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AP World History
Table of Contents | Pages | AP World History Overview | 3 – 7 | The AP Exam | 3 | World Regions | 4 – 5 | Five Course Themes | 6 | Four Historical Thinking Skills | 7 | Essays Overview | 8 - 15 | Document-based Question (DBQ) | 8 – 12 | Change and Continuity over Time (CCOT) | 13 – 15 | Comparative Essay | 16 – 18 | Released Free Response Questions | 19 – 20 | AP Curriculum Framework | 21 – 38 | Period 1 (Up to 600 B.C.E.)—5% | 21 – 22 | Period 2 (600 B.C.E. to 600 C.E.)—15% | 23 – 25 | Period 3 (600 to 1450)—20% | 26 – 28 | Period 4 (1450 to 1750)—20% | 29 – 31 | Period 5 (1750 to 1900)—20% | 32 – 35 | Period 6 (1900 to the present)—20% | 36 – 38 | Help with Some Confusing Subjects | 39 – 43 | Chinese Dynasties | 39 | Political, Economic, and Social Systems | 40 | Religions | 41 | Primary Sources | 42 | “Must Know” Years | 43 |
* Many of the guidelines in this study packet are adapted from the AP World History Course Description, developed by College Board.
The AP Exam
Purchasing and taking the AP World History exam are requirements of the course. This year, the AP World History exam will be administered on: ___________________________________________
I. Multiple Choice a. You will have 55 minutes to answer 70 Questions. b. Each question has options A, B, C, and D. c. Questions are divided evenly between the five course themes (20% each) and six periods. d. Each questions addresses one of the four historical thinking skills. e. You should answer ALL 70 questions, even if you have to guess. There are no points off for wrong answers. II. Free-Response Questions (FRQ’s) f. Timing: Section II will begin with a ten minute reading period, followed by a 120 minute (2 hour) writing period, for a total of 2 hours and 10 minutes. During this section, students may distribute their time as they choose between the three questions; however, the proctor will issue time warnings suggesting you move on to the next question. g. Part A: Document-Based Question i. Suggested planning and writing time= 50 minutes ii. This essay question tests your ability to formulate and support an answer using documentary evidence. You will read, analyze, and group a selection of 7-10 primary source documents to craft and support a historical argument. You must use ALL the documents. h. Part B: Change and Continuity over Time Question iii. Suggested planning and writing time= 40 minutes iv. This essay question deals specifically with analysis of changes and continuities over time and covers at least one of the periods in the concept outline. You should answer the question using specific evidence. i. Part C: Comparative Question v. Suggested planning and writing time= 40 minutes vi. The comparative essay focuses on developments across at least TWO regions or societies. It relates to one of the five major themes in the course (ex: state building, economic systems) and requires analysis of the reasons for identified similarities and differences. j. Essay Scoring: Students can earn a maximum of 9 points (7 basic core plus two expanded) on each essay, for a maximum essay score of 27 points. III. Exam Scoring k. Each Section is given equal weight and then added together for a cumulative raw score, which then falls into one of five possible ranges. 5= Extremely well-qualified; 4= Well-Qualified, 3= Qualified, 2= Possibly Qualified, 1= No Recommendation. l. Scores of 3, 4, and 5 are considered “passing” or “qualifying” scores and may earn students college credit.
Region | Past Major States and Empires | Current Nations (Examples) | North America | Cahokia, Iroquois ConfederationBritish and French colonization | United States, Canada | Latin America and the Caribbean | Olmec, Chavin, Maya, Aztec, Inca Spanish and Portuguese colonization | Mexico, Cuba, Brazil, Venezuela, Columbia, Argentina | Western Europe | Roman Empire, Holy Roman EmpireNapoleonic Empire | United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal | Eastern Europe & Russia | Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Kievan Rus, Mongols, Soviet Union | Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria | South Asia | Indus Valley, Mauryan and Gupta Empires, Delhi sultanate, Mughal Empire, British India | India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka | East Asia | Chinese Dynasties, Korean kingdoms, Tokugawa Japan, Imperial Japan | China, Taiwan, JapanNorth Korea, South Korea | Southeast Asia | Kingdom of Srivijaya, city-states (Malacca), Dutch Indonesia | Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Burma | Central Asia | Mongol Empire | Mongolia | The Middle East | Roman Empire, Abbasid & Umayyad Caliphates, Ottoman Empire | Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Israel | North Africa | Carthage, Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire, Caliphates, French Algeria | Libya, Algeria, Tunisia | Sub-Saharan Africa | West Africa | Ghana, Mali, SonghayBritish & French colonization | Ghana, Nigeria | East Africa | Axum, Kingdom of Ethiopia, Swahili city-states; European colonization | Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia | Central Africa | Great Zimbabwe, Belgian Congo | Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda | Southern Africa | Zulu Kingdom, European colonization | South Africa |
Course Acronym= SPICE * Social (Theme 5) * Political (Theme 3) * Interaction with the Environment (Theme 1) * Cultural (Theme 2) * Economic (Theme 4)
Theme #1: Human Interaction with the Environment (Geography) * Interaction between humans and the environment * Demography and disease * Migration * Patterns of settlement * Technology
Theme #2: Development and interaction of cultures * Religions * Belief systems, philosophies, and ideologies * Science and technology * The arts and architecture
Theme #3: State-building, expansion, and conflict * Political structures and forms of governance * Empires * Nations and nationalism * Revolts and revolutions * Regional, transregional, and global structures and organizations
Theme #4: Creation, expansion, and interaction of economic systems * Agricultural and pastoral production * Trade and commerce * Labor systems * Industrialization * Capitalism and socialism
Theme #5: Development and transformation of social structures * Gender roles and relations * Family and kinship * Racial and ethnic constructions * Social and economic classes
Four Historical Thinking Skills 1. Crafting Historical Arguments from Historical Evidence: a. Historical Argumentation: Historical thinking involves the ability to define and frame a question about the past and to address that question through the construction of an argument. A plausible and persuasive argument requires a clear, comprehensive and analytical thesis. b. Appropriate Use of Relevant Historical Evidence: Arguments must be supported by relevant historical evidence — not simply evidence that supports a preferred or preconceived position. Additionally, argumentation involves the capacity to describe, analyze, and evaluate the arguments of others in light of available evidence.
2. Chronological Reasoning c. Historical Causation: Historical thinking involves the ability to identify, analyze, and evaluate the relationships between multiple historical causes and effects, distinguishing between those that are long-term and proximate, and among coincidence, causation, and correlation. d. Patterns of Continuity and Change over Time: Historical thinking involves the ability to recognize, analyze, and evaluate the dynamics of historical continuity and change over periods of time of varying length, as well as relating these patterns to larger historical processes or themes. a. Periodization: Historical thinking involves the ability to describe, analyze, evaluate, and construct models of historical periodization that historians use to categorize events into discrete blocks and to identify turning points, recognizing that the choice of specific dates privileges one narrative, region or group over another narrative, region or group; therefore, changing the periodization can change a historical narrative.
3. Comparison and Contextualization e. Comparison: Historical thinking involves the ability to describe, compare, and evaluate multiple historical developments within one society, one or more developments across or between different societies, and in various chronological and geographical contexts. f. Contextualization: Historical thinking involves the ability to connect historical developments to specific circumstances of time and place, and to broader regional, national, or global processes.
4. Historical Interpretation and Synthesis g. Interpretation: Historical thinking involves the ability to describe, analyze, evaluate, and create diverse interpretations of the past — as revealed through primary and secondary historical sources — through analysis of evidence, reasoning, contexts, points of view, and frames of reference. h. Synthesis: Historical thinking involves the ability to arrive at meaningful and persuasive understandings of the past by applying all of the other historical thinking skills, by drawing appropriately on ideas from different fields of inquiry or disciplines and by creatively fusing disparate, relevant (and perhaps contradictory) evidence from primary sources and secondary works. Additionally, synthesis may involve applying insights about the past to other historical contexts or circumstances, including the present.
How to Write a Document-Based Question (DBQ)
Overview: The primary purpose of the document-based essay question is not to test students’ prior knowledge of subject matter but rather to evaluate their ability to formulate and support an answer from documentary evidence. The DBQ is an exercise in crafting historical arguments from historical evidence. It requires that students first read and analyze the documents individually, contextualize them based on their informed analysis of the documentary evidence, and then plan and construct an appropriate and synthetic essay in response to the question. The student’s answer must group documents in such a way that it demonstrates analysis of their different contents and contexts. A clear thesis statement and an analysis of the documents that fully address the question are required.
Generic Core-Scoring Guide for AP World History Document-Based Question | Basic Core | Points | Expanded Core | 1. Has acceptable thesis2. Addresses all documents and demonstrates understanding of all or all but one.3. Supports thesis with appropriate evidence from all or all but one doc. (Supports thesis with appropriate evidence from all but two documents)4. Analyzes point of view in at least two documents.5. Analyzes documents by grouping them in 2 or 3 ways, depending on question.6. Identifies and explains the need for one type of appropriate additional document or source. Subtotal | 112(1)1117 | Examples:• Has a clear, analytical, & comprehensive thesis.• Shows careful and insightful analysis of the documents.• Uses documents persuasively as evidence.• Analyzes point of view in most or all documents.• Analyzes the documents in additional ways—groupings, comparisons, syntheses.• Brings in relevant “outside” historical content.• Explains why additional types of document(s) or sources are needed.Subtotal 2 |
1st Paragraph: Thesis | 1-2 sentences of introduction; historical background on topicThesis statement (A, B, and C) | 2nd Paragraph: Group A | Topic Sentence A – Identify groupSupporting Evidence from documents in this category* Analyze Point of view/ Additional Document | 3rd Paragraph: Group B | Topic Sentence B—Identify groupSupporting Evidence from documents in this category* Analyze Point of view/ Additional Document | 4th Paragraph: Group C | Topic Sentence C – Identify groupSupporting Evidence from documents in this category* Analyze Point of view/ Additional Document | 5th Paragraph:Conclusion | Restate ThesisAdditional Document/POV (if not addressed in body)Relevant outside historical information; importance of topic |
II. Strategy 1. Read the question carefully until you understand it. What exactly are you being asked to analyze? Circle or rewrite. 2. Read over the documents to get a general sense of their meaning, as it relates to the question. Pay attention to both content (what is being said) and context (what additional information helps understand the content). 3. Take notes on each document in the margins of your booklet. In addition to basic meaning, underline any words or phrases that illustrate point of view. Remember to read the source line and assess its meaning. Do not spend too much time taking detailed notes! 4. Group the documents into three categories. Each should have a unifying theme that relates to the question. For example, if the question asks you to assess “causes,” each group should be a specific cause. 5. Use your groups to write your thesis statement answering the question. Reread the question, and then your thesis. Does your thesis specifically answer the question? 6. Write your essay using the suggested organization. 7. Read over and revise your essay as necessary. Have you addressed all components of rubric?
III. Grouping 1. Grouping is often considered the hardest step in the writing process, and it is a crucial one. 2. It only takes two documents to be a group, and the groups do not have to be of uniform size. Also, the same document can be used in more than one group. For example, one document might show both an attempt to cure the disease and limit economic activity. 3. The documents in a group should not just be presented one after another in a list-like fashion, but woven together to form an argument. Emphasize areas of agreement with words like “likewise” and “also,” and disagreement with transitions like “on the other hand” or “conversely.”
