Premium Essay

Milk Processing

In: Science

Submitted By
Words 1434
Pages 6
Physical and Chemical properties of milk In this paper we will discuss the properties of milk. We will cover the major chemical components and physical properties of milk. We will discuss how both characteristics are used in daily function. We will also discuss the process that is used to measure both chemical and physical properties. There are five physical properties that we are going to discuss: density, viscosity, freezing point, and optical properties. The density of milk is used to convert mas in to volume, estimate the solids content, and to calculate viscosity. There are several factors to consider when calculating the density. Such factors are “the temperature at the time of measurement, the temperature history of material, composition of the material (especially the fat content), and inclusion of air (a complication with more viscous products)” (Food Science 1). According to Food Science “With all of this in mind, the density of milk varies within the range of 1027 to 1033 kg /m3 at 20° C” (1). The next physical factor of milk is viscosity. The viscosity of milk and milk products is important in determine the following according to Food Science,” the rate of creaming, rates of mass and heat transfer, and the flow conditions in dairy processes” (1). The most important factor in this is the temperature if the milk is to warm it will allow for breakdown of the whey proteins of the milk. However, if the milk is held at a cooler temperature this will increase the viscosity due to the volume of the casein protein. The next factor is the freezing point according to Food Science: Freezing point depression is a colligative property which is determined by the molarity of solutes rather than by the percentage by weight or volume. In the dairy industry, freezing point of milk is mainly used to determine added water but it can also been used to determine...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Milk Processing Plant - Project Appraisal

...Milk Processing |   | 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 The Pakistani dairy industry is contributing significantly to the country's economy, besides improving the health standard by increasing the nutrition value of the food. The value of output from Dairy Sector increased to Rs.5,00,510 million in 1994-95 from Rs.2,75,080 million in 1990 and is expected to reach the level of Rs. 8,50,000 million by the year 2000 A.D. 1.2 Pakistan occupies first position in the world having a total bovine population of 29.6 million compared to the world's total bovine population of 1420 million. As per 1992 livestock census, the country has about 16.0 million breedable cows and 13.4 million breedable buffaloes 1.3 There has been a major improvement in milk production which increased from 17 million tones in 1951 to 70.1 million tonnes in 1997 and the growth was maximum between 1980 and 1990. The present per capita availability of milk is 205 gms as against the PCMR recommendation of 250 gms. 1.4 Recognizing the importance of the sector, the notable programmes taken up are key village schemes, intensive cattle development projects, crossbreeding projects through bilateral assistance, operation flood program and technology mission by establishing National Dairy Development Board (NDDB). |   | 2. MILK PROCUREMENT AND PROCESSING The organized dairy sector (both cooperatives and private) is presently handling only 10-12 percent of total milk production in the country. The target and achievements of......

Words: 6187 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Major Practice in Dairy Production and Milk Processing

...MAJOR PRACTICE IN DAIRY PRODUCTION AND MILK PROCESSING By CHRISTIAN ANDREW J. PERALTA INTRODUCTION Importance of the Major Practice The Philippine local dairy industry is considered as a "repacking and reprocessing" industry because of the limited supply of dairy products due to the less developed dairy industries in the Philippines. It is greatly dependent on imported milk as raw materials, leading to continuous importation from Australia, USA and New Zealand. Philippine’s dairy milk production remains at less than one percent of total dairy requirements despite the continuing government and industry efforts to support and aid the increase of dairy production. Dairy farming goes back for thousands of years and has great difference in management process compare to today’s dairy farming. It was originally done on a mixed farm unlike in modern dairy production in which has specific dairy farm. ________________________ Undergraduate Major Practice Outline in Dairy Production to be presented as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, major in Animal Science from Central Luzon State University, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija to be conducted in the Philippine Carabao Center, CLSU Dairy Farm under the supervision of Edgar A. Orden Dairy farming started around villages where most people don’t own cows due to the lack of fields for them to graze. Farmers take the opportunity to make extra money......

