Milgram and Zimbardo Experiments

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By 00Sebring
Words 455
Pages 2
To start, both of these experiments are quite disturbing and yet interesting as to how people react or act in situations if given the opportunity. I actually looked up the Milgram and the Zimbardo experiments. I watched videos of both actually. I think Milgram wanted to prove that the prison guards, doctors, etc..., did not necessarily think that they were to blame for the atrocities that occurred in concentration camps, but were in their minds “just following orders”. In his experiments people issued shocks to others in increasing intervals of strength without any concern for the pain being inflicted. They were just following orders. Zimbardo turned a Stanford University Basement into a prison with half the participants as guards and the other half as inmates. The level of cruelty that the “guards” sank to is truly amazing. Both sides of the experiment literally assimilated to the roles given. It is my belief that the subjects in these experiments used the position of following orders or authority to let the ID free and do things they would never consider in normal society with rules and laws. In Milgram’s study the ones issuing the shocks probably did enjoy or get pleasure from what they were doing. Literally they let the “order” to shock someone give them pleasure. It would be interesting to know if any of the “shockers” had become sexually excited during this experiment. Zimbardo’s experiment really shows how the ego was affected by the experiment. Guards became abusive and all powerful while the inmates sank into depression and unruliness. The Egos of the guards where boosted to new heights while those of the convicts were ground to nothing. The solidarity of the convicts and the uprisings of them were the egos actually trying to reassert themselves. What amazes me is how quickly this happened, as the study only lasted four days instead of the original one to…...

Similar Documents

Milgram and Zimbardo Experiments

...To start, both of these experiments are quite disturbing and yet interesting as to how people react or act in situations if given the opportunity. I actually looked up the Milgram and the Zimbardo experiments. I watched videos of both actually. I think Milgram wanted to prove that the prison guards, doctors, etc..., did not necessarily think that they were to blame for the atrocities that occurred in concentration camps, but were in their minds “just following orders”. In his experiments people issued shocks to others in increasing intervals of strength without any concern for the pain being inflicted. They were just following orders. Zimbardo turned a Stanford University Basement into a prison with half the participants as guards and the other half as inmates. The level of cruelty that the “guards” sank to is truly amazing. Both sides of the experiment literally assimilated to the roles given. It is my belief that the subjects in these experiments used the position of following orders or authority to let the ID free and do things they would never consider in normal society with rules and laws. In Milgram’s study the ones issuing the shocks probably did enjoy or get pleasure from what they were doing. Literally they let the “order” to shock someone give them pleasure. It would be interesting to know if any of the “shockers” had become sexually excited during this experiment. Zimbardo’s experiment really shows how the ego was affected by the experiment. Guards became abusive...

Words: 455 - Pages: 2

The Milgram Experiment

...The Milgram Experiment Why do people follow orders to carry out immoral acts even when they know it is wrong? Under what circumstances are normal everyday people obedient to authority? Research Aim: To find out if people would obey an unjust order to inflict pain on someone else. Research Hypothesis: That people would not be willing to inflict pain on one another simply because they were told to do so. Variables: IV, DV, Extraneous: Independent Variable Dependent Variable Extraneous Variable Proximity of the learner Amount of shock administered Closeness of the authority Duration of the shock Prestige of the setting Speed of the response Presence of rebellious peers Research Method: Forty male participants were selected after replying to a newspaper ad for an obedience experiment. At the beginning of the experiment they met a man called Mr Wallis, a mild-mannered man in his fifties; who was then hooked up to a charge generator. He was in fact a confederate. The participant sat in another room and tested 'Mr Wallis' on word pairs, when he got one wrong, the participant was to give him an electric shock. These increased as more incorrect answers were given from 15 to 450 volts. Each time a shock was given a pre-recorded sound played indicating Mr Wallis in varying degrees of pain, until after 315 volts there was an eerie silence. Each time they tried to stop Milgram himself encouraged the participant to continue (this was the authority figure...

Words: 523 - Pages: 3

Summary of the Main Conclusions Drawn by Zimbardo Regarding the Stanford Prison Experiment.