IV. Thesis 1. Your thesis must be in the first paragraph. It should answer the question and identify the three parts of your argument (groups), which will correspond with your three body paragraphs 2. Sample Formula: (Restate first part of question) ___A___, ___B___, and ___C___. 3. Sample Thesis: Question—Analyze European responses to the bubonic plague. Europeans responded to the bubonic plague by limiting economic activity, trying to cure the disease, and turning to religion for guidance.
V. Supporting thesis with evidence 1. You must use all of the documents. 2. Specific mention of individual documents should always occur within the framework of the overall topic, serving to substantiate and illustrate points made in the essay. In no case should documents simply be cited and summarized in a list; reference to the documents must always be closely tied to the essay question. EXPLAIN how the evidence supports your thesis, don’t just summarize. a. Wrong: Document 1 is a letter from a teacher in the Netherlands. b. Right: As a result of the bubonic plague, many Europeans limited their economic activity by staying at home. For example, one Dutch teacher claims in a letter that many of his students have either died or dropped out (Doc 1). He speculates that some have been discouraged from enrolling at all due to fear of the disease. c. Notice the difference? The first example involves summarizing the documents, while in the second the documents are used as evidence. Remember, you are not writing about the documents. You are answering the question using the documents. The documents are simply the materials you are using to build your argument. 3. Students should cite documents by naming the author, title, and/or document number. Example: Lisabetta Centinni, an Italian housewife, claims in her diary that a relic of a Christian saint was able to save her dying husband. This illustrates how some Europeans turned to their faith for answers (Doc 2). VI. Point of view 1. Historians need to know that historical sources are NOT statements of fact. Diaries, letters, brochures, pamphlets, books, and even charts and graphs are all created by a person with a specific perspective and goal in mind. By discussing point of view, students demonstrate their understanding of the historical record. 2. Students should avoid simply stating that a document is “biased.” Instead, use SOAPSTONE!!! a. Speaker: Explain how the characteristics of the author, including his or her gender, occupation, class, religion, nationality, political position, or ethnic identity, influences the views presented in the document. Ex: As a Catholic priest, it is Las Casas’ job to defend and speak up for all levels of society, not to make money. Therefore, he is more likely to sympathize with the Native Americans laboring in the mines, unlike the merchants who view them as cheap labor to be exploited. b. Occasion: What immediate event inspired the creation of the document? In particular, look at the year when assessing occasion. c. Audience: To whom is the speaker addressing his arguments? Is he/she writing to someone in a position of authority, a subordinate, or a foreign leader? Ex: Asantewa addresses the men of her tribe in an impassioned speech. She claims that if the men will not fight as in the days of old, then the women will fight the white men instead. However, Asantewa is likely attempting to inspire the men to action by insulting their bravery, rather than actually calling for the women to fight instead. d. Purpose: What is the author’s purpose in coming forward with this document at this time? Is it to persuade someone to pursue a certain course, to offer encouragement, to justify some action? The author’s purpose, along with audience, will influence how he chooses to word his views and the tone he employs. e. Setting: What is the context or background in which the source was created? f. Tone: How does the tone of the document (polite, aggressive, hostile, sad) relate to the author’s purpose?
VII. Additional Document 1. As part of the DBQ essay, you will be asked to explain the need for an additional type of document(s) to answer the question more completely, and this may involve discussing what relevant points of view are missing from the set of documents. The explanation of at least one additional source must show your recognition of the limitation of the given documents and the reality of the types of sources available from the past. 2. The “Missing Voice”: Whose point of view is noticeably absent? Typical attempts include calling for documents from women or the lower socioeconomic classes. However, the missing voice will vary with the documents given, so do not simply use this as a fallback. a. One Strategy: If Group Y is mentioned in Doc X, but you are not given a document from Y’s point of view, this type of source could help you assess the validity of Doc X. Example: A Catholic priest mentions the plight of the peasants working in the mines, but you do not have the POV of a peasant miner. A statement from a peasant miner would help to more accurately assess working conditions in the mines. 3. You must explain specifically how an additional document would help. 4. Possible Format: Further analysis would be aided by a document from a ______ (POV). This would help to ___________. Or: This would allow one to better assess the validity of X’s claim that __________.
Sample “9” DBQ Essay
The colonization of the Americas by Spain and the beginning of extensive silver mining in Japan greatly increased silver production. However, this increase of the supply of silver, while to some people seemed good, overall caused problems. Although the increase in silver mining appeared to benefit Japan and Spain (the suppliers) as well as Ming China (the receiver), overall this increase caused worldwide problems. Based on the documents, the effects of the increase of silver production, while being beneficial to the middlemen that facilitated the trade, eventually weakened the states and empires that supplied and received silver in vast quantities. In China, though many people believed the increase of trade that increased the amount of silver in China was beneficial, overall the extreme amount that flowed in caused problems. Granted, the flow of some silver into China was not a bad thing; in fact, it was needed. When the Ming Dynasty decreed that all taxes and trade fees be paid in silver in the 1570s, the scarcity of silver coin harmed the economy since people could not pay for their taxes and had to go to middlemen to supply them with silver, decreasing the value of their produce (Doc 3). The problem, presented by Wang Xijue to the Ming emperor in 1593, demonstrates the need for silver in Ming China. Xijue, being a court official, probably sees that a declining economy by this issue will cause there to be public grumbling, maybe even cause for rebellions against the Ming. Therefore, in an act to save his position, he informs the emperor of this problem. In addition, He Qiaoyuan, also a court official of the Ming, describes the extreme amount of silver that the Ming, a country with little interest in international trade, would have flowing into it if it began to trade with the Europeans (Doc 7). Indeed, the price that would normally fetch silk instead is 2 or 3 times the amount in the Philippines (a Spanish colony), giving the Ming a hefty profit if they began trading. However, though this problem of the scarcity of silver was in need of a solution, the unrestricted flow of silver to Ming China ultimately hurt the Ming economy. Ye Chunyi, a county official of the Ming, shows wisdom in his order to limit wedding expenses (Doc 1). The basic reason to be frugal is one that the Ming Empire should have used in their large transactions that would affect the economy. Furthermore, the effect of silver taxes and transactions is shown in Xu Danqiu’s account of how the populace must go through a moneylender in order to buy things since they must use silver instead of a traditional barter economic system (Doc 5). The increased impediment to the Chinese economy would fill the pockets of moneylenders instead of benefiting the economy.
Likewise, the increase in silver production, while benefiting Spain early on, in time hurt the Spanish Empire. Tomas de Mercado, a Spanish scholar, wrote how the high prices of luxury goods caused silver to only flow out of Spain, hurting the economy (Doc 2). Mercado wrote this account in 1517, yet already Ming ships conducted extensive silver trade with the Spanish Empire via Manila. In addition, Arturo Vasquez de Espinosa, a Spanish priest, shows another side that the silver production affected in a negative way—the social side. Vasquez, writing about Potosi, the largest silver mine in Spain’s colonial possessions, describes the terrible conditions that the Native Americans dealt with in the labor in the mines (Doc 6). Vasquez’s account shows the continuing manipulation of the Native American population by the Spanish. He is obviously a priest resembling Bartolome de las Casas in that he is sympathetic towards the Indians; and, as a priest, being part of the organization that protected the Indians most often, this reaction is not a surprise.
In contrast, the increase in silver production benefited the middlemen that facilitated it more than the producers and consumers. For example, Ralph Fitch, a British merchant, describes the lucrative trade that the Portuguese conduct by being the facilitator of the silver flow from Japan to China in 1519 (Doc 4). As a British merchant, Fitch is most likely attracted to the prospect of a British takeover of this market, with gradual buildup in British power taking place in the 17th century, he probably sees this as an opportunity for his wish. In addition, Charles D’Avenant, an English scholar, describes the lucrative trade that England would come to conduct in 1697 in the trade of luxury goods for silver and gold—mostly from the Spanish colonies (Doc 8). Indeed, D’Avenant describes England’s need for the continuation of this trade based on the high demand for luxury goods from Asia to Europe.
In conclusion, the increase in silver production in Japan and the Spanish Empire from 1500 to 1750 benefited not the consumer/supplier, but the middlemen. In fact, the rich silver mines in Potosi and elsewhere did not benefit the Spanish Empire, while the English in this time period steadily rose to power. In addition, Ming China was not benefited by the flow of silver to it—it would fall in 1644, racked with economic problems and a weak government unable to stop the Manchu invaders. Additional documents that could be useful would be documents from Ming peasants to show their aspect on the restriction of taxes and sales only be conducted in silver, in addition to their reaction to the economic problems (inflation) caused by the huge amount of silver that flowed to China. Also documents that could be useful would be the affects that huge silver mining caused in Japan in order to compare the effects of the production between Japan and Spain.
How to Write a Change and Continuity over Time Essay (CCOT)
I. Rubric Basic CoreHistorical skills and knowledge required to show competence. | Expanded CoreHistorical skills and knowledge required to show excellence. | 1. Has acceptable thesis. 1 Point (addresses the global issues and time periods specified)2. Addresses all parts of the 2 Points of the question, though not necessarily evenly or thoroughly. (Addresses most parts of the (1) question: for example, addresses change, but not continuity)3. Substantiates thesis with 2 Points appropriate evidence. (Partially substantiates thesis with (1) appropriate evidence.) 4. Uses relevant world historical context effectively to explain 1 Point change or continuity over time. 5. Analyzes the process of change 1 Point and continuity over time. | Expands beyond basic core of 1-7 Points. The basic core of a score of 7 must be achieved before a student can earn expanded core points.Examples: 0-2 Points * Has a clear, analytical, and comprehensive thesis * Analyzes all issues of the question (as relevant): global context, chronology, causation, change, continuity, effects, content. * Provides ample historical evidence to substantiate thesis. * Provides links with relevant ideas, events, and trends in an innovative way. | Subtotal 7 Points | Subtotal 2 Points | TOTAL 9 Points
II. Organization: 1st Paragraph: Thesis | a. Introduction: 1-2 sentences describing the major features and events that characterized the beginning of this era (starting point). b. Thesis statement: Include years, major continuities, and major changes | 2nd Paragraph(s):Major Changes | a. Topic Sentence: What major changes occurred in this time period? Were they the result of a single dramatic event (ex. Mongol conquest of Baghdad), or a gradual shift (development of agriculture)? b. Evidence: Give three supporting details or examples. If you have specific or approximate dates, use them here. c. Analysis: What is the main reason or cause of the change? “A changed because…” | 3rd Paragraph(s):Major Continuities | a. Topic Sentence: What was the major continuity? What stayed the same throughout the time period? b. Evidence: Give three supporting details or examples. c. Analysis: What is the main reason for the continuity? “B continued because…” | 4th Paragraph:Conclusion | a. Restate thesis b. Relate to larger global context!! How does this topic relate to the big picture of what was going on at this time (global processes)? |
III. Thesis 1. Your thesis must identify a specific change and a specific continuity. It also must include the time period given (600 to 1450, NOT the “Period 3”). 2. Format: From (start year) to (end year), X changed while Y continued. 3. Example: Analyze changes and continuities in Indian Ocean commerce from 600 to 1750. * Thesis: From 600 to 1750, a major change in the commerce of the Indian Ocean region involved the growing presence of Muslim and later European traders; however, spices continued to be major trade goods and interregional interactions continued to result in cultural diffusion throughout this era. IV. Analysis 1. You need to attempt to explain why or how X changed or continued. It is not enough to say: X was a change, because it wasn’t around before. What other factors help explain the change? 2. Key words: because, caused/caused by, led to, came from, in order to, due to 3. Example 1: Spices continued to be traded along the Indian Ocean because they could only be grown in the tropical climates of India and Southeast Asia, but were in high demand throughout Afro-Eurasia. 4. Example 2: Improvements in navigational technology and knowledge help explain the growing presence of European traders after 1450, especially the voyage of Portuguese explorer Vasco Da Gama. The compass, astrolabe, and caravel were important innovations that contributed to European maritime trade. Also, the development of onboard cannons allowed the Portuguese to seize Indian Ocean trading ports by force.
