Premium Essay

Micro Term Review

In: Science

Submitted By llucero47
Words 3231
Pages 13
Microbiology Mid Term Review
What contribution did these dudes make to science and what type of experiments were involved in the discoveries they made? Louis Pasteur- Heat pasteurization- 1st vaccine for rabies. Found alcohol only produced in wine if yeast was present. “Swan necked” flasks experiment for spontaneous generation.

Robert Koch- Studied anthrax, Koch’s postulates (germ theory) studied and awarded for TB research.

Anton van Leewenhoek- Made the 1st lens to observe living microorganisms. The lens magnified up to 300x and were free of distortion.

Edward Jenner- Studied small pox. Came up with the first vaccine for smallpox.

Alexander Fleming- Discovered lysozyme (an enzyme) was found in tears, saliva, and sweat could kill bacteria.

What issues and types of instruments are involved in visualizing bacteria and viruses with a compound light microscope?
Reflection- transmission-absorption with florescence-refraction.
Condenser-is a lens that serves to concentrate light from the illumination source that is in turn focused through the object and magnified by the objective lens. iris diaphragm-regulates the amount of light on the specimen. objective lenses- magnifies ranges from 10x to 40x, ocular lenses. stage- supports the slide for viewing. focusing knobs-moves the stage up and down for focusing. total magnification- take the power of the objective (4X, 10X, 40x) and multiply by the power of the eyepiece, usually 10X.

What are the differences between a hanging drop slide vs a smear in examining a microbe?
Hanging drop- often is used with dark-field illumination. A drop of culture is placed on a coverslip that is encircled with petroleum jelly. The coverslip and drop are then inverted over the well of a depression slide. The drop hangs from the coverslip, and the petroleum jelly forms a seal that prevents evaporation. This...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Innovation and Technology Article Review

...Subsistence and Sustainability: From Micro-Level Behavioral Insights to Macro-Level Implications on Consumption, Conservation, and the Environment The main goal of this article is to develop micro-level behavioral insights at the intersection of poverty and the environment and derive macro-marketing implications. The behavior aspect includes psychological and socio-cultural aspects and emphasizes consumption and conservation. The findings of the article emphasize the importance of different levels of spatial and psychological distance, as well as coping strategies for communities to sustain themselves. The introduction and literature review is broken down into two main parts: poverty and micro-level behavior, and poverty and the environment. Research on subsistence marketplaces has adopted the bottom up behavioral perspective for micro-level. This research has examined underlying variables that affect how the poor interact with marketplaces, specifically focusing on behavior such as thinking styles, emotional factors, and social relationships. It found that individuals are concrete in their thinking in the following ways. Individuals who subsist use information at a tangible level rather than interpreting or combining it to reach more abstract conclusions. Second, individuals focus on the “what” and “how” rather than the “why” in abstract realms. This suggests a focus on the immediate in terms of environmental issues. Another tendency is pictographic thinking, which...

Words: 416 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Is Empowerment a Valuable Tool for Increasing Efficiency and Effectiveness in Today’s Organisations?

...Is empowerment a valuable tool for increasing efficiency and effectiveness in today’s organisations? In recent years, the degree of competition in the business world has increase dramatically, business has to be able to adapt with the change of the environment, law, and technology. Many managerial practices have been developed to enable the organisation to increase its efficiency and effectiveness. Empowerment as a tool that focusing on increasing employee motivation to contribute on the organisation has been discussed in widely for years, many scholars have conducted a large number of study on this regard. From various journal articles, this paper will define and discuss the benefit of the concept of empowerment on the organisation in three different aspects, first, the individual empowerment which personal perception on the workplace. Second, empowerment climate which is directly related to firm’s code of conducts as well as structures. Lastly, the relationship across two level or multi-level empowerment will be explained and discussed. The question that is the empowerment a valuable tool for increasing organisation’s efficiency and effectiveness will also be answered There are arguments on the definition of empowerment since this concept is complex and can be explained on multiple dimensions, levels, and disciplines. Definition of empowerment in general was explicitly given by Conger and Kanungo (1988) as “ a process of enhancing feeling of self-efficacy among......

