and memorizing words. Teachers should formulate activities specifically for vocabulary practice. It can help deepen the students' understanding of the words, and establish them more firmly in their memory. I've seen school students of English on buses and metro with their heads buried in books which only contain list upon list of vocabulary. This may be a good way of cramming new words for an exam, but it's unlikely to result in long term learning - an ability to use them in context. An interesting experiment by Wilson and Bransford shows the importance of way to learn words. They used 2 groups of students. The first group were given a list of 30 words and told they had to learn them, and would be tested on them. The second group were given the same list of words and told to decide which things on the list would be important or unimportant if they were stranded on a desert island. They did not know they would be tested on the vocabulary. When tested the second group remembered the new words the best. These results obviously have implications for teaching English vocabulary. Wanting to learn a list of words is not enough. New vocabulary needs to be actively used in meaningful and interesting ways if you want to increase your students’ ability to remember new words.
1.1 What does it mean to know a word?

At the most basic level, knowing a word involves knowing its form and its meaning. Knowing the meaning of the word is not just knowing its dictionary meaning, it also means knowing where you can use it or to which you can refer to when you need to explain a word. The vocabulary means all the words of a language and what they mean. A person’s vocabulary consists of all words he/she can use and understand. Vocabulary can be split into two types: receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary. Receptive vocabulary consists of the words which a person understands when he/she hears or reads them. Expressive vocabulary consists of the words the person uses when she/he speaks. words the person uses when she/he speaks. Why teach vocabulary? * Vocabulary building is important in developing literacy. * Vocabulary has a direct affect on comprehension. * Knowing vocabulary words is a key to reading comprehension. The reasons why these individuals have weak vocabularies are often complex and overlapping, but here are a few of the common reasons for weak vocabularies. The person 1) lives in an environment where higher level vocabularies are not used, 2) has a lower education level because the person either did not complete school or the education was of poor quality, 3) attended special education classes in which lower level vocabulary was used in class and in textbooks, 4) does not read much or has a reading problem, 5) does not pay attention to words, 6) has an auditory perception problem which makes it difficult to hear the subtle differences in words, 7) does not have a good understanding of the structure of language including parts of speech and word parts, prefixes, suffixes and word roots.
There are four different types of vocabularies: listening, speaking, reading and writing. In this section of this work I will try to show how and when students develop their vocabulary during the learning English language. The graphic below shows the different types of English vocabulary and the situations in which they are likely to be found. The vocabulary types are shown vertically down the left and the situations in which they are used are shown horizontally along the bottom:

The listening vocabulary is composed of those words a person understands when he or she hears them spoken. It is possible for a word to be in a person’s listening vocabulary and not in his or her speaking, reading, or writing vocabulary. For many students, the listening vocabulary exceeds each of the other vocabularies by a large margin. Listening develops in a student before speaking, reading and writing and may serve as a readiness agent for the other areas. When a child at his or her first lessons of foreign language begins to recognize that the word “pen” means the same like in Russian language “ручка”, the child will respond without mistake when the teacher shows him/her the pen and asks “What is it?”. Later the child will feel confident enough of the word to use it to communicate with others orally. Still later, reading and writing of the word are likely to develop.
The speaking vocabulary is composed of those words a person can use orally to communicate information to others. Since speaking vocabularies are generally based on listening vocabularies, they are generally smaller than the listening vocabularies. Most students, even people in their own language understand many words that they never use in their speech.
The reading vocabulary is composed of the words that a student recognizes and understands when they are seen in print. A word may be in a student’s listening and speaking vocabularies and still not be in his or her reading vocabulary for at least two reasons. First, this occur because the child has not yet learned the sound/symbol relations that are needed to read that word, even though there is a regular sound/symbol association involved. For example, a child at the first stages of studying English language may understand the word watch when he or she hears it and may be able to use the word when speaking, but, because the child has not learned the ch blend or some other part of the word, he or she may not be able to read the word “watch” yet. Another reason a word may not be in a person’s reading vocabulary is that the word doesn’t fit a regular sound/symbol association pattern. For example, a child may have used word “mother” before, may understand the word when it is spoken, and may be able to use the word orally, and still not be able to recognize it in print because the sound/symbol associations are not regular in English.
The writing vocabulary is composed of words that a student can use accurately in written form, in his or her written communications. Most students have fewer words in their writing vocabularies than in their listening, speaking and reading vocabularies. Using a word in writing requires more than just understanding it when it is heard (listening vocabulary) or read (reading vocabulary). Just as speaking the word does, writing the work requires the ability to recall the word and its meaning and to place it in meaningful relationships to other words, but writing requires one additional step – encoding the word into printed symbols. Writing vocabulary therefore takes somewhat longer to acquire. In addition, the permanence of the written word, as opposed to the spoken word, and its openness to close scrutiny make students unwilling to use in writing any words that they are not sure they have under complete control. Students writing themes, for example, often have excellent descriptive words in mind to use, but opt for easier words because they are more sure of either their spellings or meanings.