V. World Historical Context 1. This is where you need to connect the topic or question to the global processes going on at this time (political revolutions, collapse of classical empires, imperialism, industrialization) 2. You need to connect the topic you have just discussed to something in the SAME THEME and SAME TIME PERIOD but a DIFFERENT REGION. 3. Example: The increased presence of European traders in the Indian Ocean was part of a broader trend of European expansion from 1450 to 1750 that included the conquest and colonization in the Americas. In both hemispheres, Europeans were motivated by the desire to profit from trade and spread Christianity.
Sample Change over Time Essay
Question: Analyze changes and continuities in the cultural beliefs and practices of Latin America from 1450 to the present.
In the year 1450, the Aztec and Inca Empires were at the height of their power, having recently conquered their neighbors. At the same time, the European nations of Spain and Portugal were about to embark upon a new era of exploration, spurred on by recent developments in navigation. The conquest and later colonization of the Americas by a succession of European powers would forever change cultural life in the Americas. From 1450 to the present, Latin America experienced widespread conversion to Christianity and abolished the practice of human sacrifice; however, indigenous peoples maintained many of their local customs and traditions by blending them with Christianity.
The most significant cultural change in Latin America since 1450 was the shift from polytheism to monotheism. The Inca and Aztec Empires both had complex religious practices centered on the belief in many gods, including human sacrifice. The arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean in 1492 marked the beginning of Spanish missionary efforts. Having just completed the Reconquista, the Spanish were filled with the crusading spirit and the desire to spread Roman Catholicism. Columbus was followed by Cortez, who conquered the Aztec, and Pizarro, who conquered the Inca Empire. After witnessing human sacrifice, Cortez and the Spanish began their efforts to ban the practice, and succeeded. Jesuit missionaries worked to put the Catholic faith in the language of the Amerindians, while priests such as Bartolome de las Casas even spoke out on their behalf. Within a few decades of Spanish missionary activity, millions of Amerindians had freely converted to Christianity. A possible explanation for this change is that their previous polytheistic beliefs were discredited by the Spanish conquest, and they were hoping to benefit from the social protections of conversion.
Despite the enormous change from polytheism to monotheism, the indigenous peoples of Latin America were able to continue many of the traditional customs, either by actively resisting conversion or by blending aspects of polytheism with Christianity. Many Mexican Catholics revered the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe, in which the Virgin Mary appeared as a mestiza cloaked in Aztec symbols. Holidays like Dia de los Muertos and Carnival reinterpreted polytheistic practices through the lens of Christianity. Indigenous song and dance were also preserved. However, instead of being directed at Aztec or Inca gods, they were used to celebrate the Christian trinity and the saints. A possible explanation for the persistence of traditional customs is that the Spanish hoped to encourage more conversion by allowing for some cultural blending. Different groups have been able to successfully adapt Christianity to their unique settings, including the Europeans themselves who received Christianity from the Middle East.
While conversion to Christianity increased and human sacrifice ended after 1450, many people in Latin America continue the traditional customs of its indigenous peoples to this day. The conquest and colonization of Latin America by Europeans would forever change the face of its cultural landscape. However, Latin America was not the only region to experience widespread cultural change after 1450, as North America was also colonized by Europeans. Yet Spanish missionary efforts were far greater than those of the English settlers in North America, resulting in less conversion.
How to Write a Comparative Essay
I. Rubric Basic Core | Expanded Core | 1. Has acceptable thesis. 1 Point (addresses comparison of the issues or themes specified)2. Addresses all parts of the 2 Points of the question, though not necessarily evenly or thoroughly. (Addresses most parts of the (1) question: for example, deals with differences but not similarities)3. Substantiates thesis with 2 Points appropriate evidence. (Partially substantiates thesis with (1) appropriate evidence.) 4. Makes at least three relevant, 1 Point direct comparisons between or among societies.5. Analyzes at least three reasons 1 Point for a similarity or difference identified in a direct comparison. | Expands beyond basic core of 1-7 Points. The basic core of a score of 7 must be achieved before a student can earn expanded core points.Examples: 0-2 Points * Has a clear, analytical, and comprehensive thesis * Addresses all parts of the question (as relevant): comparisons, chronology, causation, connections, themes, interactions, content. * Provides ample historical evidence to substantiate thesis. * Relates comparisons to larger global context. * Makes several direct comparisons consistently between or among societies. * Consistently analyzes the causes and effects of relevant similarities and differences. | Subtotal 7 Points | Subtotal 2 Points | TOTAL 9 Points
1st Paragraph: Thesis | 2-3 sentences of introduction, historical contextThesis statement (Identify specific similarities and differences) | 2nd Paragraph(s): Similarities | Topic Sentence Supporting Evidence (including direct comparisons)Analysis: Why was X similar or different? | 3rd Paragraph(s): Differences | Topic Sentence Supporting Evidence (including direct comparisons)Analysis: Why was Y similar or different? | 4th Paragraph: Conclusion | Restate thesisAnalysis or restate analysisRelate to larger global context; explain importance of topic |
III. Thesis 1. Your thesis must address the question and include a specific difference and similarity 2. Must identify three parts of your argument, which will correspond to three body paragraphs. Must be in the first paragraph 3. Examples: Compare and contrast the effects of Mongol rule in Russia and China. a. No Thesis: The recovery of Russia and China after Mongol domination had many similarities and differences. b. Weak Thesis: When Russia and China recovered from Mongol domination, they had similar political goals, but different cultural goals. c. Strong Thesis: While both Russia and China built strong central governments after breaking free from the Mongols and engaged in territorial expansion, Russia imitated the culture and technology of Europe, while China returned to previous cultural traditions. 4. Sample Formulas: While X and Y both A and B, they differed in C.
X and Y both A; however, they differed in B and C
IV. Evidence a. Be specific!!! b. Overview: Provide specific examples and facts to support your arguments. Make sure you have evidence for both similarities and differences. Be sure to develop and elaborate upon your points. c. Structure your essay for direct comparisons. Compare “apples to apples,” not “apples to oranges” For example, if comparing Christianity and Hinduism, don’t just write everything you know about Christianity in one paragraph and Hinduism in another. Directly compare different aspects such as beliefs, practices, and location. i. Direct: Christianity is monotheistic, whereas Hinduism is polytheistic. ii. Indirect: Christianity is monotheistic. Hinduism influences social structures through the caste system. d. Use linking comparative words to help set up direct comparisons like: whereas, however, while, on the other hand, conversely, likewise
V. Analysis * This is where you attempt to explain a similarity or difference * This can often involve explaining a particular similarity or difference, say in religion, by tracing it back to a difference in another SPICE feature: for example, interaction with the environment (geography). * Key words: because, a possible explanation, this is due to, a reason for this is * Note: Make sure you explain your analysis. Do not just state: “Egyptian and Mesopotamian religions were different because they had different geography.” You must illustrate why and/or how this is the case. Connect the dots!
Sample “9” Essay: “Compare the spread of Islam to Spain and India prior to 1500 C.E.”
Islam is a monotheistic faith based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammad. It originated in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century C.E. and quickly spread throughout Afro-Eurasia. While some regions welcomed the new faith, others resisted. Prior to 1500 C.E., Islam diffused to both Spain and India by conquest and attracted some converts amongst the local population. However, while Spain was able to expel the Muslim Moors by 1492, Islam continued to have an important presence in India.
Both Spain and India were conquered by Muslim armies. Spain was invaded by Berbers and Arabs from North Africa in the 8th century, whereas India was invaded by Muslim Turks in the 12th century. A possible explanation for why both Spain and India were conquered is that neither region had strong empires at the time of Islamic conquest. The Roman and Gupta Empires that had once ruled these territories had long since declined, replaced by weaker states that were no match for Muslim forces. In both Spain and India, Islam arrived by the sword and was fiercely resisted.
After their initial conquest, both Spain and India experienced some conversion to Islam amongst the local population. However, in both regions there were important limits to conversion, with many choosing to continue their pre-existing traditions. Some Christians and Jews converted to Islam in Spain, largely because Islamic civilization had a flourishing culture and scholarship at this time. In India, some lower-caste Hindus and Buddhists converted to Islam, partly due to the efforts of Sufi missionaries and the appeal of Islam’s egalitarian social organization. However, Muslims remained a minority in India, with no more than 20 to 25 percent of the population converting. Likewise in Spain, many Jews and Christians continued their existing traditions. A possible explanation for the limits of conversion in both regions is that Islamic rulers were tolerant of other faiths, as the Muslim religion teaches that conversion should be voluntary. In India in particular, the traditions of Hinduism and the caste system were so ingrained in the culture that they were able to survive this and later Islamic invasions.
Both regions resisted Islamic conquest, but only Spain was able to expel the Muslims by 1492. Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile united Christian Spain with their marriage, joining forces to complete the nearly 700-year long Reconquista. Once Muslim forces had been driven out, Ferdinand and Isabella established the Spanish Inquisition to ensure that all citizens of Spain followed the Roman Catholic faith. This decision led to the expulsion of 200,000 Jews and Muslims. India was never able to expel their Muslim population, and while the Delhi Sultanate eventually fell, the Mughal Empire would continue Islamic rule in the region until its fall in the 18th century. A possible explanation for this difference is that the geography of Spain is much smaller and easier to defend, as it is a peninsula, whereas northern India has experienced numerous invasions due to its location on the Asian landmass.
While only Spain was able to fully expel Muslim forces by 1492, both Spain and India were conquered by Islamic armies and both experienced some conversion among the local populations. Unlike parts of the Middle East and Anatolia that were more thoroughly Islamized, both Spain and India resisted Islam and maintained their previous traditions of Christianity and Hinduism, respectively. The importance of this resistance can be seen today. While Islam left its mark on both regions, Spain remains predominantly Christian, and India remains largely Hindu.
Released Free Response Questions
2015 1. Analyze continuities and changes in labor systems in ONE of the following regions within the time period 1450 to 1900: Latin America and the Caribbean, North America
2. Analyze similarities and differences in TWO of the following trade networks in the period 600 C.E. to 1450 C.E. Your response may include comparisons of biological, commercial, or cultural exchanges.
