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Methods in Research

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METHODS OF RESEARCH

1. Historical Method

Purpose: To reconstruct the past objectively and accurately, often in relation to the tenability of a hypothesis. Example: A study reconstructing practices in the study of social studies in the Philippines during the past fifty years; tracing the history of agrarian reform in the Philippines; Philippine education since 1946; testing the hypotheses that Francis Bacon is the real author of the “Works of William Shakespeare”.

2. Descriptive Method

Purpose: To describe systematically a situation or area of interest factually and accurately. Examples: Population census studies, public opinion surveys, fact-finding surveys, status studies, task analysis studies, questionnaire and interview studies, observation studies, job descriptions, surveys of the literature, documentary analyses, anecdotal records, critical incident reports, test score analyses, and normative data.

3. Developmental method

Purpose: To investigate patterns and sequences of growth and/or change as a function of time. Examples: A longitudinal growth study following an initial sample of 200 children from six months of age to adulthood; a cross-sectional growth study investigating changing patterns of intelligence by sampling groups of children at ten different age levels; a trend study projecting the future growth and educational needs of a community from past trends and recent building estimates.

4. Case and field method

Purpose: To study intensively the background, current status, and environmental interactions of a given social unit; an individual, a group, an institution or a community. Examples: The case history of a child with an above average IQ but with severe learning disabilities; an intensive study of a group of teenage youngsters on probation for drug abuse; an intensive study of a typical suburban...

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