1.2 How important is vocabulary

Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. This is how the linguist David Wilkins summed up the importance of vocabulary learning. Teaching English vocabulary is an important area worthy of effort and investigation. Recently methodologists and linguists emphasize and recommend teaching vocabulary because of its importance in language teaching. Vocabulary is needed for expressing meaning and in using the receptive (listening and reading) and the productive (speaking and writing) skills. "If language structures make up the skeleton of language, then it is vocabulary that provides the vital organs and the flesh". Vocabulary is not a syllabus, i.e., a list of words that teachers prepare for their learners to memorize and learn by heart. Memorizing may be good and useful as a temporary technique for tests, but not for learning a foreign language. Language students need to learn vocabulary of the target language in another way. If we are really to teach students what words mean and how they are used, we need to show them being used together in context. Words do not just exist on their own; they live together and they depend upon each other. Therefore, teaching vocabulary correctly is a very important element in language learning. Correct vocabulary instruction involves vocabulary selection, word knowledge and techniques. 1.3 How words can be learned?

The vocabulary you know can be divided into two groups - passive vocabulary and active vocabulary. Passive vocabulary contains all the words that you understand when you read or listen, but which you do not use (or cannot remember) in your own writing and speaking. Active vocabulary is all the words you understand, plus all the words that you can use yourself. Your active vocabulary, in English and your own language, is probably much smaller than your passive vocabulary. There are two ways of conveying the meaning of words: direct way and translation. The direct way of presenting the words of a foreign language brings the learner into direct contact with them, the mother tongue does not come in between, and it establishes links between a foreign word and the thing or the concept directly. The direct way of conveying the meaning of foreign words is usually used when the words denote things, objects, their qualities, sometimes gestures and movements, which can be shown to and seen by pupils, for example: a book, a table, red, big, take, stand up, etc.
The more you work on learning a word, as suggested above, the more likely it is that it will become part of your active vocabulary. Usually the first things you learn about a new English word are what it means and its translation in your own language. But there are other things you need to find out before you can say that you know a word like a native speaker does. For example, you have to learn: * how it is spelled * how it is pronounced * how it is inflected (i.e. how it changes if it is a verb, noun or adjective) * other grammar information about it * how it collocates (i.e. what other words are often used with it)
More on collocation if it has a particular style or register the context in which it is most likely to be used.
Once you have chosen which words to learn, you next have to decide how you are going to learn them. Here are a few ideas: * write the words in a notebook (with their translations or definitions) * write the words and definitions on small cards * say the words many times (if you have an electronic dictionary you can hear how the word is pronounced) * put the words into different groups (you could use a graphic organiser) * write them in a file for use with a computer program (such as Quizlet or the one on this site) * make associations (in pictures or with other words) * ask someone to test you * use the words in your own speaking or writing Learning for vocabulary tests In this case you need to be sure exactly how you will be tested, because this will influence how you learn the words. There are several ways that the teacher might test your vocabulary learning, but the ways are broadly divided into two categories: * You will be given the word and have to: -write a definition -use it in an example sentence -translate it into your language * You will be given: -a definition -a gapped example sentence -the translation in your language -and you have to write the English word. If you do a vocabulary test from the second group above, then in most cases you will need to learn the exact spelling of the word and will lose marks if you misspell it. As with all tests, be sure to ask the teacher exactly how you will be tested and exactly how you will be graded. You will then avoid wasting time studying something that you will be not be tested on. Learning vocabulary by reading
The way you learned very many of the words in your own language was by meeting them in the books and magazines you read. The context of a new word in a sentence or story was often enough for you to guess the meaning. Meeting the word again and again in your reading helped you learn it for use in your own speaking and writing. Doing lots of extra reading for pleasure - both fiction and non-fiction - is an excellent way to learn new English words, too. But choose books that you find quite easy to read. Difficult stories or texts that you struggle to understand will not help you to develop your vocabulary the natural way. But remember: to learn new words from reading you have to read a lot! Some students put a tick or cross in their dictionary next to every word they look up. The next time they turn to a page with a marked word, they quickly check to see if they remember the meaning of that word. It’s usually not enough to just read through a list of words with their definitions or translations and try to remember them. Most students find that they memorise words better if they do something with them. Even better is to try and learn the word in a typical combination with other words. Learning that to apologize means to say sorry is a good start, but it's much better to learn a whole expression containing the word, e.g. He apologized for being late. Not only is this often easier to remember, but you are also learning some very important information on how the word is used. 1.4 How words are remembered?