Indian Ocean, Silk Roads, Trans-Sahara 2014 1. Analyze continuities and changes in the ways ONE of the following regions participated in interregional trade during the period circa 1500 to 1750.
Latin America, including the Caribbean; Sub-Saharan Africa; Southeast Asia
2. Analyze similarities and differences in how TWO of the following empires used religion to govern before 1450. Byzantine Empire, Islamic Caliphates, Mauryan/Gupta Empires
2013 1. Analyze how political transformations contributed to continuities and changes in the cultures of the Mediterranean region during the period circa 200 C.E. to 1000 C.E.
2. Analyze similarities and differences between the role of the state in Japan’s economic development and the role of the state in the economic development of ONE of the following during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: China, Ottoman Empire, Russia
2012 1. Analyze continuities and changes in trade networks between Africa and Eurasia from circa 300 to 1450.
2. Compare demographic and environmental effects of the Columbian Exchange on the Americas with the Columbian Exchange’s demographic and environmental effects on ONE of the following regions between 1492 and 1750: Africa, Asia, Europe
2011 1. Analyze changes and continuities in long-distance migrations in the period from 1700 to 1900. Be sure to include specific examples from at least TWO different world regions.
2. Analyze similarities and differences in the rise of TWO of the following empires. * A West African Sudanic empire (Mali OR Ghana OR Songhay) * The Aztec Empire The Mongol Empire
2010 1. Analyze continuities and changes in cultural beliefs and practices in ONE of the following regions from 1450 to the present: Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America/Caribbean
2. Analyze similarities and differences in techniques of imperial administration in TWO of the following empires.
• Han China (206 B.C.E.–220 C.E.)
• Mauryan/Gupta India (320 B.C.E.–550 C.E.)
• Imperial Rome (31 B.C.E.–476 C.E.)
2009 1. Analyze continuities and changes along the Silk Roads from 200 B.C.E. to 1450 C.E.
2. Compare the effects of racial ideologies on North American societies with those on Latin American/Carribean societies during the period from 1500 to 1830.
2008 1. Analyze continuities and changes in the commercial life of the Indian Ocean region from 650 C.E. to 1750.
2. Compare the emergence of nation-states in nineteenth-century Latin America with the emergence of nation-states in ONE of the following regions in the twentieth century.
• Sub-Saharan Africa
• The Middle East
2007 1. Analyze continuities and changes in nationalist ideology and practice in ONE of the following regions from the First World War to the present:
• Middle East
• Southeast Asia
• Sub-Saharan Africa
2. Compare the historical processes of empire building in the Spanish maritime empire during the period from 1450 through 1800 with the historical processes of empire building in ONE of the following land-based empires.
• The Ottoman Empire OR the Russian Empire
2006 1. Analyze continuities and changes in the cultural and political life of ONE of the following societies.
• Chinese, 100 CE to 600 CE
• Roman, 100 CE to 600 CE
• Indian, 300 CE to 600 CE
2. Compare the outcomes of the movements to redistribute land in TWO of the following countries, beginning with the dates specified.
• Mexico, 1910 • China, 1911 • Russia, 1917
2005 1. Analyze the social and economic transformations that occurred in the Atlantic world as a result of new contacts among Western Europe, Africa, and the Americas from 1492 to 1750.
2. Compare the process of state-building in TWO of the following in the period 600 C.E. to 1450 C.E.
• Islamic states; City-states; Mongol khanates
2004 1. Analyze continuities and changes in labor systems between 1750 and 1900 in ONE of the following regions. • Latin America and the Caribbean • Oceania • Sub-Saharan Africa
2. Compare the effects of the First World War in TWO of the following regions: East Asia, Middle East, South Asia
2003 1. Analyze continuities and changes that resulted from the spread of Islam into ONE of the following regions in the period between circa 800 C.E. and circa 1750: West Africa, South Asia, Europe
2. Compare differing responses to industrialization in any TWO of the following:
Japan, Russia, Ottoman Empire
AP Curriculum Framework
PERIOD 1: UP TO 600 BCE
Key Concept 1.1. Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth – Paleolithic Era
I. Paleolithic Era: Archeological evidence shows that during the Paleolithic era, hunting-foraging bands of humans gradually migrated from their origin in East Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas, adapting their technology and cultures to new climates.
A. Humans used fire to aid hunting, protect against predators, and adapt to cold environments.
B. Humans developed a wider range of tools specially adapted to different environments.
C. Economic structures focused on small kinship (family) groups of hunting foraging bands that could make what they needed to survive. However, not all groups were self-sufficient; they exchanged people, ideas, and goods.
Key Concept 1.2. The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies – Neolithic Era
I. Neolithic Revolution: Beginning around 10,000 years ago, the Neolithic Revolution resulted in the development of new and more complex economic and social systems.
A. Possibly as a response to climatic change, permanent agricultural villages emerged first in the lands of the eastern Mediterranean. Agriculture emerged at different times in Mesopotamia, the Nile River Valley and Sub-Saharan Africa, the Indus River Valley, the Yellow River or Huang He Valley, Papua New Guinea, Mesoamerica, and the Andes.
B. Pastoralism (herding) developed at various sites in the grasslands of Afro- Eurasia.
C. Different crops or animals were domesticated in the various core regions.
D. Agricultural communities worked cooperatively to clear land and create water control systems (irrigation) needed for crop production.
E. These agricultural practices drastically impacted environmental diversity. Pastoralists also affected the environment by grazing large numbers of animals on fragile grasslands, leading to erosion when overgrazed.
II. Agriculture and pastoralism began to transform human societies.
A. Pastoralism and agriculture led to more reliable and abundant food supplies, which increased the population.
B. Surpluses of food and other goods led to specialization of labor, including new classes of artisans and warriors, and the development of elites.
C. Technological innovations led to improvements in agricultural production, trade, and transportation. Examples: pottery, plows, woven textiles, metallurgy, wheels and wheeled vehicles
D. In both pastoralist and agrarian societies, elite groups accumulated wealth, creating more hierarchical (unequal) social structures and promoting patriarchal (male-dominated) forms of social organization.
Key Concept 1.3. Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, & Urban Societies—Early Civilizations
I. Core civilizations developed in a variety of geographical and environmental settings where agriculture flourished. Examples:
Mesopotamia in Tigris/Euphrates River Valleys; Egypt in Nile River Valley
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in Indus River Valley, Shang in the Huang He Valley
Olmec in Mesoamerica; Chavin in Andean South America
II. The first states emerged within core civilizations.
A. States were powerful new systems of rule that mobilized surplus labor and resources over large areas. Early states were often led by a ruler whose source of power was believed to be divine or had divine support and/or who was supported by the military.
B. As states grew and competed for land and resources, the more favorably situated — including the Hittites, who had access to iron — had greater access to resources, produced more surplus food, and experienced growing populations. These states were able to undertake territorial expansion and conquer surrounding states.
C. Early regions of state expansion or empire building: Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and the Nile Valley.
D. Pastoralists were often the developers and disseminators of new weapons and modes of transportation that transformed warfare in agrarian civilizations. Examples: Compound bows, iron weapons, chariots, horseback riding
III. Culture: Culture played big role in unifying states with laws, language, literature, religion, myths, and monumental art.
A. Early civilizations developed monumental architecture and urban planning.
Examples: ziggurats, pyramids, temples, defensive walls, roads, sewage/water systems
B. Elites, both political and religious, promoted arts and artisanship.
Examples: sculpture, painting, wall decorations, weaving.
C. Systems of record keeping arose in all early civilizations & diffused.
Examples: cuneiform, pictographs, hieroglyphs, alphabets, quipu
D. States developed legal codes (like Code of Hammurabi) reflecting existing hierarchies & facilitating rule of governments.
E. New religious beliefs developed in this period continued to have strong influences in later periods.
Examples: The Vedic religion (Hinduism); Hebrew monotheism (Judaism); Zoroastrianism
F. Trade expanded throughout this period from local to regional and transregional, with civilizations exchanging goods, cultural ideas, and technology. Examples: Between Egypt and Nubia; Between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley
G. Social and gender hierarchies intensified as states expanded and cities multiplied.
H. Literature was also a reflection of culture.
Examples: The Epic of Gilgamesh, Rig Veda, Book of the Dead
PERIOD 2: 600 BCE to 600 CE
Key Concept 2.1. The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions
I. Codifications (writing down) and development of existing religions provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by.
A. Judaism: The association of monotheism w/ Judaism was further developed with the codification of the Hebrew Scriptures, which also reflected the influence of Mesopotamian cultural and legal traditions. The Assyrian, Babylonian, and Roman empires conquered various Jewish states at different points in time, resulting in Jewish diasporic communities in Mediterranean & Mideast.
B. Hinduism: The core beliefs outlined in the Sanskrit scriptures formed the basis of the Vedic religions — later known as Hinduism — which contributed to the development of the social and political roles of a caste system and in the importance of multiple manifestations of Brahma to promote teachings about reincarnation.
II. New belief systems & cultural traditions emerged and spread, often asserting universal truths.
A. Buddhism: The core beliefs about desire, suffering, and the search for enlightenment preached by the historic Buddha and recorded by his followers into sutras and other scriptures were, in part, a reaction to the Vedic beliefs and rituals dominant in South Asia. Buddhism changed over time as it spread throughout Asia — first through the support of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, then through missionaries and merchants, and the establishment of educational institutions to promote its core teachings (monasteries).
B. Confucianism: Core beliefs and writings originated in writings and lessons of Confucius, and were elaborated by disciples; sought to promote social harmony by outlining proper rituals and social relationships for all people in China, including the rulers.
C. Daoism: In the major Daoist writings, core belief of balance between humans and nature assumed Chinese political system would be altered indirectly. Daoism also influenced the development of Chinese culture. Examples: Medicine, Poetry, Metallurgy, Architecture
D. Christianity: Based on core beliefs about teachings & divinity of Jesus as recorded by disciples; drew on Judaism; initially rejected Roman/Hellenistic influences. Despite initial Roman imperial hostility, Christianity spread through efforts of missionaries and merchants to many parts of Afro-Eurasia, and eventually gained Roman imperial support (Emperor Constantine).
E. Greco-Roman rationalism: Core ideas in philosophy/science emphasized logic, observation, nature of political power and hierarchy.
III. Belief systems affected gender roles. Buddhism & Christianity encouraged monastic life (living apart from society as monks/nuns) and Confucianism emphasized filial piety (respect for elders, parents, and ancestors).
IV. Other religious and cultural traditions continued parallel to the codified belief systems.
A. Shamanism and animism continued to shape the lives of people within and outside of core civilizations because of their daily reliance on the natural world.
B. Ancestor veneration persisted in Africa, East Asia, and the Andes.
V. Artistic expressions show distinctive cultural developments.
A. Literature and drama acquired distinctive forms that influenced artistic developments in neighboring regions and in later time periods. Examples: Greek plays, Indian epics
B. Distinctive architectural styles developed in many regions in this period.
Examples: India, Greece, Roman Empire, Mesoamerica
C. The blending of Greco-Roman culture and Buddhist beliefs led to unique sculptural developments (the Gandhara Buddha’s); this is an example of syncretism (blending two different cultures together).