Words: 2428 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Tx2 Module 10

...Course Schedule Course Modules Review and Practice Exam Preparation Resources Module 10: Transfers of property among family members Overview The transfer of property between persons not dealing at arm’s length is one of the elements that must be considered in taxation to ensure that there are no unexpected tax consequences. The ITA contains rules to prevent tax benefits inconsistent with the spirit of the ITA when people are not dealing with each other at arm’s length. These rules apply mainly where the beneficiary of the transfer or loan of property does not give the transferor sufficient consideration or there is an unacceptable attempt to split income. To reduce taxes on death, the situation can be planned by carrying out an estate freeze, which involves estimating the taxes payable on death and limiting them to this estimate. This module describes some different freezing techniques that are available. Module 10 focuses on (1) your technical knowledge in taxation, and (2) your professionalism in respect to the integrative approach. The technical material mainly focuses on the tax treatment of gifts and non-arm’s length transactions, the attribution rules that limit the ability to split income within a family unit to take advantage of the progressive tax rates, and the usefulness of the estate freeze mechanism for reducing taxes on transferring wealth to the next generation. From an integrative perspective, professionalism includes relations......

Words: 9446 - Pages: 38

Free Essay


...LITERATURE REVIEW ON SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES’ ACCESS TO CREDIT AND SUPPORT IN SOUTH AFRICA December, 2011 Literature Review on Small and Medium Enterprises’ Access to Credit and Support in South Africa Prepared for National Credit Regulator (NCR) Compiled by Underhill Corporate Solutions (UCS) Project Manager and Lead Researcher: Edmore Mahembe Contact Details: Edmore Mahembe 357 Flowers Street Capital Park, 0084 Cell: +27 (0)83 757 3733 Phone: +27 (0)12 751 3237 Fax: 086 540 7052/ 086 639 8976 E-mail: Website: Pretoria, South Africa December, 2011 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The research team wishes to acknowledge the co-operation of the following organisations and individuals that helped attain the goals of the evaluation. 1. National Credit Regulator (NCR) for the opportunity afforded to Underhill Corporate Solutions (the research consultants) to conduct this study “Literature Review on Small and Medium Enterprises’ Access to Credit And Support in South Africa”. 2. Client project managers: Thandile Gubevu and Darrell Beghin, for facilitating the overall project exercise and the useful comments on the draft report that helped shape the format of the final report. 3. NCR board members; for useful and valuable comments on the draft report that helped in the development of detailed and well informed recommendations. 4. Finally, special appreciation to key research team members,......

Words: 32474 - Pages: 130

Premium Essay

Exploration of a Journal Article in Sociology

...increasingly micro-oriented approach toward studying Sports. This article takes a critical look at the field of Sports Sociology. It is a very under researched and under developed subfield of sociology, but the authors of this article think that it has great potential. It assesses the sociology of sports. It also analyzes how organized sports intermingle with the organizational, political, and economic forces that are present in social inequality. It’s primarily a review of existing research based on previous articles and research. It refers to a lot of previous articles that lets you know it’s not new research. Many of us have only recently started referring to this research as “sports sociology” instead of as “economic sociology,” “political sociology,” “social movements,” “organizational sociology,” or “urban studies.” I’ve learned that sports have become an increasingly important social phenomenon that really lends itself to a sociological approach. Part of this allure is intellectual since both micro and macro approaches have been used in some really great ways to understand sports and how sports impact different issues. I find that Sociologists seem to be taking an increasingly micro-oriented approach toward studying sports. This trend is reflected across almost all substantive categories of inquiry. There seems to be something of a chicken-egg relationship going on, especially, with the simultaneous increase in research about gender and the overall increase in......