The learner needs not only to learn a lot of words, but to remember them. In fact, learning is remembering. Unlike the learning of grammar, which is essentially a rule-based system, vocabulary knowledge is largely a question of accumulating individual items. There are few short cuts in the form of generative rules: it is essentially a question of memory. How, then, does memory work? And what are the implications for teaching vocabulary? Researchers into the workings of memory customarily distinguish between the following systems: the short-term store, working memory, and long-term memory. The short-term store (STS) is the brain’s capacity to hold a limited number of items of information for periods of time up to a few seconds. It is the kind of memory that is involved in holding in your head a telephone number for as long as it takes to be able to dial it. Or to repeat a word that you’ve just heard the teacher modelling. But successful vocabulary learning clearly involves more than simply holding words in your mind for a few seconds. For words to be integrated long-term memory they need to be subjected to different kinds of operations. Focussing on words long enough to perform operations on them is the function of working memory. Many cognitive tasks such as reasoning, learning and understanding depend on working memory. It can be thought of as a kind of work bench, where information is first placed, studied and moved about before being filed away for later retrieval. The information that is being manipulated can come from external sources via the senses, or it can be “downloaded” from the long-term memory. Or both. For example, a learner can hear a word (like tangi), download a similar word from long-term memory (like tango), and compare the two in working memory, before deciding if they are the same or different. Material remains in working memory for about twenty seconds. This capacity is made possible by the existence of the articulatory loop, a process of subvocal repetition, a bit like a loop of audio tape going round and round. It enables the short-term store to be kept refreshed. Having just heard a new word, for example, we can run it by as many times as we need in order to examine it (tangi.. tang.. tangi.. tangi..)-assuming that not to many other new words are competing for space on the loop. The holding capacity of the articulatory loop seems to be a determining factor in the ability to learn languages: the longerthe loop, the better the learner. Or, to put it another way, the ability to hold a phonological representation of a word in working memory is a good predictor of language learning aptitude. Likewise, any interference in the processes of sub vocal repetition –e.g. distracting background talk-is likely to disrupt the functioning of the loop and impair learning. Another significant feature of the articulatory loop is that it can hold fewer L2 words than L1 words. This has a bearing on the length of chunk a learner can process at any one time. Also linked to working memory is a kind of mental sketch pad. Here images-such as visual mnemonics (or memory prompts) – can be placed and scanned in order to elicit words from long term memory into working memory. Long-term memory can be thought of as a kind of filing system. Unlike working memory, which has a limited capacity and no permanent content, long-term memory has an enormous capacity, and its contents are durable over time. However, the fact that learners can retain new vocabulary items the length of a lesson (i.e. beyond the few seconds’ duration of the short-term store) but have forgotten them by the next lesson suggests that long-term memory is not always as long-term as we would wish. Rather, it occupies a continuum from “the quickly forgotten” to “the never forgotten”. The great challenge for language learners is to transform material from the quickly forgotten to the never forgotten. Research into memory suggests that, in order to ensure that material moves into permanent long-term memory, a number of principles need to be observed. Here is a brief summary of some of the research findings that are relevant to the subject of word learning: * Repetition: The time - honoured way of “memorising” new material is through repeated rehearsal of the material while it is still in working memory –i.e. letting the articulatory loop just run and run. However, simply repeating an item (the basis of rote learning) seems to have little long-term effect unless some attempt is made to organise the material at the same time. But one kind of repetition that is important is repetition of encounters with a word. It has been estimated that, when reading, words stand a good chance of being remembered if they have been met at least seven times over spaced intervals. (Are you still in any doubt, for instance, as to the meaning of tangi?) * Retrieval: Another kind of repetition that is crucial is what is called the retrieval practice effect. This means, simply, that the act of retrieving a word from memory makes it more likely that the learner will be able to recall it again later. Activities which require retrieval, such as using the new word in written sentences, “oil the path” for future recall. * Spacing: It is better to distribute memory work across a period of time than to mass it together in a single block. This is known as the principle of distributed practice. This applies in both the short term and the long term. When teaching students a new set o words, for example, it is best to present some more, then backtrack again, and so on. As each word becomes better learned, the testing interval can gradually be extended. The aim is to test each item at the longest interval at which it can reliably be recalled. Similarly, over a sequence of lessons, newly presented vocabulary should be reviewed in the next lesson, but the interval between successive tests should gradually be increased. * Pacing: learners have different learning styles, and process data at different rates, so ideally they should be given the opportunity to pace their own rehearsal activities. This may mean the teacher allowing time during vocabulary learning for learners to do “memory work”-such as organising or reviewing their vocabulary-silently and individually. * Use: Putting words to use, preferably in some interesting way, is the best way of ensuring they are added to long-term memory. It is the principle popularly known as Use it or lose it. Meanwhile, the following points all relate to ways of manipulating words in working memory. * Cognitive depth: The more decisions the learner makes about a word, and the more cognitively demanding these decisions, the better the word is remembered. For example, a relatively superficial judgement might be simply to match it with a word that rhymes with it: e. g. tango/mango. A deeper level decision might be to decide on its part of speech (noun, adjective, verb, etc). Deeper still might be to use it to complete a sentence. * Personal organising: The judgements that learners make about a word are most effective if they are personalised. In one study, subjects who had read a sentence aloud containing new words showed better recall than subjects who had simply silently rehearsed the words. But subjects who hade made up their own sentences containing the words and read them aloud did better still. * Imaging: Best of all were subjects who were given the task of silently visualizing a mental picture to go with a new word. Other tests have shown that easily visualized words are more memorable than words that don’t immediately evoke a picture. This suggests that-even for abstract words-it might help if learners associate them with some mental image. Interestingly, it doesn’t seem to matter if the image is highly imaginative or even very vivid, so long as it is self-generated, rather than acquired “second hand”. * Mnemonics: These are “tricks” to help retrieve items or rules that are stored in memory and that are not yet automatically retrievable. Even native speakers rely on mnemonics to help with some spelling rules: e.g. i before e except after c. as the previous point suggests, the best kinds of mnemonics are often visual. The most well-attested memory technique is the key word technique. * Motivation: Simply wanting to learn new words is no guarantee that words will be remembered. The only difference a strong motivation makes is that the learner is likely to spend more time rehearsal and practice, which in the end will pay off in terms of memory. But even unmotivated learners remember words if they have been set tasks that require them to make decisions about them. * Attention/arousal: Contrary to popular belief, you can’t improve your vocabulary in your sleep, simply by listening to a tape. Some degree of conscious attention is required. Avery high degree of attention (called arousal) seems to correlate with improved recall. Words that trigger a strong emotional response, for example, are more easily recalled than ones that don’t. this may account for the fact that many learners seem to have a knack of remembering swear words, even if they’ve heard them only a couple of times. * Affective depth: Related to the preceding point, affective (i.e. emotional) information is stored along with cognitive (i.e. intellectual) data, and may play an equally important role on how words are stored and recalled. Just as it is important for learners to make cognitive judgements about words, it may also be important to make affective judgements, such as do I like the sound and look of the word? Do I like the thing that the word represents? Does the word evoke any pleasant or unpleasant associations? 1.5 Why do we forget words?