...The results of the experiment have been argued to demonstrate the impressionability and obedience of people when provided with a legitimising ideology and social and institutional support. The experiment has also been used to illustrate cognitive dissonance theory and the power of authority. The results of the experiment favour situational attribution of behaviour rather than dispositional attribution. In other words, it seemed that the situation, rather than their individual personalities, caused the participants' behaviour. Under this interpretation, the results is that, ordinary people fulfilled orders to administer what appeared to be agonising and dangerous electric shocks to a confederate of the experiment. Power tactics are ways in which the individuals translate power bases into specific actions. In the experiment, people are using legitimacy, it is relying on your authority position or saying that a request accords with organisational policies or rules. In the experiment, Zimbardo said that people's behaviour changed under the environment of power and authority, the prisoners at first might not perfectly obey to what they were asked to do, however they started to obey what the guards say when the experiment went on, even though all participants know that they are not in a real prison situation. But the environment is too real that people started to think they are in a real prison, no matter it's the prisoners, or the guards. They follow the theory of......

Words: 255 - Pages: 2

Social Conformity and the Milgram Experiment

...“The Experiments That Still Shock” by Carol Tavris, The Wall Street Journal In 1963, Stanley Milgram conducted an experiment on “obedience to authority” just 2 years after the Nazi Adolf Eichmann had claimed in his trial he was “only following orders” in the murder of Jews during the Holocaust. After World War 2, Milgram, along with many other people, was curious as to how many normal, everyday citizens would obey authority even when directly hurting another human being. About 780 Participants arrived at the Yale lab under the pretense they were to be part of an experiment studying the effects of punishment on learning. Three people were involved in each trial, one assigned the role the ‘teacher’, and the other the ‘learner’, and the experiment conductor (who was nothing but a man in a white lab coat). The learner, seated in an adjoining room as the teacher, was to receive an electric shock from the teacher whenever an error was made when reciting a pair of words. The teacher was to press a lever on a machine that had varying intensities of voltages. The shock levels were labeled “SLIGHT SHOCK” to “DANGER-SEVERE SHOCK” and finally “XXX”. With each error the learner made, the voltage intensity was to increase. What the participants didn’t know was that the learner was a confederate of Milgrams who didn't receive any shocks. He shouted and pleaded to be released with each “shock” according to a prearranged script. If the participant-teacher wanted to leave, the...

Words: 532 - Pages: 3

Experiment

... Experiment # 1 Laboratory Regulations / Safety and Micropipetting Objectives: 1. To introduce students to lab safety and regulations 2. To introduce students to lab equipment 3. To teach students to use and calibrate micropipetters Materials: Micropipetters, beakers, distilled water and balance A. Introduction of lab safety and regulations. 1. General laboratory safety and regulations will be explained and emphasized. 2. Lab equipment will be introduced. B. Micropipetter Use and Calibration Background: Before you start any type of lab work, it is a good idea to check the accuracy and precision of the micropipetters that you plan to use. A very simple way to do this is by weighing the volume of water actually transferred by a micropipetter at a given setting. Water has a density of 0.9986 g/mL at room temperature, so you can use the mass of the water transferred to determine the accuracy of your pipetter (as long as your balance is reliable of course....), and by repeating the test several times, you can determine the precision of the micropetter as well. Procedure: 1. Using a balance capable of reading in milligrams or lower, tare a plastic weighing boat on the pan of the balance. 2. Set the micropipetter to its maximum capacity and carefully transfer that volume of distilled water to the weighing boat. 3. Repeat the operation at least four times, each time recording the weight of distilled water transferred. 4. Set the...