Key Concept 2.2. The Development of States and Empires
I. States and Empires: The number and size of key states and empires grew dramatically by imposing political unity on areas where previously there had been competing states.
Examples: Mediterranean region: Phoenicia & colonies, Greek city-states & colonies, and Hellenistic and Roman Empires; SW Asia: Persian Empires (Achaemenid, Parthian, Sassanid); East Asia: Qin, Han; South Asia: Maurya, Gupta; Mesoamerica: Teotihuacan, Maya city-states; Andes: Moche
II. Empires & states developed new techniques of imperial administration based in part on success of earlier political forms.
A. Rulers created administrative institutions to rule subjects.
Examples: centralized governments, legal systems, bureaucracies
B. Imperial governments projected military power over larger areas using a variety of techniques.
Examples: diplomacy, supply lines, defensive walls, roads; drawing new groups of military officers
& soldiers from local populations or conquered peoples
C. Much of the success of the empires rested on their promotion of trade and economic integration by building and maintaining roads and issuing currencies.
Examples: China, Persia, Rome, South Asia
III. Unique social and economic dimensions developed in imperial societies.
A. Cities served as centers of trade, public performance of religious rituals, and political administration.
Examples: Persepolis, Chang’an, Athens, Carthage, Rome, Constantinople, Teotihuacan
B. Social hierarchies included cultivators, laborers, slaves, artisans, merchants, elites, or caste groups.
C. Societies relied on a range of methods to maintain the production of food and provide rewards for the loyalty of the elites.
Examples: Corvée, Slavery, Rents and tributes, Peasant communities
D. Patriarchy continued to shape gender and family relations in all imperial societies of this period
IV. Decline and Fall: The Roman, Han, Persian, Mauryan, and Gupta empires created political, cultural, and administrative difficulties that they could not manage, leading to their decline and collapse.
A. Through excessive mobilization of resources, imperial governments caused environmental damage, social tensions, and economic difficulties, resulting in too much wealth in the hands of elites.
Examples: Deforestation, Desertification, Soil erosion, Silted rivers A.
B. External problems resulted from security issues along their frontiers, including the threat of invasions: Han China & Xiongnu (Huns); Gupta and the White Huns; Romans and their N/E neighbors.
Key Concept 2.3. Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange
I. Emergence of Trade Routes: Land and water routes became the basis for transregional trade, communication, and exchange.
A. Many factors, including the climate and location of the routes, the typical trade goods, and the ethnicity of people involved, shaped the distinctive features of a variety of trade routes.
Examples: Silk Roads, Trans-Saharan trade, Mediterranean Sea, Indian Ocean
II. Technologies: New technologies facilitated long-distance communication and exchange.
A. Use of domesticated pack animals. Ex: Yokes, Saddles, Stirrups, Horses, Oxen, Llamas, Camels
B. Innovations in maritime technologies, as well as advanced knowledge of the monsoon winds, stimulated exchanges along maritime routes from East Africa to East Asia. Ex: Lateen sail; Dhow ships
III. Diffusion: Exchange of people, technology, religious/cultural beliefs, crops, domesticated animals, disease pathogens
A. The spread of crops, including rice and cotton from South Asia to the Middle East, encouraged changes in farming and irrigation techniques. Ex: The qanat system (see picture below)
B. The spread of disease pathogens diminished urban pops & contributed to the decline of Roman and Chinese Empires
C. Religious and cultural traditions were transformed as they spread (Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism)
PERIOD 3: 600 to 1450
Key Concept 3.1. Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks
I. Trade: Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks.
A. Existing trade routes flourished and led to powerful new trading cities. Routes: Silk Roads, Indian Ocean, Med Sea, Indian Ocean
Cities: Novgorod, Timbuktu, Swahili city-states, Hangzhou, Calicut, Baghdad, Melaka, Venice,
B. New trade routes centering on Mesoamerica and the Andes developed.
C. The growth of interregional trade in luxury goods was encouraged by significant innovations in technologies, including more sophisticated caravan organization, use of the compass, astrolabe, and larger ship designs in sea travel; and new forms of credit and monetization.
Luxury Goods: Silk/cotton textiles, Porcelain, Spices, Precious metals & gems, Slaves, Exotic animals
Caravan organization: Caravanserai (roadside inns), Camel saddles Forms of credit: Bills of exchange, Credit, Checks, Banking houses
D. Commercial growth was also facilitated by state practices, trading organizations, and infrastructure Ex: The Grand Canal in China, minting of coins and paper money; Hanseatic League
E. The expansion of empires facilitated Trans-Eurasian trade and communication as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors’ economies and trade networks Ex: China, the Byzantine Empire, the Caliphates, the Mongols
II. Migration: The movement of peoples caused environmental and linguistic effects.
A. The expansion of trade routes depended on environmental knowledge and technological adaptations. Ex: Vikings longships; Arabs/Berbers used camels in Sahara; Central Asian herders used horses
B. Some migrations had a significant environmental impact. Bantu: facilitated transmission of iron technologies and agricultural techniques in Sub-Saharan Africa Polynesian: maritime, cultivated transplanted foods & domesticated animals as moved to new islands
C. Some migrations and trade led to diffusion of language: Bantu (including Swahili), Turkish, Arabic
III. Diffusion: Cross-cultural exchanges were fostered by existing and new trade routes.
A. Islam: Islam, based on the revelations of the prophet Muhammad, developed in the Arabian Peninsula. The beliefs and practices of Islam reflected interactions among Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians with the local Arabian peoples. Muslim rule expanded to Afro-Eurasia due to military expansion, and later activities of merchants and missionaries.
B. Merchants set up diasporic communities in key places where they introduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture. Ex: Muslim merchant communities in the Indian Ocean region, Chinese merchant communities in SE Asia, Jewish communities in the Med, IOT, SR.
C. The writings of certain interregional travelers illustrate both the extent and the limitations of intercultural knowledge and understanding. Ex: Ibn Battuta, Marco Polo, Xuanzang
D. Increased cross-cultural interactions resulted in cultural diffusion. Ex: Neoconfucianism & Buddhism in East Asia, Hinduism & Buddhism in SE Asia, Islam in S-S Africa & SE Asia, Toltec/Mexica & Inca traditions in Mesoamerica & Andes
E. Increased cross-cultural interactions resulted in the diffusion of scientific and technological traditions. Ex: Influence of Greek & Indian mathematics on Muslim scholars; the return of Greek science and philosophy to Western Europe via Muslim al-Andalus in Iberia; Spread of printing & gunpowder technology from East Asia Islamic empires & W. Europe
IV. Continued diffusion of crops and pathogens throughout the Eastern Hemisphere along the trade routes.
A. New foods and agricultural techniques were adopted in populated areas:
Champa rice from Vietnam to China in East Asia; Spread of cotton, sugar, and citrus throughout Dar al-Islam and the Mediterranean basin; Bananas in Africa
B. The spread of epidemic diseases, including the Black Death, followed trade routes.
Key Concept 3.2. Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions
I. Empires: Empires collapsed and were reconstituted; in some regions new state forms emerged.
A. Following the collapse of empires, most reconstituted governments, including the Byzantine Empire and the Chinese dynasties — Sui, Tang, and Song — combined traditional sources of power and legitimacy (patriarchy, religion, land-owning elites) with innovations better suited to the current circumstances (new taxation, tribute systems, religions).
B. New forms of governance:
- Islamic states (Abbasids, Muslim Iberia, Delhi sultanates)
- Mongol Khanates
- City-states (Italian, SE Asian, American)
- Decentralized government (feudalism) in Europe and Japan.
C. Some states synthesized local and borrowed traditions. Ex: Persian traditions Islamic states, Chinese Japan; Byzantine Russia
D. In the Americas, as in Afro-Eurasia, state systems expanded in scope and reach: Networks of city-states flourished in the Maya region and, at the end of this period, imperial systems were created by the Mexica (“Aztecs”) and Inca.
II. Diffusion: Interregional contacts and conflicts between states and empires encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers.
Ex: Between Tang China and the Abbasids, across the Mongol empire, during the Crusades
Key Concept 3.3. Increased Economic Productive Capacity and Its Consequences
I. Innovations stimulated agricultural and industrial production in many regions.
A. Agricultural production increased significantly due to technological innovations. Ex: Champa rice varieties, Chinampa field systems (Aztec), Waru waru techniques (Inca), terracing, horse collar
B. In response to increasing demand in Afro-Eurasia for foreign luxury goods, crops were transported from their indigenous homelands to equivalent climates in other regions.
C. Chinese, Persian, and Indian artisans and merchants expanded their production of textiles and porcelains for export; industrial production of iron and steel expanded in China.
II. Cities: The fate of cities varied greatly, with periods of significant decline, and with periods of increased urbanization buoyed by rising productivity and expanding trade networks.
A. Multiple factors contributed to the declines of urban areas in this period, such as invasions, disease, agricultural decline.
B. Multiple factors contributed to urban revival. Examples: End of invasions, safer transport, rise of trade, warmer temps 800 to 1300, increased productivity and rising pops, labor supply
C. While cities in general continued to play the roles they had played in the past as governmental, religious, and commercial centers, many older cities declined while numerous new cities emerged.
III. Social Change and Continuity: Despite significant continuities in social structures and in methods of production, there were also important changes in labor management and in the effect of religious conversion on gender relations and family life.
A. As in the previous period, there were many forms of labor organization. Ex: free peasant agriculture, nomadic pastoralism, craft production/guild organization, coerced/unfree labor, govt imposed labor taxes (mita-Inca), military
B. As in previous eras, social structures were shaped largely by class and caste hierarchies. Patriarchy persisted; however, women had more power/influence among the Mongols and in West Africa, Japan, and SE Asia.
C. New forms of coerced labor appeared, including serfdom in Europe and Japan and the elaboration of the mit’a in the Inca Empire. Free peasants resisted attempts to raise dues and taxes by staging revolts in Byzantine and China. Demand for slaves (military/domestic) increased, particularly in central Eurasia, parts of Africa, and the eastern Mediterranean.
D. Diffusion of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, and Neoconfucianism big changes in gender relations & family structure.
PERIOD 4: 1450 to 1750
Key Concept 4.1. Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange, 1450-1750
I. Continuity: This era witnessed the intensification of all existing regional trade networks, resulting in both continued prosperity and economic disruption to merchants & governments in the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean, Sahara, and overland Eurasia.
II. Technology: European technological developments in cartography & navigation built on previous knowledge from classical, Islamic, & Asian worlds, including improved understanding of global wind and currents patterns.
Examples: New tools- Astrolabe, revised map; Innovations in ship designs: caravels
III. Exploration: Remarkable new transoceanic maritime reconnaissance occurred in this period.
A. Official Chinese maritime activity expanded into the Indian Ocean with the voyages led by Ming Admiral Zheng He to enhance China’s prestige.
B. A Portuguese school for navigation was founded by Prince Henry, leading to an increase in travel and trade with West Africa, and later the development of a global trading-post empire.
C. Spanish sponsorship of Columbus and later explorers across the Atlantic and Pacific increased European interest in trade and travel.
D. Northern Atlantic crossings for fishing & settlements continued & spurred European searches for a northwest passage to Asia.
E. In Oceania and Polynesia, established exchange and communication networks were not dramatically affected because of infrequent European reconnaissance in the Pacific Ocean.