Even with the best will in the word, students forget the words. As a rule, forgetting is rapid at first, but gradually slows down. This is true in both the short term, (from lesson to lesson) and in the long term (after a whole course).It has been estimated that up to 80 per cent of material is lost within 24 hours of initial learning, but that then the rate of forgetting levels out. And a study of learner’s retention of a foreign language (Spanish) over an extended period showed that – in the absence of opportunities to use the language – rapid forgetting occurred in the first 3 or 4 years after instruction, but then leveled out, with very little further loss, even up to 50 years later.
Two factors seemed to determine retention. First, those words that were easy to learn were better retained. Secondly, those words that were learned over spaced learning sessions were retained better than words that were learned in concentrated bursts – consistent with the principle of distributed practice.
Forgetting may be caused both by interference from subsequent learning and by insufficient recycling. With regard to interference, most teachers will be familiar with the symptoms of overload, when the price for learning new language items is the forgetting of old ones. This seems to be particularly acute if words are taught that are very similar meaning. More important perhaps, as a remedy against forgetting, is recycling. Research shows that spaced review of learned material can dramatically reduce the rate of forgetting. But it is not enough simply to repeat words, or to re-encounter them in their contexts. Much better is to recycle them in different ways. Research suggests that if learners see or use a word in a way different from the way they first met it, then better learning is achieved.

1.6 What makes a word difficult?

Learning the words of a foreign language is not an easy business since every word has its form, meaning, and usage and each of these aspects of the word may have its form (daughter, busy, bury, woman, women) and easy in usage; other words are easy in form (enter, get, happen) and difficult in usage. Consequently, words may be classified according to the difficulties pupils find in assimilation. In methodology some attempts have been made to approach the problem.
The analysis of the words within the foreign language allows us to distinguish the following groups of words: concrete, abstract, and structural. Words denoting concrete things (book, street, sky), actions (walk, dance, read), and qualities (long, big, good) are easier to learn than words denoting abstract notions (world, home, believe, promise, honest). Structural words are the most difficult for Russian-speaking pupils.
In teaching pupils a foreign language the teacher should bear this in mind when preparing for the vocabulary work during the lesson.