Words: 414 - Pages: 2

The Milgram Experiment

...The Milgram Experiment was one of the most influential experiments in social psychology. It was conducted by Stanley Milgram and was published in the 1960s. These laboratory experiments offer a powerful and disturbing look into the power of authority and obedience. Milgram was interested in researching how far people would go in obeying orders if it involved performing dangerous and even deadly action against another person and that violate their own personal beliefs and values. Simply put, Stanley Milgram was interested in how easily ordinary people could be influenced into committing atrocities for example, Germans in WWII (Taylor, Peplau & Sears, 2006). Milgram selected participants for his experiment by advertising, through the newspaper, for male participants to take part in a psychology study of learning at Yale University. The procedure was that the volunteer was paired with another person and they drew straws to find out who would be the “learner” and who would be the “teacher.” The draw was fixed so that the participant was always the teacher, and the learner was one of Milgram’s associates (pretending to be a real participant). While in another room, the "teacher" would deliver a shock, ranging from 15 to 450 volts, to the “learner" every time an incorrect answer was produced. While the participant believed that he was delivering real shocks to the learner, the associate was simply pretending to be shocked. As the level of shock increases, the learner’s...

Words: 553 - Pages: 3

Milgram

...Milgram, S. (1963) Behavioural Study of Obedience Case Study #2 Social Psychology Important terms: * Obedience: The psychological mechanism which links individual action to political purpose, the dispositional cement that binds men to systems of authority. * GADH: The “Germans are different hypothesis” * Dispositional attribution: This is believing that a person's behaviour is caused by an individual's personality or disposition rather than the situation they are in. * Situational attribution: This explains behaviour in terms of aspects of the situation that a person is in rather than the person's internal characteristics such as personality Background/Context: Milgram’s study is an attempt to test ‘the Germans are different’ hypothesis. The Germans are different hypothesis states that German’s have a basic character deficit which means they have a readiness to obey people in authority regardless of the act they are being asked to carry out. The Germans are different hypothesis is an example of a dispositional attribution as it is arguing that the cause of behaviour is believed to result from the persons own personality or characteristics. However, Milgram set out to question this dispositional attribution of the Germans. He believed that the situation had led to the inhumane behaviour of the Nazis and therefore that anybody in the same situation as those committing such atrocities would have done the same in the same circumstances. Milgram...

Words: 963 - Pages: 4

Experiment

...Experiment 6 Newton’s Second and Third Laws PHY 2091- 01 Experiment Performed : 03/2/15 Report Submitted : 03/20/15 Lab Partner: Nicholas Bautista Instructor: Introduction The experiment determines newton’s second and third laws using real life experiments such as the mass pulley system using the Atwood’s machine and using springs (2) in series and parallel to determine their spring constants and extensions when a mass is hanged from them. Newron’s second law states that the force on an object is directly proportional to the rate of change of momentum, which later gives the formula F =ma , m= mass and a is acceleration. Newton;s third law suggests that every action occurring on an object has an equal and opposite reaction when they occur in pairs, are acting in opposite directions and has same magnitude. In part one, we measure the acceleration of the mass pulley system using the photo gate. Data M1 = 151.25 g M2 =171.25 g Mean acceleration = 0.5992 m/s^2 Standard deviation 0.05463 Data Analysis Part 1 (Atwood’s Machine) – Formula and calculation of theoretical acceleration (ath) – A =(m1-m2)/(m1+m2) * g , ath= (0.17125-0.15125)/( 0.17125+0.15125)* 9.79 = 0.6083 m/s^2 % error = 0.05463/0.5592 *100 =9.76 % Formula and calculation of percent difference between ae and ath – % difference = (difference / A_th) *100 = (0.55992-0.6083) /0.6083 *100 =8.01% Part 2 (Springs in Series) – Hooke’s law equation...

Words: 793 - Pages: 4

Experiment

...EXPERIMENT 11: DETERMINATION OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN A WATER SAMPLE (WINKLER METHOD) INTRODUCTION In an alkaline solution, dissolved oxygen will oxidize manganese(II) to the trivalent state. 8OH-(aq) + 4Mn2+(aq) + 2H2O(l) --> 4Mn(OH)3(s) The analysis is completed by titrating the iodine produced from potassium iodide by manganese(III) hydroxide. 2Mn(OH)3(s) + 2I-(aq) + 6 H+(aq) --> 2Mn2+(aq) + I2(aq) + 6H2O(l) Sodium thiosulphate is used as the titrant. Success of the method is critically dependent upon the manner in which the sample is manipulated. At all stages, every method must be made to assure that oxygen is neither introduced to nor lost from the sample. Furthermore, the sample must be free of any solutes that will oxidize iodide or reduce iodine. Chemicals: Manganese(II) sulphate solution – prepared by dissolving 48 g of MnSO4.4H2O in water to five 100 cm3 solution; alkaline potassium iodide solution—prepared by dissolving 15 g of KI in about 25 cm3 of water, adding 66 cm3 of 50% NaOH, and diluting to 100 cm3; concentrated sulphuriv(VI) acid; 0.0125 M sodium thiosulphate solution; starch solution (freshly prepared). Apparatus: 250 cm3 volumetric flask, 250 cm3 conical flask, measuring cylinders, titration apparatus, magnetic stirrer Procedure: 1. Use a 250 cm3 volumetric flask to collect water sample. Fill the flask completely with water without trapping any air bubbles. 2. Add 1 cm3 of manganese(II) sulphate solution to the sample using a...