IV. Commercial Revolution: The new global circulation of goods was facilitated by royal chartered European monopoly companies that took silver from Spanish colonies in the Americas to purchase Asian goods for the Atlantic markets, but regional markets continued using established practices & new shipping services developed by European merchants.
A. European merchants’ in Indian Ocean mainly transported goods from one Asian country to another Asian market.
B. Commercialization and the creation of a global economy linked to new global circulation of silver from the Americas.
C. Influenced by mercantilism, joint-stock companies were new methods used by European rulers to control their domestic and colonial economies and by European merchants to compete against one another in global trade.
D. The Atlantic system involved the movement of goods, wealth, and free and unfree laborers, and the mixing of African, American, and European cultures and peoples. (Triangular Trade)
V. Columbian Exchange: The new connections between the Eastern and Western hemispheres resulted in the Columbian Exchange.
A. European colonization of the Americas led to the spread of diseases (smallpox, measles, influenza) endemic in the Eastern Hem. to Amerindian populations; also unintentional transfer of mosquitoes, rats.
B. American foods (potatoes, maize, manioc) became staple crops in various parts of Afro-Eurasia.
Cash crops (sugar, tobacco) were grown on plantations w/ slave labor and exported to Europe.
C. Afro-Eurasian fruit trees, grains, sugar, and animals (horses, pigs, cattle) were brought by Europeans
D. Populations in Afro-Eurasia benefited nutritionally from the increased diversity of American food crops.
E. European colonization and the introduction of European agriculture and settlements practices in the Americas often affected the physical environment through deforestation and soil depletion.
VI. Religious Diffusion and Division: Increased interactions between newly connected hemispheres expanded the spread and reform of existing religions and created syncretic belief systems and practices.
A. As Islam spread to new settings in Afro-Eurasia, believers adapted it to local cultural practices. The split between the Sunni and Shi’a traditions intensified, and Sufi practices became more widespread.
B. Christianity continued to spread and was diversified by diffusion to Americas and Reformation.
C. Buddhism spread within Asia.
D. Syncretic and new forms of religion developed. (Vodun in Caribbean, Cults of saints in Latin America, Sikhism in South Asia
VII. Art: As merchants’ profits increased and governments collected more taxes, funding for the visual and performing arts, even for popular audiences, increased.
A. Innovations: Renaissance art in Europe, mini-paintings in Middle East and South Asia, wood-block prints in Japan, Mesoamerican codices
B. Literacy expanded popular authors, literary forms, and works of literature in Afro-Eurasia. Shakespeare, Cervantes (Don Quixote), Sundiata, Journey to the West, Kabuki theatre
Key Concept 4.2. New Forms of Social Organization and Modes of Production
I. Labor Systems: Traditional peasant agriculture increased and changed, plantations expanded, and demand for labor increased.
A. Peasant labor intensified (frontier settlements in Russian Siberia, textiles in India, silk in China)
B. Slavery in Africa continued both traditional household slavery and export to Med Sea & Indian Ocean.
C. The growth of the plantation economy increased the demand for slaves in the Americas.
D. Forced labor in Colonial America included chattel slavery, Indentured servitude, Encomienda; Spanish use of the Inca mit’a (unpaid labor obligations to the state).
II. Social Structures: As new social and political elites changed, they also restructured new ethnic, racial, and gender hierarchies.
A. Both imperial conquests & global economic opportunities formation of new political and economic elites. Ex: Manchus in China, Creole elites in Spanish America, European gentry, Urban traders
B. The power of existing political and economic elites fluctuated as they confronted new challenges to their ability to affect the policies of the increasingly powerful monarchs and leaders.
Ex: zamindars in Mughal, nobility in Europe, daimyo in Japan
C. Some notable gender and family restructuring occurred, including the demographic changes in Africa that resulted from the slave trades. Ex: dependence of European men on SE Asian women for trade; smaller size of European families
D. The massive demographic changes in Americas new ethnic and racial classifications. Mestizo (mixed European and Native American), mulatto (mixed Euro & African), creole (American-born whites)
Key Concept 4.3. State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion I. State Consolidation: Rulers used a variety of methods to legitimize and consolidate their power.
A. Arts to display power: Monumental architecture, Urban design, Courtly literature, The visual arts
B. Rulers continued to use religious ideas to legitimize their rule. Safavid use of Shiism, Aztec human sacrifice, Songhay promotion of Islam, Chinese emperors’ public performance of Confucian rituals
C. States treated different ethnic and religious groups in ways that utilized their economic contributions while limiting ability to challenge state authority. Ex: Ottoman use of non-Muslims, Manchu policies toward Chinese, Spanish “Republica de Indios”
D. Recruitment and use of bureaucratic elites, as well as the development of military professionals, became more common among rulers who wanted to maintain centralized control over their populations and resources. Ex: Ottoman devshirme, Chinese exam system
E. Rulers used tribute collection and tax farming to generate revenue for territorial expansion.
II. Imperial expansion relied on the increased use of gunpowder, cannons, and armed trade to establish large empires.
A. Europeans established new trading-post empires in Africa and Asia (increased profits for rulers and merchants), but these empires also affected the power of the states in interior West and Central Africa.
B. Land empires expanded dramatically in size: Manchus (Qing), Mughals, Ottomans, Russians
C. European states established new maritime empires in the Americas:
Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, French, British
III. Challenges to state consolidation and expansion.
A. Competition over trade routes: Omani-European rivalry in the Indian Ocean, Piracy in the Caribbean.
B. State rivalries: Thirty Years War (Catholic v. Protestant), Ottoman-Safavid conflict (Shia v. Sunni).
C. Local resistance: food riots, samurai revolts, peasant uprisings
PERIOD 5: 1750 to 1900
Key Concept 5.1. Industrialization and Global Capitalism
I. Industrialization fundamentally changed how goods were produced.
A. A variety of factors led to the rise of industrial production.: Europe’s location on the Atlantic Ocean; the geographical distribution of coal, iron and timber; European demographic changes; Urbanization; Improved agricultural productivity; Legal protection of private property; An abundance of rivers and canals; Access to foreign resources; accumulation of capital
B. The development of machines, including steam engines and the internal combustion engine, made it possible to exploit vast new resources of energy stored in fossil fuels, specifically coal and oil. The “fossil fuels” revolution greatly increased the energy available to human societies.
C. The development of the factory system concentrated labor in a single location and led to an increasing degree of specialization of labor.
D. As the new methods of industrial production became more common in parts of northwestern Europe, they spread to other parts of Europe and the United States, Russia, and Japan.
E. The “second industrial revolution” led to new steel production, chemicals, electricity and precision machinery (1850-1900).
II. Global Trade: New global trade patterns further integrated the global economy as industrialists sought raw materials & new markets.
A. The need for raw materials for the factories and increased food supplies for the growing population in urban centers led to the growth of export economies around the world that specialized in mass producing single natural resources; then using profits to purchase finished goods.
Ex: Cotton, Rubber, Palm oil, Sugar, Wheat, Meat, Guano, Metals and minerals
B. The rapid development of industrial production contributed to the decline of economically productive, agriculturally based economies. Example: Textile production in India
C. The rapid increases in productivity caused by industrial production encouraged industrialized states to seek out new consumer markets for their finished goods.
Ex: British & French attempts to “open up” China in 19th century (Opium Wars)
D. The need for precious metals for industrial production + global demand for gold, silver and diamonds as forms of wealth, led to the development of extensive mining centers.
Ex: Copper mines in Mexico; Gold/diamond mines in South Africa
III. Finance: Financiers developed and expanded financial institutions to facilitate investment.
A. The ideological inspiration for economic changes lies in the development of capitalism and classical liberalism associated with Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill.
B. Financial instruments expanded. Ex: Stock markets, Insurance, Gold standard, Limited liability corporations
C. The global nature of trade and production contributed to the proliferation of large-scale transnational businesses. Ex: The United Fruit Company
IV. There were major developments in transportation & communication.
Required examples: Railroads, Steamships, Telegraphs, Canals
V. Global Capitalism: The development and spread of global capitalism led to a variety of responses.
A. In industrialized states, many workers organized themselves to improve working conditions, limit hours, and gain higher wages, while others opposed capitalist exploitation of workers by promoting alternative visions of society. Ex: Utopian socialism, Marxism, Anarchism
B. In Qing China and the Ottoman Empire, some members of the government resisted economic change and attempted to maintain preindustrial forms of economic production.
C. In a small number of states, governments promoted their own state-sponsored visions of industrialization. Examples:
• The economic reforms of Meiji Japan
• The development of factories and railroads in Tsarist Russia
• China’s Self-Strengthening Movement
• Muhammad Ali’s dev. of a cotton textile industry in Egypt Compare: China’s loss of sovereignty to western powers v. Japan’s successful modernization. |
D. In response to criticisms of industrial global capitalism, some governments mitigated negative effects of capitalism by promoting reforms. Examples: state pensions and public health in Germany, expanded suffrage in Britain, public education many states
VI. Social Change: The ways in which people organized themselves into societies also underwent significant transformations.
A. New social classes, including the middle class and the industrial working class, developed.
B. Family dynamics, gender roles, and demographics changed in response to industrialization. Rapid urbanization that accompanied global capitalism often led to unsanitary conditions, as well as to new forms of community. Key Concept 5.2. Imperialism and Nation-State Formation
I. Industrializing powers established transoceanic empires.
A. States with existing colonies strengthened their control over those colonies
Examples: British in India, Dutch in Indonesia
B. European states, as well as the Americans and the Japanese, established empires throughout Asia and the Pacific, while Spanish and Portuguese influence declined. Examples: British, Dutch, French, German, Russian
C. Many European states used both warfare and diplomacy to establish empires in Africa. Examples: British in West Africa, Belgium in Congo
D. In some parts of their empires, Europeans established settler colonies. Examples: British in South Africa, Australia, NZ; French Algeria
E. In other parts of the world, industrialized states practiced economic imperialism. Ex: British + French in China through the Opium Wars; British + U.S. investment in Latin America
II. Imperialism influenced state formation and contraction around the world.
A. The expansion of U.S. & European influence over Tokugawa Japan emergence of Meiji Japan.
B. The USA & Russia emulated European imperialism by expanding land borders/ conquering territories.
C. Anti-imperial resistance contraction of the Ottoman Empire: Est. of independent states in Balkans; Semi-independence in Egypt; French and Italian colonies in North Africa; Later British influence in Egypt
D. New states developed on the edges of existing empires. Ex: Cherokee Nation, Siam, Hawai’i, Zulu
E. The development and spread of nationalism: German nation, Filipino nationalism, Liberian nationalism
III. Racism: New racial ideologies, especially Social Darwinism, facilitated and justified imperialism.
Key Concept 5.3. Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform
I. The Enlightenment: The rise and diffusion of Enlightenment thought that questioned established traditions in all areas of life often preceded the revolutions and rebellions against existing governments.
A. Thinkers applied new ways of understanding the natural world to human relationships, encouraging observation and inference in all spheres of life. Ex: Voltaire, Rousseau
B. Intellectuals critiqued the role that religion played in public life, stressed importance of reason as opposed to revelation.