1.7 Psychological and linguistic factors which determine the process of teaching vocabulary

Words are elements of the language used in the act of communication. They are single units, and as such cannot provide the act of communication by themselves; they can provide it only when they are combined in a certain way. Sometimes separate words may be used in the act of communication, however, for example: * You have relatives, haven’t you? * Yes, a grandmother.
The word grandmother is used instead of the sentence pattern Yes, I have a grandmother.
Charles Fries says: “It is not the meaning of the words themselves but an intricate system of formal features which makes possible the grasp of what we generally call meaning. Tran, boy, house, take – conveys no meaning. The boy takes a train to his house is full of meaning.” He concludes, “The meaning is not in the words themselves but the words as a pattern.”
N. I. Zhinkin writes: “Человек вообще никогда не говорит отдельные слова, если они в то же время не являются фразами. Никогда ни с того не скажет яблоко, паутина и т.п. В разных ситуациях этими словами будут высказываться разные сообщения и побуждения: вот яблоко, хочу яблоко, где яблоко, не хочу яблоко, это не яблоко и т.д.
This idea was also emphasized by I. A. Gruzinskaya, a prominent Soviet methodologist. She wrote: Слова живет и развивает только в целостном речевом комплексе, только в окружении других слов, во взаимоотношении с ними.
Rule I for the teacher: While teaching pupils vocabulary, introduce words in sentence patterns in different situations of intercourse. Present the words in keeping with the structures to be taught.
Information is composed two kinds of elements: simple (words) and complicated (sentences).
A word may be both a whole which consists of elements (speech sounds) and at the same time an element which is included in a whole (a sentence). In teaching words attention should be given both to word as an element (in sentences) and a word as a whole (isolated unit) with purpose of its analysis.
We fully agree with I. A. Gruzinskaya who who writes: При введении нового слова оно должно фигурировать сначала в предложении, а затем закрепляться в связном контексте, в котором только и можно проследить многозначность слова. С изолированным словам мы будем иметь дело только после того, как оно воспринято в связном языковом целом, причем выделяем, изолируем мы слово только временно, для того чтобы фиксировать на нем внимание, объяснить его, опять поместить его в связно языковое окружение.
Rule 2 for the teacher: Present the word as an element, i.e., in a sentence pattern first. Then fix it in the pupil’s memory through different exercises in sentence patterns and phrase patterns.
Speech is taken in by ear and reproduced by the organs of speech.
“Есть все основавния считать, что местом образования и накопления слов является речедвигательный анализатор. Слуховой анализатор лишь контролирует способ образования слов, но не сщдержит их в себе. Только то слово может быть понято и узнано, которое уже щбразовано и двигательные следы которого хранятся двигательном анализаторе. Незнакомое слово должно быть под конролем слуха предварительно усвоено речедвигательным анализатором”
In teaching pupils vocabulary both the ear and organs of speech should take an active part in the assimilation of words. Pupils should have ample practice in hearing words and pronouncing them not only as isolated units but in various sentences in which they occur. Rule 3 for the teacher: While introducing a word pronounces it yourself in a context, ask pupils to pronounce it both individually and in unison in a context, too. Any word in the language has very complicated linguistic relations with other words in pronunciation, meaning, spelling, and usage. Rule 4 for the teacher: In teaching words it is necessary to establish a memory bond between a new word and those already covered. For instance: see – sea; too – two; one – won; (in pronunciation); bought – brought; caught – taught; night – right (in spelling); to fight somebody – бороться против кого – либо; to doubt something – сомневаться в чем – либо; to mention something – упоминать о чем – либо (similar word combination). Hence there are two stages in teaching vocabulary; presentation or explanation, retention or consolidation which are based on certain psycholinguistic factors.
2.1 Techniques for Teaching Students understand and retain better those things that they have experienced most directly and have been involved in analyzing and discussing. One active method of learning word meanings is through conversations with the teacher and other students about a topic to which the words are related. Some specific techniques for teaching vocabulary are described below. These techniques may be used in conjunction with development of general vocabulary knowledge, or content area vocabulary. * Categorization
One of the most effective ways to work with words and word meanings is to place the words into categories. By seeing the relationships among many familiar words and the new words, children are able to build connections between new information and prior knowledge. Arranging words in categories is also one way to develop the thinking skill of classifying. * Semantic Feature Analysis
This semantic feature analysis is another good way to conduct word study. In it a number of words are categorized in relationship to several characteristics.
Use of the Dictionary Use of the dictionary is another approach to vocabulary development that should be overlooked. Dictionary skills need to be deliberately taught, so that students can use them independently when the need arises. It is very important to learn how to use the dictionary, because when students look up words in the dictionary, they often do not fully use the information that is found. If they need only on pronunciation of the word, the phonetic respelling and the pronunciation key hold the information sought. If they are seeking info about meaning, however, they need to be led to use some information that they may have been ignoring. * Word Play Word play is an enjoyable way to promote vocabulary growth. Word play may include use of different games, like crossword puzzles, hidden-word puzzles, scrambled-word puzzles, games based on traditional games. 2.2 Stages on Teaching English Vocabulary

Considering the number of new words students have to learn per course, this means us teachers have our work cut out for us. We all know that although it is important for students to use correct grammar and structures, words are the main carriers of meaning. This means that the more words students are able to handle accurately, the better their chances of understanding English and making themselves understood.

To effectively acquire new vocabulary, students must go through four essential stages: * first, they notice a new word with help; * secondly, they recognize the word at first with help, * then later on their own; * and lastly, they are able to both recognize and produce the word.