Words: 538 - Pages: 3

Experiment

...Practical 5 Investigation of Action of Saliva and Hydrochloric Acid in Two Carbohydrate Solutions __________________________________________________________________________ Objective: Students are expected to state the objective of this experiment. Apparatus & Equipments: Boiling tubes Graduated plastic dropper Metal test tube racks o Water bath, ~ 37 C Beaker o Water bath, ~ 95 C Materials: Carbohydrate solution A 3 M Hydrochloric acid Carbohydrate solution B 3 M Sodium hydroxide Benedict’s solution Procedures: 1. Prepare two boiling tubes containing 1 ml solution A and 1 ml solution B respectively. Add 1 ml o Benedict’s solution to each tube. Heat both tubes together in the (~95 C) water bath for two minutes. Record the results in table 1. 2. Add a few drops of fresh solution A and B separately spaced on a white tile. On each solution, add 1-2 drops of iodine solution. Mix with pen cover. Record your observations in the table 1. 3. Pipette 2 ml solution B into each of four boiling tubes. Label the tubes 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively near mouth of tube. Label your group name. 4. Place tubes 1 and 2 in a water bath of ~37 C. (It doesn’t matter how long you put it in at this stage as no saliva or HCl have been added yet). 5. Salivate into a small beaker till it reaches about 5 ml. 6. Step (6) and (7) is to be done approximately at the same time. Measure out 4 ml of the saliva prepared in step (4) and pipette...

Words: 930 - Pages: 4

The Milgram Experiment

...The Milgram Experiment The Milgram experiment took place in 1963 and was conducted by Stanley Milgram. Stanley Milgram who was a psychologist at Yale University performed this experiment to show the conflict between obedience to authority and personal ethics and morals. In 1962 Milgram wanted to investigate how the Nazis could terminate Jews during World War II without even the thought of human dignity. With this experiment he would show how the Germans were obedient to authority figures. To do this Milgram selected 40 males’ participants between the age of 20 and 50 to play 2 roles. The first role was the teacher and the second role was that of student. All the participants were teachers because Milgram rigged the selection process. With all the partisipants believing they were selected as teachers they were taken to a room where the students were connected to electrodes. The researcher asked a serious of health questions and the student would answer with some concerns but decided to continue with the test. Next the teachers were put in adjoining room seated in front of a shock generator. The shock generator was comprised of multipul switches ranging from 15 volts up to 450 volts. The researcher explained to the teachers that for every wrong answer given they were to administer a shock starting from 15 volts. For every wrong answer after that he was to increase to the next voltage and so on. The student which was a recording would show signs of pain and wanting to...

Words: 542 - Pages: 3

Critical Thinking Zimbardo vs Milgram

... signs of mental breakdown just after four days. Zimbardo also should have noticed that his guards who were really actors were taking things a bit too far. Addressing another question, I can absolutely answer this with certainty. I would not have been a garden that abused or became consumed with my authority. I can say this because I hold this position and no and that it needs to be garnished with great responsibility and consideration for others rights and it will being. On the other end had I been a prisoner I don't think I would've broken down, that's not my personality. I believe that I would have rebuild until it was physically impossible if I were being treated improperly. It was definitely evident that although this was a known experiment the prisoners were becoming mentally fatigued and mentally stressed beyond a healthy point. As an example, one of the other prisoners put himself on a hunger strike in an attempt to be released. In comparing the Stanford prison experiment 2 Milgram's obedience experiments, I find them much different. While the principle of someone being in control of another person, in the Milgram experiment it was very evident that the person administering the test almost always rebuild against orders to continue. This was because mainly they were both there of their own free will and not in a prison setting I believe. This reminded me of a statement that was made regarding the Stanford prison experiment. Is embargo reflected that although...