Words: 753 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Effects of Micro-Financing on Growth of Small and Micro Enterprises in Mombasa County

...International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research (IJSER) ISSN (Online): 2347-3878 Volume 2 Issue 4, April 2014 Effects of Micro-Financing on Growth of Small and Micro Enterprises in Mombasa County Veronica W. Ngugi1, Dr F. Kerongo2 1 Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Kenya, Department of Economics and Commerce, School of Human Resource Development 2 Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Kenya, Department of Economics and Commerce, School of Human Resource Development loans to finance their business operations. The fundamental objective of this study was to assess the effects of Micro financing on growth of small and micro enterprises in Mombasa County. Despite access to credit SMEs growth remains a major problem. Access to credit should enable a business to achieve their growth objective. Despite this it is interesting to note that most of the SMEs could not survive third year of incubation period. Descriptive Survey method was employed in this study. The study adopted stratified and systematic random sampling method. The sample size was 157 SMEs. Semi-structured questionnaire was designed to facilitate the acquisition of data. Data was collected from 102 respondents, a response rate of sixty five percent. Sales, income and competitiveness were used as the independent variable while growth of SMEs as dependant variable. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data. Results......

Words: 4317 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

The Effect of Micro Credit on the Development of Smes in Ghana

...entrepreneur has an important role for development, then this role is achieved through the “institution” that he/she represents. SME activities that would help to propel development and promote the wellbeing of the citizenry most governments are now playing various facilitation roles in collaboration with NGOs and other stakeholders to enable the private sector provide diverse goods and services, including job creation for the people. Many developing countries have shifted their strategic economic focus to embrace the development of an entrepreneural middle-class with the private sector as the engine for attaining sustained economic growth. In Ghana, the private sector is also considered as the engine of growth of the economy and mostly of micro, small and medium size enterprises, generally called the SMEs. The SMEs Sector in Ghana is estimated to be made up of 70% of all industrial establishments. They contribute about 22% to GDP and account for about 92% of...

Words: 2632 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Factors Influencing Growth of Microfinance in Ghana

...MBA RESEARCH PROPOSAL TOPIC: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE INCREASE AND DEVELOPMENT OF MICROFINANCE IN THE GHANAIAN ECONOMY NAME: BELINDA AKU ATEPOR INDEX NUMBER: 10224399 SUPERVISOR: DR. CHARLES ANDOH TABLE OF CONTENT Background of the Study ………………………………………….......................................3 Problem Statement ……………………………………………….........................................4 Objectives of the Study ……………………………………………………………………..5 Research Problems ………………………………………………………………………….5 Significance of the Study …………………………………………………………………...5 Literature Review …………………………………………………………………………..6 Methodology …………………………………………………………………………………. Scope and Limitations ……………………………………………………………………...7 Chapter Outline …………………………………………………………………………….8 References…... DEFINITION What Is Microfinance? Microfinance, according to Otero (1999, p.8) is “the provision of financial services to low-income poor and very poor self-employed people”. These financial services according to Ledgerwood (1999) generally include savings and credit but can also include other financial services such as insurance and payment services. Schreiner and Colombet (2001, p.339) define microfinance as “the attempt to improve access to small deposits and small loans for poor households neglected by banks.” Therefore, microfinance involves the provision of financial services such as savings, loans and insurance to poor people living in both urban and rural settings who are unable to......

Words: 2777 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Micro-Preemies Should Not Receive Medical Treatment