It is essential that you, as the teacher, make use of activities that target each of these stages; more often than not, we make the mistake of merely introducing new vocabulary, and we don’t give students the opportunity to put these new words to use. * Stage 1: Noticing and understanding new words * Introducing nouns, things, objects, animals, etc… * Visual elements work best with concrete nouns, but try to go beyond flashcards and illustrations. * Try to use real objects whenever possible, or even sounds, smells, and tastes. Appeal to all of your students’ senses! * Introducing adjectives
Opposites, like “big” and “small”, “long” and “short”, are usually illustrated with pictures, but here’s another case where realia will help you teach new adjectives; the use of real life objects is wonderful for words like “soft” and “rough”, adjectives that may take precious minutes of class time to explain. For more advanced adjectives, like “stunning”, “gorgeous”, “spectacular”, “huge”, or “immense”, bring in photos of famous sights from around the world like the Louvre, Egyptian pyramids, the Eiffel Tower, etc…then use these new adjectives to describe these places in ways that clearly illustrate their meaning. * Introducing abstracts
There are things you simply cannot teach with a flashcard. What works best in these cases are synonyms, definitions, substitutions, or simply placing students within a given context. Consider this simple example: To teach the difference between “early” and “late”, remind students what time class begins, then state that those who arrive before this time are “early” while those that arrive after this time are “late”. * Stage 2: Recognizing new words Bingo
Bingo is one of the most versatile games employed by ESL teachers. For younger learners, make bingo cards with illustrations, and call out each word. For those who can read, do the opposite, make the cards with words, then draw the flashcards from a bag. For teens or adult learners, you can make cards with the definition and call out the words, or vice versa. Matching
Another type of exercise with countless possibilities. Students may be required to match opposites, synonyms, or a word with its definition, as well as a picture to a word. Fill in the blanks (with options)
Hand out a piece of written text (anything from a description, song, letter, to even a short story) with blank spaces that must be filled in from a list of words. You can adapt this to longer texts, and also have longer word lists. * Stage 3: Producing vocabulary * Descriptions
From a newspaper photo of a recent event to a personal account of a recent trip, there are countless things students can describe while putting new vocabulary to good use. This goes for both oral and written descriptions. You may give them some guidance, like indicating that they have to use at least five adjectives in their description, or five words related to sports, weather, etc…to no guidance at all. * Fill in the blanks (no options)
Supply students with a piece of written text with blank spaces that have to be filled in with any word that fits. You may give them indications for each space, like “noun”, “adjective” or “adverb”, if they’re advanced students. You can then read several out loud to compare the different words used to fill in each blank. * Mind maps or brainstorming
Tell students they need to think of words they can use to describe the weather. Write “weather” at the center of a blackboard or whiteboard and circle it. Write every word supplied by students as “rays” that shoot out this circle. They should reply with previously taught words, like “chilly”, “scorching”, or “mild”. You may even have sub-circles shooting off to the side for winter, summer, etc…words. This works great for vocabulary review lessons. * Guess what I'm thinking
Students take turns describing something, like a place: “I’m thinking of a place that is so huge it takes visitors hours to see all of it. It has stunning works of art. It is a breathtaking building, very old, but with a modern glass pyramid in the front.” Students choose to be as obvious or as cryptic as they like. Even little ones can do this with simple descriptions: “It's an animal. It has a very long neck and big brown spots.” Or simply state a series of words: “Africa, black and white, stripes”. It’s better to teach vocabulary in context, in other words, teach highly descriptive adjectives when the lesson is about travel. Or clothes and accessories when you’re talking about shopping. Never teach a list of words just because, or students won’t have a chance to practice this new vocabulary. Use songs and music, real life objects, or puzzles, but the more you mix the better. Remember the difference between recognizing and producing words: to practice recognition the words have to be supplied by you then students use them to fill in blanks or match them. For students to effectively and accurately produce vocabulary, they have to spontaneously recall the words
2.3 Ideas for teaching English Vocabulary