Words: 878 - Pages: 4

Experiment

...Experiment 1 Title: Standardization of potassium permanganate solution by ammonium iron (II) sulphate Name: Toh Zi Xin Name of partner: Wong Jing Hui, Gan Chun Yiang, Wong Teck Jun Date: 17.6.2015 Lecturer: Dr. Neo Kian Eang Practical class: P4 Introduction: Potassium permanganate solution can be standardized by titration against a standard solution of ammonium iron(II) sulphate solution. This is an example of standardization, which is a process to determine the concentration of a solution by using it to titrate another solution which have a known concentration. This titration is known as redox titration as the titrant, which is the potassium permanganate is a strong oxidizing agent. The ammonium iron (II) sulphate solution is measured by using a pipette and transfer it into a conical flask while the potassium permanganate solution is placed in a burette. The ammonium iron (II) sulphate solution is made acidic by adding dilute sulphuric acid. Potassium permanganate solution is dark purple colour because of the presence of permanganate ions, MnO4- . Since potassium permanganate is a strong oxidizing agent, it can oxidizes iron(II) ions to iron(III) ions. Fe2+ Fe3+ + e- On the other hand, the Mn7+ ions of the dark purple colour permanganate ion, MnO4- are reduced to colourless Mn2+ ion. MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e- Mn2+ +4H2O As a result, the overall ionic equation is: MnO4- + 8 H+ + 5 Fe2...

Words: 2374 - Pages: 10

The Milgram Experiment

...Dustin Rim Mrs. Bartlett Psychology PY177M1 January 20, 2016 The Milgram Experiment: Obedience The Milgram Experiment were based on obedience to authority figures. A series of notable social psychology experiment conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram in the early 1960s. It measured the willingness of participants to obey an authority figure when put in unconformable position. Stanley asked himself “How far will a human being go if an anonymous authority orders him to torture or even to kill a fellow human”. As many of the participants were approached in the streets to become a part of the experiment. Many of the participants didn’t know what was going to go on during the experiment. As they were pulled into the area where the experiment was being performed. After the psychologist is done explaining the experiment they would start the experiment. Two participants were done at the same time but one of the participants was a part of the experiment which was the person that wasn’t the teacher in the experiment. The teacher would sit outside of this other room and read off a set of words and the person in the room had to answer them correctly or get an electric shock as a punishment. With ever answer wrong the shock went up in voltage. The voltage started about 15 volts and went up to 300 volts. If you reached 300 volts and the person wasn’t done answering all the question right, than the person would just kept getting shocked at 300 volts. As the...

Words: 488 - Pages: 2

The Milgram Experiment

...Abstract Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale University, performed one of the most famous studies conducted at the time, in 1963. Stanley Milgram was very interested in the effects of interactions on behavior. In his experiment, he wanted to test the limits of the participant's compliance and obedience, under conditions of extreme distress. Milgram wanted to have a better understanding of how far people would go to obey orders given by someone in an authority role; even if that meant that, the orders contradicted their personal beliefs. The subjects of the study believed they had to obey what the authority figure's guidance that was conveyed to them. The guidelines were to shock other participants ultimately if they answered incorrectly; even silence was an incorrect answer. The experiment, to this day, is one that is studied, because it showed how many people, no matter gender, economic stance, or race, would inflict pain, and even death, to obey someone who has more authority than they do. The subjects were given a set of rules to abide by. The study was to see how the subjects responded to the effects of punishment on memory. The Milgram Experiment There were two main pieces of this study; there was the "learner" and the "experimenter". There was a list of teachers, the teachers were told to give shocks to the learners, the shocks were not real, and however, the participants did not know this. The participants thought the students were being...

Words: 1168 - Pages: 5