...Having a micro preemie can alter more than one life. There are several micro preemies born each year and the cost for that can be extremely high. There are multiple different types of technology used to keep a micro-preemie alive and technology is also used to help treat some of the birth defects a micro-preemie may have but the cost for using this technology could also be astronomical. The hospital stays that the micro preemie will have to endure can be very long and the emotional stress can be high. The ethics for treating a patient that young that has no say so whether they want to be alive or not is wrong. Micro preemies have been an issue for several years. “A micro preemie is a baby born weighing less than 1 pound, 12 ounces (800 grams) or before 26 weeks gestation. Because they are born months before their due dates, micro preemies face long NICU stays (Morrissette).” There is no specification to who will give birth to a micro preemie, it does not matter what type of ethnicity, age or what region of the world a person lives in, a female can still give birth to a micro preemie. “Nearly 13% of all babies in the U.S. are preemies, a 20% increase since 1990. A 2006 report by the National Academy of Sciences found that the 550,000 preemies born each year in the U.S. (Million-Dollar Babies).” Just because a female takes every medical precaution during pregnancy does not mean you will last until full term, a person is still at risk for giving birth to a micro......

Words: 1447 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Nokia's Distribution Revolution

...Nokia’s move to review its distribution strategy has sent a frisson through the market. Despite its fall from grace as the world’s leading phone manufacturer to one lagging behind rivals in the smartphone race, this is a company that still packs a punch in the market. Coming hard on the heels of Stephen Elop’s arrival as its new CEO, Nokia’s joint venture with Microsoft for Windows Phone 7, and the appointment of new UK MD Conor Pierce, the distribution review is taken as yet another sign that the sleeping giant is about to awaken. Certainly the atmosphere at Nokia’s offices in London is anything but sleepy.Behind its sleek, minimalist Scandinavian façade, there is a distinctly industrial air about the place. James Kitto, Nokia UK’s head of retail sales, embodies this atmosphere, exuding a focused energy and dynamism. He is keen to make clear that this review is no window dressing operation. ‘We are reviewing the entirety of our distribution arrangements in the UK,’ he tells Mobile. Rapid market So what is driving this swingeing review? After all, it was barely three years ago that Nokia whittled its distributors down from eight to three – choosing Data Select and 20:20 Mobile as its b2c distributors and, for a while, Brightpoint as its b2b partner. Kitto says the move is partly driven by the pace of the industry. He explains: ‘It is very healthy, particularly as the market moves so rapidly, to invite partners and potential partners to talk about their......

Words: 1154 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...The Global Conference for Wikimedia 6 - 10 August 2014 · London Find out more [ Help with translations! ] Industrial market segmentation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Industrial market segmentation is a scheme for categorizing industrial and business customers to guide strategic and tactical decision-making, especially in sales and marketing. While government agencies and industry associations use standardized segmentation schemes for statistical surveys, most businesses create their own segmentation scheme to meet their particular needs. While similar to consumer market segmentation, segmenting industrial markets is different and more challenging because of greater complexity in buying processes, buying criteria, and the complexity of industrial products and services themselves. Further complications include role of financing, contracting, and complementary products/services. The goal for every industrial market segmentation scheme is to identify the most significant differences among current and potential customers that will influence their purchase decisions or buying behavior, while keeping the scheme as simple as possible (Occam's Razor). This will allow the industrial marketer to differentiate their prices, programs, or solutions for maximum competitive advantage. Webster describes segmentation variables as “customer characteristics that relate to some important difference in customer response to marketing effort”. (Webster,......

Words: 4053 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Qwe Qwe Qwe

...ASSAM. (Prasenjit Nath, Janata College, Serfanguri, BTAD, Assam. Department of Computer Science & Application.) ABSTRACT: This paper explores the synergies between Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) and in traditional micro and small enterprises in Bodoland Territorial Area Districts of Assam for marketing, advertising, and sales their organizational products or services. For this study used current literature review on E-commerce and Entrepreneurship and case study analysis from different sources. In addition to this, interviews were conducted to examine the perceptions of enterprises in E-Commerce regarding modernization of traditional micro and small enterprises and entrepreneurship development and the factors affecting the modernization of business and integration of entrepreneurship. The study has explored the synergies between E-Commerce and modernization of traditional micro and small enterprises and entrepreneurships of Bodoland Territorial area Districts through a review of principal literature in this field, case study analysis, web researches and interviews with micro and small traditional enterprises. Traditional micro and small enterprises and E-Commerce should be regarded as ongoing, everyday practice in enterprises. For rural area of North-East like BTAD, one of the most important benefits of E-Commerce is its potential to help a developing rural community to leapfrog into......