C. Enlightenment thinkers developed new ideas about the individual, natural rights, and the social contract. Ex: Locke, Montesquieu
D. The ideas of Enlightenment thinkers influenced resistance to existing political authority, as reflected in revolutionary documents. Examples: Declaration of Independence, French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, Bolivar’s Jamaica Letter
E. These ideas influenced many people to challenge existing notions of social relations, which led to the expansion of rights as seen in expanded suffrage, the abolition of slavery and the end of serfdom, as their ideas were implemented.
II. Nationalism: Beginning in the eighteenth century, peoples around the world developed a new sense of commonality based on language, religion, social customs and territory. These newly imagined national communities linked this identity with the borders of the state, while governments used this idea to unite diverse populations.
III. Revolutions: Increasing discontent with imperial rule propelled reformist and revolutionary movements.
A. Subjects challenged imperial governments. Example: The challenge of the Marathas to Mughals
B. American colonial subjects led a series of rebellions, which facilitated the emergence of independent states in the United States, Haiti, and mainland Latin America. French subjects rebelled against their monarchy.
C. Slave resistance challenged existing authorities in the Americas with establishment of Maroon societies (communities of escaped slaves).
D. Increasing questions about political authority and growing nationalism contributed to anticolonial movements. Examples: The Indian Revolt of 1857 (Sepoy Mutiny); The Boxer Rebellion in China
E. Some of the rebellions were influenced by religious ideas and millenarianism.
Examples: Taiping Rebellion, Ghost Dance, Xhosa Cattle Killing Movement
F. Responses to increasingly frequent rebellions led to reforms in imperial policies.
Examples: Tanzimat in the Ottoman Empire, Self-Strengthening in China both failed
IV. New Ideologies: The global spread of European political and social thought and the increasing number of rebellions stimulated new transnational ideologies and solidarities.
A. Discontent w/ monarchist & imperial rule led to the development of political ideologies, including liberalism, socialism, and communism.
B. Demands for women’s suffrage and an emergent feminism challenged political and gender hierarchies. Examples: Mary W.’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman; Olympe de Gouges’s “Declaration of the Rights of Women”; Seneca Falls Conference in 1848
Key Concept 5.4. Global Migration I. Migration Intro: Migration influenced by changes in demography in industrialized & unindustrialized societies challenges.
A. Changes in food production & improved medical conditions significant global rise in population.
B. Migrants increasingly relocated to cities, resulting in significant global urbanization of the 19th century.
II. Causes: Migrants relocated for a variety of reasons.
A. Many individuals chose freely to relocate in search of work.
Ex: Manual laborers, professionals
B. The new global capitalist economy continued to rely on coerced & semicoerced labor migration, including convict labor, slavery, and Chinese and Indian indentured servitude
C. While many migrants permanently relocated, a significant number of temporary and seasonal migrants returned to their home societies.
Ex: Japanese agricultural workers in the Pacific, Lebanese merchants in Americas, Italians in Argentina
III. Responses to Migration: The large-scale nature of migration, especially in the 1800s, produced a variety of effects and reactions to the increasingly diverse societies.
A. Due to the physical nature of the labor in demand, migrants tended to be male, leaving women to take on new roles in the home society that had been formerly occupied by men.
B. Migrants often created ethnic enclaves in different parts of the world which helped transplant their culture into new environments and facilitated the development of migrant support networks.
Ex: Chinese in SE Asia, Caribbean, S. America, N. America
Indians in East and southern Africa, the Caribbean, and SE Asia
C. Receiving societies did not always embrace immigrants, as seen in the various degrees of ethnic and racial prejudice and the ways states attempted to regulate the increased flow of people across their borders.
Ex: The Chinese Exclusion Acts; the White Australia Policy
PERIOD 6: 1900 to Present
Key Concept 6.1 Science and the Environment
I. Researchers made rapid advances in science, assisted by the development of new technology.
A. New modes of communication & transportation virtually eliminated problem of geographic distance.
B. New scientific paradigms transformed human understanding of the world. Ex: Theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, the Big Bang theory, psychology
C. The Green Revolution produced food for earth’s growing population as it spread chemically & genetically enhanced forms of agriculture.
D. Medical innovations increased ability of humans to survive. Polio vaccine, antibiotics, artificial heart
E. New energy technologies raised productivity and increased the production of material goods. Ex: oil, nuclear power.
II. Humans fundamentally changed their relationship with the environment.
A. Humans exploited and competed over the earth’s finite resources more intensely than ever before.
B. Global warming was a major consequence of the release of greenhouse gases & other pollutants into the atmosphere.
C. Pollution threatened the world’s supply of water and clean air. Deforestation and desertification were continued consequences of the human impact on the environment. Rates of extinction of other species accelerated sharply.
III. Disease, scientific innovations and conflict led to demographic shifts.
A. Diseases associated with poverty (malaria, tuberculosis, cholera) persisted, while other diseases (1919 influenza pandemic, ebola, HIV/AIDS) emerged as new epidemics and threats to human survival. In addition, changing lifestyles and increased longevity led to higher incidence of certain diseases (diabetes, heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease).
B. More effective forms of birth control gave women greater control over fertility & transformed sexual practices.
C. Improved military technology (tanks, airplanes or the atomic bomb) and new tactics (trench warfare, firebombing) led to increased levels of wartime casualties (Nanjing, Dresden, Hiroshima).
Key Concept 6.2 Global Conflicts and Their Consequences
I. End of European empire: Europe dominated the global political order at the beginning of the 20th century, but both land-based and transoceanic empires gave way to new forms of transregional political organization by the century’s end.
A. Older land-based empires (Ottoman, Russian, Qing) collapsed due to a combination of internal and external factors. Ex: economic hardship, political/social discontent, technological stagnation, defeat.
B. Some colonies negotiated their independence. Ex: India & Gold Coast from the British Empire.
C. Some colonies achieved independence through armed struggle. Ex: Algeria and Vietnam from the French empire; Angola from the Portuguese empire.
II. Nationalist Ideology: Emerging ideologies of anti-imperialism contributed to the dissolution of empires.
A. Nationalist leaders in Asia and Africa challenged imperial rule.
Ex: Mohandas Gandhi in India, Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam, Kwame Nkrumah in Ghana.
B. Regional, religious and ethnic movements challenged both colonial rule and inherited imperial boundaries.
Ex: Muhammad Ali Jinnah in Pakistan, the Quebecois separatist movement in Canada or the Biafra secessionist movement in Nigeria.
C. Transnational movements sought to unite people across national boundaries. Ex: communism, Pan-Arabism or Pan- Africanism.
D. Within states in Africa, Asia and Latin America, movements promoted communism and socialism as a way to redistribute land and resources.
III. Political changes were accompanied by major demographic and social consequences.
A. The redrawing of old colonial boundaries led to population resettlements. Ex: India/Pakistan partition, the Zionist Jewish settlement of Palestine or the division of the Middle East into mandatory states.
B. The migration of former colonial subjects to imperial metropoles maintained cultural and economic ties between the colony and the metropole even after the dissolution of empires. Ex: South Asians to Britain, Algerians to France, Filipinos to USA.
C. The proliferation of conflicts led to genocide (Armenia, the Holocaust, Cambodia, Rwanda) and the displacement of peoples resulting in refugee populations (Palestinians, Darfurians).
IV. Global war: Military conflicts occurred on an unprecedented global scale.
A. World War I and World War II were the first “total wars.” Governments used ideologies, including fascism, nationalism and communism, to mobilize all of their state’s resources, including peoples, both in the home countries and the colonies or former colonies for the purpose of waging war. Ex: Gurkha soldiers in India, ANZAC troops in Australia. Governments also used a variety of strategies, including political speeches, art, media and intensified forms of nationalism, to mobilize these populations.
B. The varied sources of global conflict from 1900 to 1950 included: imperialist expansion by European powers and Japan, competition for resources, ethnic conflict, great power rivalries between Great Britain and Germany, nationalist ideologies, and the economic crisis engendered by the Great Depression.
C. The global balance of economic and political power shifted after the end of World War II and rapidly evolved into the Cold War. The United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers, which led to ideological struggles between capitalism and communism throughout the globe.
D. The Cold War produced new military alliances, including NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and promoted proxy wars in Latin America, Africa and Asia.
E. The dissolution of the Soviet Union effectively ended the Cold War.
V. Violence: Although conflict dominated much of the 20th century, many individuals and groups opposed this trend. Some individuals and groups, however, intensified the conflicts.
A. Groups and individuals challenged the many wars of the century. Ex: Picasso in his Guernica, the antinuclear movement during the Cold War, Thich Quang Duc by self-immolation. Some promoted the practice of nonviolence as a way to bring about political change. Ex: Tolstoy, Gandhi, Martin Luther King.
B. Groups and individuals opposed and promoted alternatives to the existing economic, political and social orders. Ex: The Non-Aligned Movement, which presented an alternative political bloc to the Cold War; the Tiananmen Square protesters for democracy in China; Anti-Apartheid Movement; or participants in the global uprisings of 1968.
C. Militaries and militarized states often responded to the proliferation of conflicts in ways that further intensified conflict. Ex: the promotion of military dictatorship in Chile, Spain and Uganda; the United States’ promotion of a New World Order after the Cold War; the buildup of the “military-industrial complex” and arms trading.
D. More movements used terrorism to achieve political aims. Ex: the IRA, Al-Qaeda
E. Global conflicts had a profound influence on popular culture. Ex: Dada, James Bond, Socialist Realism, video games.
Anti-War Images: Picasso’s Guernica, self-immolation
Key Concept 6.3 New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society and Culture
I. States, communities and individuals became increasingly interdependent, a process facilitated by the growth of institutions of global governance.
A. New international organizations formed to maintain world peace and to facilitate international cooperation.
Ex: The League of Nations, the United Nations.
B. New economic institutions sought to spread the principles and practices associated with free market economics throughout the world. Ex: the IMF, World Bank, WTO.
C. Humanitarian organizations developed to respond to humanitarian crises throughout the world.
Ex: UNICEF, the Red Cross, Amnesty International, Doctors Without Borders, WHO.
D. Regional trade agreements created regional trading blocs designed to promote the movement of capital and goods across national borders. Ex: European Union, NAFTA, ASEAN, Mercosur.
E. Multinational corporations began to challenge state authority and autonomy.
Ex: Royal Dutch Shell, Coca-Cola, Sony.
F. Movements throughout the world protested the inequality of environmental and economic consequences of global integration.
II. People conceptualized society and culture in new ways; some challenged old assumptions about race, class, gender and religion, often using new technologies to spread reconfigured traditions.
A. The notion of human rights gained traction throughout the world. Ex: The U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, women’s rights, the end of the White Australia Policy.
B. Increased interactions among diverse peoples sometimes led to the formation of new cultural identities (such as negritude) and exclusionary reactions (such as xenophobia, race riots or citizenship restrictions).
C. Believers developed new forms of spirituality (such as New Age Religions, Hare Krishna or Falun Gong) and chose to emphasize particular aspects of practice within existing faiths and apply them to political issues (such as fundamentalist movements or Liberation Theology).
III. Popular and consumer culture became global.
A. Sports were more widely practiced and reflected national and social aspirations. Ex: World Cup Soccer, the Olympics, cricket.