Words: 6802 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Dairy Products Milk

...largely production and supply driven: • the majority of milk production enterprises supply dairy manufacturing or processing cooperatives which have developed into large enterprises aimed at achieving the best overall returns from supplied milk; • major volumes of milk are converted into storable dairy products which are sold into available international markets; and • national milk production is highly seasonal to take advantage of low-cost production conditions (such as spring pasture growth). With the strong forces of globalisation, the industry value chain has in the past decade been highly exposed to demand factors and forces in export and domestic market segments. These have had a profound effect on the returns to the overall industry and the nature of competition through the chain. The most marked of these changes has been in the domestic consumer product sector. Since the early 1980s the industry progressively removed internal support and regulation of prices and supply, and focused on taking advantage of low-cost production conditions to become a major player in the world market for dairy commodities and dispose of larger volumes of product. The final phase of that deregulation – of pricing and supply of milk to the packaged milk sector which directly affected less than a fifth of national milk output – is a relatively recent event. Considerable adjustment is still occurring in parts of the production and processing sector today. P r i c e D e t e r m i n a t i o n......

Words: 7668 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Mother Dairy

...brands Mother Dairy (milk, milk products, curd, ice cream, butter, dairy whitener etc), Dhara (range of edible oils) and Safal (range of fresh fruits and vegetables, frozen vegetables, fruit juices). Mother Dairy – Delhi was set up in 1974 under the Operation Flood Programme. It is now a subsidiary company of a wholly owned company of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB). Mother Dairy markets & sells dairy products under the Mother Dairy brand (like Liquid Milk, Dahi, Ice creams, Dairy Whitener, Cheese and Butter), Dhara range of edible oils and the Safal range of fresh fruits & vegetables, frozen vegetables and fruit juices at a national level through its sales and distribution networks for marketing food items. Mother Dairy sources its entire requirement of liquid milk from dairy cooperatives. Similarly, Mother Dairy sources fruits and vegetables from farmers / growers associations. Mother Dairy also contributes to the cause of oilseeds grower cooperatives that manufacture/ pack the Dhara range of edible oils by undertaking to nationally market all Dhara products. It is Mother Dairy’s constant endeavor to (a) ensure that milk producers and farmers regularly and continually receive market prices by offering quality milk, milk products and other food products to consumers at competitive prices and; (b) uphold institutional structures that empower milk producers and farmers through processes that are equitable. At Mother Dairy, processing of milk is controlled by......

Words: 720 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Marketing

...BY GUJARAT MILKMARKETING FEDERATION LIMITED SUBMITTED TO BY ROHIT.B.PATHAK ROLL NO-11-E35 This report is submitted to the University / Institute in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the curriculumas prescribed by the University of Mumbai. Table of Contents TOPIC | PAGE NO | Executive Summary. | 6 | Industry Profile. | 7 | Company Profile. | 12 | Products. | 13 | Amul Pro Description. | 21 | Research Methodology. | 25 | Questionaire. | 30 | Comparison With Bournvita. | 31 | Findings. | 33 | Conclusion. | 34 | DECLARATION I hereby declare that all the work presented in the summer internship project report entitled “ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTDEVELOPMENT AND CUSTOMER FEEDBACKBY GUJARAT CO-OPERATIVE MILK MARKETING FEDERATION LIMITED. atVidylankar Institute of Technology , Wadala and AMUL is my authentic record of my own work carried out . Certificate of Internship This is to certify that MR ROHIT.B.PATHAK a student of vidyalankar institute of technology and pursuing two years full time MASTERS IN MANAGEMENT STUDIES (MMS), underwent two months of internship with us from may 2, 2012 to June 5, 2012. During the internship, MR ROHIT.B.PATHAK has successfully completed the project titled “analysis of product development and customer feedback. .” Under the guidance of MR.P.S BABRA, We wish MR ROHIT.B.PATHAK the very best for his career, and are thankful for the perfect service he provided to this company. Executive......