Words: 1869 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Macro and Micro Environment

...There are two kinds of external marketing environments; micro and macro. These environments’ factors are beyond the control of marketers but they still influence the decisions made when creating a strategic marketing strategy. micro and macro environments Micro Environment Factors The suppliers: Suppliers can control the success of the business when they hold the power. The supplier holds the power when they are the only or the largest supplier of their goods; the buyer is not vital to the supplier’s business; the supplier’s product is a core part of the buyer’s finished product and/or business. The resellers: If the product the organisation produces is taken to market by 3rd party resellers or market intermediaries such as retailers, wholesalers, etc. then the marketing success is impacted by those 3rd party resellers. For example, if a retail seller is a reputable name then this reputation can be leveraged in the marketing of the product. The customers: Who the customers are (B2B or B2C, local or international, etc.) and their reasons for buying the product will play a large role in how you approach the marketing of your products and services to them. The competition: Those who sell same or similar products and services as your organisation are your market competition, and they way they sell needs to be taken into account. How does their price and product differentiation impact you? How can you leverage this to reap better results and get ahead of...

Words: 656 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Assessing the Effectiveness of Microfinance Loans from Nbc in Reduction of Poverty in Kinondoni District

...Assessing the Effectiveness of Microfinance Loans from NBC in Reduction of Poverty in Kinondoni District – Dar es Salaam. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. ACB - Akiba Commercial Bank CGAP - Consultative Group to Assist the poor CRDB - Cooperative and Development Bank FFI - Formal Financial Institution FINCA - Foundation for International Community Assiatance GDP - Gross Domestic Product NBC - National Bank of Commerce NGO - Non Governmental Organisation NMB - National Microfinance Bank NMFP - National Microfinance policy PFSs - Private Financial Sectors PRIDE - Promotion of Rural Initiatives and Development Enterprise SACCOS - Saving and Credit Cooperative Society SPSS - Statistical Package for Social Science URT - United Republic of Tanzania ABSTRACT The Ojective of the research was to assess the eeffectiveness/contribution of PFSs in reduction of poverty in Kinondoni District Dar es Salaam Tanzania. The research was conducted at NBC branches. The Branches to which the Reseacrh was conducted were Kinondoni Branch, Ubungo Branch, Mlimani City Branch, UDSM Branch and Tegeta Branche. Data were collected through interview and research questionnaires and were analyzed by using quantitative approach. The research study revealed that......

Words: 15107 - Pages: 61

Premium Essay

Msme India

...PROLOGUE: An MSME (Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise) is defined by RBI/GOI differently for the Manufacturing and the Services Sector, as follows: * Manufacturing Sector: Manufacturing sector refers to enterprises engaged in manufacture or production, processing or preservation of goods. The definition of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises under the manufacturing sector is as below: | | * A micro enterprise is an enterprise where investment in plant and machinery does not exceed Rs.25 lakh; | | * A small enterprise is an enterprise where the investment in plant and machinery is more than Rs.25 lakh but does not exceed Rs.5 crore; and | | * A medium enterprise is an enterprise where the investment in plant and machinery is more than Rs.5 crore but does not exceed Rs.10 crore. | * Services Sector: Services sector refers to enterprises engaged in providing or rendering of services. These will include small road & water transport operators, small business and professional & self-employed.The definition of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises under the services sector is as below: | | * A microenterprise is an enterprise where the investment in equipment does not exceed Rs.10 lakh; | | * A smallenterprise is an enterprise where the investment in equipment is more than Rs.10 lakh but does not exceed Rs.2 crore; and | | * A medium enterprise is an enterprise where the investment in equipment is more than Rs.2 crore but does not...

Words: 1728 - Pages: 7