When teaching English vocabulary, vary the way in which you introduce it. Use as more as possible, pictures, drawings on the board, antonyms, demonstration, readings and stories. When teaching English vocabulary, it helps to teach words in groups, especially when the groups of words often occur together. For example, when teaching the word 'economy,' it's useful to teach related words such as economical, economize, economist etc.
Whichever way you teach vocabulary, it's important that you provide interesting ways for the students to practice the words; otherwise their attention will diminish, along with any learning.
There are ways of teaching English vocabulary which are natural and work to some extent, but are problematic. Giving a synonym is easy to do, and the vast majority of teachers will do this. The only problem with it is that there are no true synonyms. Every word has its own history and character, and usually its own usage. Therefore, care is needed when explaining vocabulary by giving synonyms. An explanation of the word's usage and actual classroom practice using it are necessary.
Verbal explanations are natural and help, as long as the students are given practice using the new words. Sometimes the teacher ends up talking too much, and the students can be lost in a sea of explanation, without a clear idea of how to use the word.
Translation is an overused technique. Translation has its place, and for some words, it is the most practical way. Try explaining: 'just,'or 'oak,' to a class without translation - assuming you are not standing in an oak forest with just one pine. However, overusing it does not benefit the students at all; even if it makes them, and the teacher, feel more comfortable. At higher levels there are other problems, apart from the lack of practice. Two languages seldom, if ever, have exact translations of words - apart from the most common words - and using only translation, and not going on to give an explanation of usage, and practice in using the words is of extremely little use, and can even be misleading.
Rote learning is the opposite of using meaningful ESL vocabulary activities, but it has its place. For the learning of simple lists, like the days of the week, or numbers, there is no need to overcomplicate things. Learning by rote for these things is effective, but for much other ESL vocabulary it is not, and will not lead to the same level of deep memorization or understanding that the repeated use of interesting tasks in the classroom will.
Vocabulary needs to be taught in context, and the students need to be given practice using the vocabulary for deeper learning to take place. An example is if you teach 'redwood' it may be a good idea to teach verbs and adjectives related to redwood. These may be: ancient, towering, enormous, grow etc. Students can record the words which go together, together in their notebooks.
Teaching English vocabulary through interesting activities and language play will lead to the deepest learning. Using stories as a vehicle for practicing new vocabulary is a good idea. However, don't forget that the story is important in itself. If the story is uninteresting, then it will no longer work as a way of helping the students master new vocabulary. * While learning vocabulary game is a special helper in the process of integrating new words as well. Game factor can make words more memorable and help to involve every student into the class work. Most games offered by the authors of the modern textbooks are role plays, mainly pair work. They are not precisely vocabulary games but give an opportunity to practice speaking skills on the basis of the vocabulary learned while working through the unit. These tasks are based on realistic problems or situations and are designed to motivate learners, develop their skills working in teams, delegating and interacting effectively with each other.
Wonder Words Poster Template
The above template (enlarged) provides students the opportunity to place words they understand when they are reading. Students are provided with opportunities during the day to discuss their word with others as we try different strategies to figure it's meaning.
Making Connections: Story Impression
Help students make connections between words while making predictions about the text. Before reading, pick a handful of words that children will encounter. Write these words (in order they are located in the book) under "Story Chain". Have them read the first two words and think how they are connected. Under "Story Prediction," have them write words or draw pictures to describe the connection. Next, have them connect the second and third word and write words or draw a picture to describe the connection. This continues until all of the words have been "connected". This is a great vocabulary AND comprehension activity!
My Word Meaning
Choose a word that you will come across in a read aloud. Write that word in the left column. Have students draw a picture or write words to show what that word means to them before the reading. After you read, have the students draw a picture or write words if their meaning has changed. (This vocabulary activity is helpful to use when the comprehension strategy "mental image" is introduced).
New Word Grid
The New Word Grid allows students to make personal connections with words. It appeals to visual learning styles and allows students to organize their thinking and relate to words in a personal way.

Type of the lesson: Teaching vocabulary The objectives of the lesson 1. to present to students new vocabulary 2. to teach how to formulate sentences with new words
(to explain the aspects of using: context, order) 3. to develop speaking skills and vocabulary

Theme: Summer holidays
Visual aids: pictures, cards, applications
Extra task: to make a story about summer holidays, use active vocabulary

Time | Teacher’s activity | Teacher’s speaking | Student’s speaking | Comment | | 8.00-8.04 | 1.Organization moment (1-2 minutes):2. talking the lessons theme and plan | * Good morning! * How are you today? * What's the weather today?So, let’s speak about summer holydays. Do you like summer holidays? | Good morning! We are fine!Thank you! Today is cloudy.Yes | | | 8.06-8.08 | Brainstorming | How do you think, what we are going to do today?Yes! Right! We will learn new words. | “We are going to speak about Summer ” | | | Presentation of the material | | 8.09-8.16 | Introducing new vocabulary | Look at the pictures, what can you see? Do you know all this things? Where we can use it? I will show you pictures, and say the names of things or actions. You will repeat after me! Ok? | Cl.- the beach, the sea, the ball ///at the beach, when we go on holiday /// Cl.- the beach – пляжthe sea – море the wave – волна the shore – берег to swim – купаться /// | *** | | Practice | 8.20-8.28 | Group Tasks | 1. I will show you the pictures and ask the questions. You will answer for them. (What do you wear on the beach when you go on holiday?) 2. We will listen to dialog and answer for the questions. (What does Mark want to do?) | Cl.- the flip-flops///Cl.- Ride the waves at the beach./// | | | 8.30-8.41 | Individual task | I will give the task for each of you. If you have any questions, please ask me! Try to make a story about your future summer holidays with a help of new words and expressions. (auxiliary material: application and magazine clippings) | Tasks: 1) alphabetti-snake 2) column 3) magic square 4)confusion S.1- When we will go on summer holidays we will take with us swimming trunks, sunscreen. We will walk along the shore. /// | Extra task*** | | Production | 8.42-8.43 | Home task | Learn new vocabulary, invent a short story. | | | | 8.45 | The final part of the lesson | Thank you for lesson. You worked hard today!Good bay! | Thank you!Good bay! | | |

*** If it doesn’t enough it is possible to repeat an action once more. Translation of words should be done. Students can take notes Put the word to the left, to their correct translation the flip-flops | маска для подводного плавания | the wave | берег | swimming trunks | пляжный зонтик | the shore | плавки | the bat and ball | шлепанцы | diving goggles | игра с ракеткой | the parasol | волна | Мatch words in A to B to make a words from new vocabulary
A B
a. swimming 1. shore
b. flops 2. ride
c. bat and 3. flip
d. goggles 4. trunks
e. sea 5. ball
f. waves 6. diving