B. Changes in communication and transportation technology enabled the widespread diffusion of music and film. Ex: reggae, Bollywood.
Chinese History Overview
Dynasty | Years | Characteristics/Changes | Shang | 1600-1046 BCE | Warrior-kings; human sacrifices to ancestors; Writing began (oracle bones)Developed bronze, glazed pottery, silk industries; Huang He agriculture | Zhou | 1045-256 BCE | Invaded China from NW; claimed Mandate of HeavenSet up a loose central government; Feudal power held by strong noblesDecline led to Warring States Period- Confucius, Laozi | Qin | 221-206 BCE | Military dictatorship centralized China; Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi (Legalism)Destroyed nobles’ feudal power; System of taxation, weights and measures, standard writing; Great Wall (1500 miles), Terra Cotta warriors | Han | 206 BCE- 220 CE | Conquerors; expanded to central Asia, Indochina, KoreaTraded with Rome along Silk Roads; Wudi begins civil service exam system based on Confucius; First paper madeBuddhism enters China in 200s from India (Silk Road); high point 300-800 | Sui | 589-618 | Reunified China; Canal system; State support of Buddhism (Wendi) | Tang | 618-906 | “Golden Age” of arts and literature; Education and government reformsExtended boundaries of empire; Alliance and peace treaties with neighbors; tribute system; High point of influence on Japan; capital HangzhouLater Tang- state action against Buddhism; emergence of Neo-Confucianism | Song | 960-1279 | “Economic revolution”: Increased urbanization, cosmopolitanPowerful only in southern China; nomads ruled NorthInventions: gunpowder, compass, printingFoot binding, especially elite women; Neo-Confucianism | Yuan | 1259-1368 | Mongol rule; Northern China conquered by Genghis KhanSong conquered and ruled by Kublai Khan (Genghis’ grandson)Visited by Marco Polo trade with Europe began | Ming | 1368-1644 | Period of recovery from Mongol rule; capital moved to BeijingSponsorship of Zheng He’s voyages (1405-1433) ended, evidence destroyedGrowing isolation from world trade, construction of Great WallTrade with Europeans along Indian Ocean; arrival of Jesuit missionaries | Qing | 1644-1911 | Ming conquered by Manchus from NW ChinaPeriod of expansion into Central Asia, Tibet largest land bordersPolicies of discrimination against Han Chinese (dual appointments)1800s disasters: Opium Wars, Taiping Rebellion, Boxer Rebellion (fails) | Warlord/ Republic | 1911-1949 | 1911 Qing overthrown by nationalists in revolution; leader- Sun Yat-SenNationalists (Chiang Kai-Shek) v. Communists (Mao Zedong)Invaded by Japan in 1937 during WWII1946: Civil War resumes | Communist China | 1949- Present | Mao declares victory; proclaims People’s Republic of ChinaNationalists forced to flee to Taiwan (island)Mao’s policies: Great Leap Forward (similar to Stalin’s Five Year Plans), Cultural Revolution to go after communism’s enemiesAfter Mao’s death in 1976, Deng Xiaoping emerges as leader – pursues policy of economic liberalization, leading to rapid economic growth1989 Tiananmen Square Massacre – students protesting for democracy slaughtered by military |
Song: Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han (X2), Sui, Tang, Song (X2), Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic (X2), Mao Zedong (X2)
Political, Economic, and Social Systems (The “-isms”) Feudalism | Feudalism usually refers to the political, social, and economic system of medieval Europe derived from the holding of land in exchange for labor or service. Feudalism is politically decentralized. Economically, production occurs on the manor. Socially, it creates three classes: the nobility, the clergy, and the peasantry. Feudalism also developed in Japan. | | Nationalism | Nationalism involves identifying with one's nation, which can be defined by a common ethnic, cultural, or religious identity, or common values and history. The adoption of national identity has commonly been the result of dissatisfaction with foreign rule or disunity and has often involved revolutions. An important belief of nationalism is that the nation deserves a discrete territory and government (state) controlled by the people. National flags, anthems are considered important symbols of the nation. | | Imperialism | Imperialism is the practice of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies or dependencies (protectorates and spheres of influence). Imperialism is often motivated by nationalism, economic competition, and feelings of racial and cultural superiority. | | Fascism | A system of government most closely associated with Benito Mussolini of Italy that combines: totalitarian dictatorship, aggressive nationalism (including imperialism and xenophobia), glorification of politics, and single-party rule. | | Mercantilism | Mercantilism was the dominant economic system of absolute monarchies from 1500 to 1800, whereby monopolies and regulations were put in place to extract wealth from colonies, thereby benefiting the mother country. | | Capitalism | Capitalists believe in private ownership of resources and favor a system of competition in the free market to create economic growth and wealth, thus helping the nation’s overall prosperity. Since the Industrial Revolution, global capitalism has predominated. | | Socialism | Socialists are motivated by the desire to improve the quality of life for all members of society. They believe in strong state direction in political and economic policy, and redistribution of resources to address inequalities inherent in a free-market economy. | | Communism | Communists believe that the capitalist system is damaging to the interests of the masses, and that workers must unite and overturn it by revolutionary means. Communists also believe in the state ownership of all land, natural resources and industry. | |
World Religions Chart
Suggested Primary Sources
Period 1 (Up to 600 B.C.E.) * Rig Veda poems on Aryan culture * Code of Hammurabi, first recorded code of laws * Epic of Gilgamesh, Sumerian creation myth * The Book of the Dead, ancient Egyptian funeral texts
Period 2 (600 B.C.E. to 600 C.E.) * Lao Tzu, Daodejing Daoist teachings * Confucius, Annalects Confucian sayings * Herodotus, Histories on the Greco-Persian Wars * Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, about the war between Athens and Sparta * Plato, Republic, about the ideal government * Aristotle, Politics
Period 3 (600 to 1450) * The Thousand and One Nights book of Arabian cultural stories * The Epic of Sundiata West African epic poem * Lady Murasaki, The Tale of Genji story about a Japanese court official * The Chronicle of Jean de Venette account of a European on the bubonic plague * Ibn Al-Wardi, "Risalha al-Naba", account of a Muslim on the bubonic plague
Period 4 (1450 to 1750) * John Locke Two Treatises on Government, about natural human rights * Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws, about structure of government * Jean Jacques Rousseau, Discourse on the Foundations of Inequality, about society in politics * Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, on capitalist theory * Hobbes, Leviathan, on the problems of government and society * Ibn Khaldun, "On the Rise and Decline of Empires", on the history of the Ottoman Empire
Period 5 (1750 to 1900) * Rudyard Kipling, White Man's Burden, poem about European imperialism * National Assembly, The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, on French Revolution values * Olympe De Gouges' The Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen * Thomas Paine, "Rights of Man" on individual freedom * Mary Wollstonecraft, "Vindication of the Rights of Women", on gender inequality * Elisa Greathed, "An Account of the Opening of the Indian Mutiny" * John Stuart Mill, "On Liberty" * Karl Marx, The Communist Manifesto, on communist theory * Liang Qichao, A People Made New, on the westernization and modernization of China
Period 6 (1900 to the present) * Aime Cesaire, Return to My Native Land poem about First World War * Treaty of Versailles, outlining the plan for the end of the First World War * Mohandas Gandhi, "Quit India" speech on Indian independence * Winston Churchill, "The Iron Curtain Speech" on Cold War * United Nations, International Declaration of Human Rights in response to 20th century genocides * Henri Alleg, The Question, on the French use of torture during the French-Algerian War * Lech Walesa, "Nobel Peace Prize Lecture" on the Solidarity Movement
Must Know Years
Period 1: Up to 600 B.C.E.
8000 B.C.E. - Neolithic Revolution
3000 B.C.E. – First state-based civilizations
1500 B.C.E. - Iron Age
Period 2: 600 B.C.E. to 600 C.E.
500s B.C.E. - life of Buddha, Confucius, Laozi
400s B.C.E. - Greek Golden Age
323 B.C.E. - Alexander the Great
221 B.C.E. - Qin unified China
32 C.E. - Beginnings of Christianity
180 C.E. - end of Pax Romana
220 C.E. - end of Han Dynasty
333 - Roman capital moved to Constantinople
476 - Fall of Rome
527 - Justinian rule of Byzantine Empire
Period 3: 600-1450
622 - Founding of Islam
732 - Battle of Tours
1054 - Great Schism (RCC & EOC)
1066 - Norman conquest of England
1071 - Battle of Manzikert (Seljuk Turks def. Byz)
1095 - 1st Crusade
1258 - Mongols sack Baghdad
1271-1295 - Marco Polo’s travels
1324 - Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage
1325-1349 - travels of Ibn Battuta
1347-1348 - Bubonic plague in Europe
1405-1433 - Zheng He’s voyages
Period 4: 1450 - 1750
1453 - Ottomans capture Constantinople
1488 - Dias rounded Cape of Good Hope
1492 - Columbus / Reconquista of Spain
1502 - 1st Slaves to Americas
1517 - Martin Luther / 95 theses
1521 - Cortez conquered the Aztecs
1533 - Pizarro toppled the Inca
1571 - Battle of Lepanto, (naval def. of Ottomans)
1588 - defeat of the Spanish Armada by the British
1600 - Battle of Sekigahara – Tokugawa unifies
1607 – Jamestown settled
1618-1648 - 30 years war
1683 - unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna
1689 - Glorious Revolution / English Bill of Rights
Period 5: 1750 – 1900
Mid 1700s - Industrial Revolution begins in Britain
1756 - 1763 - 7 Years War / French and Indian War
1776 - American Revolution
1789 - French Revolution begins
1804 - Haitian independence
1815 - Congress of Vienna/ def. of Napoleon
1820s - Independence in Latin America
1839 - 1st Opium War in China
1848 - European revolutions / Comm. Manifesto
1853 - Commodore Perry opens Japan
1857 – Indian Rebellion (Sepoy Mutiny)
1861 - End of Russian serfdom / Italian unification
1863 - Emancipation Proclamation in US
1871 - German unification
1885 - Berlin Conference - division of Africa
1898 - Spanish-American War- U.S. gets territory
1899 - Boer War - British in control of South Africa
1905 - Russo-Japanese war
1910-1920 - Mexican Revolution
1911 - Chinese Revolution (Qing overthrown)
Period 6: 1900 to the present
1914 – WWI begins
1917 - Russian Revolution
1919 - Treaty of Versailles - end of WWI
1929 - Stock market crash
1931 - Japanese invasion of Manchuria
1935 - Italian invasion of Ethiopia
1939 - German blitzkrieg in Poland
1941 - Pearl Harbor, entry of US into WWII
1945 - End of WWII
1947 - Independence & partition of India
1948 - Birth of Israel
1949 - Chinese Communist Revolution
1950 - 1953 - Korean War
1956 – Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal
1959 - Cuban Revolution
1962 - Cuban missile crisis
1967 - 6-Day War / Chinese Cultural Revolution
1979 - Iranian Revolution
1989 - Tiananmen Square / fall of Berlin Wall
1991 - fall of USSR / 1st Gulf war
1994 – Rwanda genocide; Mandela in S. Africa
2001 - 9/11 Attacks
2003 – U.S. invasion of Iraq