Words: 3430 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Milka Krem

...has launched a market venue for dairy farmers called "Milka Krem,"the venue will serve as market place for locally produced milk after being processed in the state-of the-art central milk collecting and processing facility in this city. PCC director, Dr. Caro Salces said that essentially, the Milka Krem is an infrastructure support for dairy farmers. It is an avenue to empower small farmers that are provided with an opportunity to have an access to the commercial market for bigger income. The Milka Krem carries the tagline “Fresh and Natural” which is anchored on products development through science-based practices, Salces said. The raw milk that is processed every day comes from healthy animals that are well-managed and taken cared off by small dairy farmers, he said. The PCC official said that these dairy animals are fed with naturally-grown forage and feeds that guarantee their sound diet essential for the production of fresh milk. Prior to processing and packaging, the freshly harvested milk is pasteurized to preserve the high level of health-promoting substances such as anti-cancer properties naturally inherent in buffalo milk, he said. Buffalo milk is high in milk solids and protein content making it very suitable for dairy product processing, he added. Dr. Salces said that Milka Krem’s flagship products are coffee concoctions that are all milk-based, "mozzarella di buffala cheese", "kesong puti", premium ice cream, yogurt, and "pastillas de leche." The Milka......

Words: 4293 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Japfa

...subsequently made strategic acquisitions of four companies in 1990-1991: PT Comfeed Indonesia (animal feed), PT Ometraco Satwafeed (animal feed), PT Indopell Raya (pelletizing) and PT Suri Tani Pemuka (shrimp feed). POULTRY: A second wave of acquisitions took place in 1992 when Japfa bought PT Multibreeder Adirama Indonesia (poultry breeding), PT Ciomas Adisatwa (poultry processing operation) and the shrimp farming and cold storage operations of Suri Tani Pemuka. The string of acquisitions transformed the Company into one of the largest and most integrated poultry / shrimp producers in the country. Poultry: Japfa’s Poultry Division is one of the most vertically integrated poultry operations in Indonesia. Its proven business strategy has become what is today a blueprint of success which the Company is using in diversifying into other food businesses and expanding into new markets overseas. The Poultry division is Japfa’s largest revenue contributor accounting for approximately 83% of annual net sales. It is involved in three principal stages of the production chain: feed production, DOC breeding and chicken processing. Industry Overview The domestic poultry industry continues to offer one of the brightest growth prospects in Indonesia. The country’s...

Words: 4277 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Kentucky Dairy Farms in Jeopardy

...due to the market price of milk (dairy.com). Some dairy farmers are barely breaking even, looking for extra ways to make money, or those that have no choice but to close down their operation. It is important that dairy farmers are paid a fair price for their milk to keep the industry alive by stabilizing the market price of milk and giving the farmers what they deserve for their production. It has been recorded that in 2011, Kentucky currently has 892 operating dairy’s while being down 58 less from 2010 and that our state produces just enough milk to feed the people of Kentucky (Community Farm Alliance, 2011). Prices paid to the dairy farmers are ridiculous but what is also ridiculous is the price the consumer pays for milk in the grocery. If the farmers are not getting a cut of that money who is? Processing plants are limiting the market by buying bottling plants and other processing plants to make less competition throughout the state. These processing plants then drive down the price of milk they pay to the farmers leaving them in a state of disarray. Expenses to run a farm also play a role in the success and failure of a dairy farm. These are all problems facing the future of dairy farms, and what they really need is support from government officials to help regulate the market price. The most significant problem facing dairy farmers is the market price of milk. The price mainly fluctuates because of the actions of major processing plants. They have......

Words: 1292 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Student

...Supply Chain: Nestle Milk From dairy processing and handling to dairy analysis, the dairy stock is subordinate to a highly supervised procedure. It all starts with the farmer handling their cattle leading up to the milk hauler. Who then takes the supply to a processing unit, where inspection and testing takes place. The product undergoes sanitation and packaging after meeting all rules and regulations required to be approved so that it may be released to its merchants. The final destination for the dairy supply are the retailers that have the product ready and available to purchase for the consumer. Manufacturing production feed and growing crops such as corn, alfalfa hay and soybeans to feed dairy cows begins the foundation for dairy making in cattle. Dairy cows are housed, fed and milked on dairy farms across the country which sets the start of milk production. Milk is then transported from farm to the processing company in insulated tanker trucks. During the processing phase, there are more than 1000 U.S. processing plants that turn milk into cheese, yogurt, ice cream, and other products. When it comes to packaging, the dairy processor usually handles all the packaging whether it be paperboard or plastic containers. After processing and packaging the supply, distribution companies deliver dairy products from the processor to retailers, schools, and other outlets in refrigerated trucks. When the milk finally reaches the shelves of its retailers, they’re made available......