Look at the alphabetti-snake and find…

Beachairbedaballparasolseasunscreensunbathwavetowelswimmingpool

Rearrange the words to make sentences and translate 1) the under parasol sit 2) don’t ball play and bat a crowded in place 3) sunscreen to remember always use 4) brother castle your make help sand 5) on walk your to on put sand the flip-flops 6) the go with along a girlfriend for your walk seashore 7) Board ride with wave your the surf

Find words from vocabulary

P | U | R | Y | W | E | V | E | S | E | A | P | F | A | N | B | A | T | N | O | P | X | K | C | A | I | R | L | V | A | Z | I | D | W | S | V | S | U | B | A | E | N | G | F | A | B | T | E | U | R | E | Q | R | D | B | A | H | C | S | A | N | E | D | E | B | T | I | L | U | K | H | L | S | Q | R | G | C | O | B | L | W | T | O | I | C | A | F | R | E | C | S | V | O | E | R | T | R | U | M | B | E | A | C | H | H | D | E | E | E | A | C | S | K | E | L | O | R | P | O | G | E | C | F | L | I | P | Y | N | J | U | V | A | N | E | B | Y | S | F | L | O | P | S | T | R |

Conclusion

Finally, I would like to say that teaching vocabulary is one of the most important and difficult fields in the teaching process. Teachers should learn how to handle this field properly and let their learners handle words and be involved with them. When teachers select the words to be taught to their learners, they should be aware of the vocabulary their learners need. In this way, students can use words effectively. If we, the English teachers, let our students be exposed to the vocabulary they need, and if we give them the chance to practice them, then they will remember some or all of them.
Furthermore, when teachers decide to teach any meaning of any word, they should touch on word use, word formation and word grammar. Teachers should also know that teaching vocabulary is not just conveying the meaning to the students and asking them to learn those words by heart.
Teachers should check their students’ understanding by giving them encouraging exercises, such as the one mentioned in this essay. As a result, teachers will be satisfied by employing the above mentioned techniques, and their students will be as well. Those techniques will give the students the opportunity to become independent and will allow them to activate their previous knowledge in working with words by themselves. In addition, they will feel more confident when trying to express themselves in English, because they have already grasped a lot of vocabulary as a result of being taught by the above mentioned techniques and ways.

List of literature

1. Rogova G. Methods of teaching English. Leningrad, 1975.- 312p. 2. Harner Jeremy. The practice of English language teaching. L. - New York,
1991.-296p.
3. Potter Mike. International issues. Teacher's book. L., 1991.- 125p. 4. Бугаев Н.И. Обучение – это общение.// Народное образование Якутии- 1992 №2 с.37-49 5. Загвязинский В.И. Методология и методика дидактических исследований.- М: Педагогика, 1982 6. Зимняя И. А. Психологическая характеристика слушания и говорения как видов речевой деятельности. – «Иностранные языки в школе», 1973 7. Рогова Г.В., Мануэльян Ж.И. «Методика работы над текстом а старших классах средней школы», Иностранные языки в школе, 1983, №5. 8. Рогова Г.В., Мануэльян Ж.И.: «Методическое содержание работы над иноязычным текстом различного характера в старших классах средней школы», Иностранные языки в школе, 1994, № 5. 9. Рогова Г.В.: «Чтение как цель и как средство обучения иностранному языку», - Иностранные языки в школе, 1997, № 3. 10. Пассов Е.И.: «Основы методики обучения иностранным языкам», Москва, Русский язык, 1987, глава ҮІ. 11. Слободчиков А.А.: «О развитии навыков чтения научно-популярных и общетехнических текстов в старших классах», Иностранные языки в школе, 1990, № 6. 8-12 стр. 12. Старков А.П.: «Обучение английскому языку в средней школе», Москва, Просвещение, 1988, глава ІҮ. 13. Уэст М.: «Обучение английскому языку в трудных условиях», М., 1986 с 30-40. 14. Фадеев В.М.: «Домашнее чтение в старших классах, его организация и приемы контроля», Иностранные языки в школе, 1989, № 6. Хэгболдт П.: «Изучение иностранных языков» М., 1963 с 92-109

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Research Methodology

...When doing research it is very important to have a logical framework that will be used to examine the question without this framework the research question is destined to fail. This framework is the methodology that is chosen. The methodology that is chosen will steer the direction that the research will take. There are 3 basic types of methodology that can be used; qualitative, quantitative, and mixed. Qualative research methodology is observing and analyzing behaviors, trends, and patterns by using focus groups, seminars, surveys, interview, and forums (AIU, 2012). That data that is collected is generally nonnumeric and focuses on groups of people or objects (Editorial Board, 2011). Quantitative research uses relationships between variables, both independent and dependent. This type of research can be used in observational and experimental research. The difference between qualitative and quantitative research is that quantitative research focuses on hypothesis testing (2012). Quantitative data is generally a numeric measurement (2011). The mixed methodology is a combination of qualative and quantitative research because of this it is thought to be the most powerful methodology (2012). The data collection tool (direct observation, interviews, survey, questionnaires, and experiments) used depends on the type of data being collected, the amount of data being collected, the quality of the data being collected, the time frame in which the data needs to be collected, and the......

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