Words: 290 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Eco 365

...Article Anaysis In this paper we will discuss patterns of milk consumption and analyze the basis of trends in consumption patterns. We are going to consider the utility derived from the product, will describe what has happened to change the demand for that product, we are going to describe what has happened to change the demand for milk and its market equilibrium prices and assuming that the supply remains thereof. Also we will describe what has happened to change the supply of milk and equilibrium prices assuming demand remains the same. Finally we discuss if product demand is elastic or inelastic. The dairy industry is the main source of agricultural income in Puerto Rico. During the fiscal year of 2011, they generated more than $235 million, representing 29.8% of the gross agricultural income of the island. The industry has three fresh milk processing plants, one operated by Tres Monjitas and Suiza Dairy, one in the metropolitan area and the other in Aguadilla ("Indulac Con La Mira En Europa Y Latinoamérica", 2013). These plants collect raw milk produced and marketed the pasteurized and homogenized in thousands of outlets across the island. The surplus milk is not processed by these three plants is used by the Dairy Industry of Puerto Rico, Inc. (INDULAC), which processes milk surplus UTH milk and other dairy products. The dairy industry is the main source of employment in agriculture and is estimated to generate around 25,000 jobs. From the October 23, 2011 has......

Words: 912 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Mr Asignment

...countries which are among big exporters today would have to withdraw the support and subsidy to their domestic milk products sector. Also India today is the lowest cost producer of per litre of milk in the world, at 27 cents, compared with the U.S' 63 cent. Also to take advantage of this lowest cost of milk production and increasing production in the country multinational companies are planning to expand their activities here. Some of these milk producers have already obtained quality standard certificates from the authorities. This will help them in marketing their products in foreign countries in processed form. The urban market for milk products is expected to grow at an accelerated pace of around 33% per annum to around Rs.83,500 crores by year 2010. This growth is going to come from the greater emphasis on the processed foods sector and also by increase in the conversion of milk into milk products. By 2010, the value of Indian dairy produce is expected to be Rs 10,00,000 million. Presently the market is valued at around Rs7,00,000mn. From chronic shortages of milk, India has emerged today as the largest producer of milk in the world crossing 97 million tonnes. It is 'The Oyster' of the global dairy industry. It offers opportunities galore to entrepreneurs worldwide, who wish to capitalize on one of the world's largest and fastest growing markets for milk and milk products. A bagful of 'pearls' awaits...

Words: 11200 - Pages: 45

Premium Essay

Om Hilmar Cheese

...1. Introduction Hilmar Cheese was founded in 1984 and has grown to be one of the world’s largest cheese manufacturers in the world. Together with their business unit, Hilmar Ingredients, they serve customers in over 50 countries. Hilmar started out producing just cheese, but because Hilmar Cheese is always looking for ways to improve their business they were able to build facilities to further process their milk. So in 1994 they built what is now known as the whey protein and lactose plants. Since then Hilmar has found use in 100% of the milk making sure they produce no waste. Although, Hilmar Cheese Company has been expanding their business at their Hilmar facility for many years it wasn’t until 2007 that Hilmar finally opened up a second manufacturing facility in Dehart, Texas. Now less than a decade later they are opening their third manufacturing site, however, this one will only produce Skim and Whole milk powder, no cheese. Hilmar Cheese Company “specializes in the production of natural cheeses utilized by private labels and national brands, retail, and foodservice companies across America” (Hilmarcheese.com). Their natural cheeses consist of Cheddar, Monterey Jack and Colby. However, Hilmar does manufacture other cheeses such as Gouda, Monster, and Mozzarella. Additionally, Hilmar Ingredients manufactures whey protein concentrates, whey protein hydrolysates, whey protein isolates, and three grades of edible lactose: edible, refined, and ultra-refined. The......

Words: 3052 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

School Work Only

...What is Raw milk ? Raw milk, also known as unpasteurized milk, is milk that has not been pasteurized. Milk is use for important uses , It is an infant food, Is a food for adults, Milk has a source of special food products and derivatives, such as koumiss cream butter and cheese , Also is an djuretic ,for its soothing effect on diseased mucous membranes of the alimentary canal , to loosen cough{when given hot} , As a prophylactic against lead poisoning ,This also use as a vechicle for administration of medicines , for rectal injection. Milk is also use in different recipes ice cream ,Egg custard pudding , cheese ,sour cream ,yogurt, butter, whip cream Advantages of raw milk : Raw milk has a total of eight types of nutrients, which is a balanced substance. This type of nutrient-rich milk is rich in protein and iron and calcium absorption and assimilation. Raw milk is easy to digest, stimulates the immune system, alleviate medical conditions, such as asthma, autism and digestive disorders. The raw milk also include anti-bacterial and anti-microbial properties, and to reduce the pH level, and to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Successfully kill pathogens and bacteria, which in turn prevents the risk of food-borne diseases. Disadvantages of raw milk :  Raw milk producer in the synthesis of vitamin D, which is a toxic nature, and can have an adverse effect on the body. The raw milk is known to......

Words: 339 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Dairy in Pakistan

...DAIRY REPORTS DAIRY DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN DAIRY REPORTS DAIRY DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN Umm e Zia, T. Mahmood and M.R. Ali FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Rome, 2011 Author Umm e Zia is the Managing Director of Cynosure Consultants in Islamabad. She has supported international donors and governments in undertaking rural development and agriculture value chain projects in over ten countries. T. Mahmood is a dairy consultant based in Lahore, Pakistan. He also serves as a visiting faculty member at the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. Muhammad Raza Ali is Senior Research Associate at Cynosure Consultants. Recommended Citation FAO. 2011. Dairy development in Pakistan, by Umm e Zia, T. Mahmood and M.R. Ali. Rome. Keywords Production systems, Dairy value chain, Dairy institutions, Product safety, Livelihoods, Employment The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that......

Words: 17498 - Pages: 70

Premium Essay

Milma

...MILMA – Kozhikode Dairy Operations Management – An Analysis Group 3 – Section C Aviraj (14/140) Ayushi Agarwal (14/141) Dr. Kripalsinh Rana (14/149) Sneha Maheshwary (14/179) Soumya Barik (14/180) Soumya Bhatia (14/181) Sudhansu Sekhar Sahu (14/182) Table of Contents Acknowledgement 3 Executive Summary 4 Introduction to MILMA 5 Production/Processing Facilities 6 Kozhikode Dairy – Facts & Figures 7 Operations – Strategy & Mission 7 Support Marketing Function 8 Quality Control 8 Outsourcing 8 Key Stakeholders/Actors 9 Plant Layout & Design 10 Milk Processing 11 1. Collection 11 2. Platform Tests 11 3. Receiving 12 4. Temporary Storage 12 5. Pasteurization 12 6. Storage 13 7. Packaging 13 8. Dispatch 13 Curd Manufacturing 14 Ice-Cream Making 14 Sambharam Making 14 Production Planning 15 Handling Peak Demand 15 Operating with Sluggish Demand 15 Concerns & Issues 16 Recent Initiatives 17 Key Learning & Recommendations 17 References 18 Appendix 19 Acknowledgement “Interdependence is a higher value than Independence” One of the most pleasant parts of writing a report is the opportunity to thank those who have contributed to it. This project report is a synergistic product of many minds. We are grateful to Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode for providing us an opportunity to prepare a project report under the operations management course of PGDM programme. First......

Words: 4568 - Pages: 19