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Millennium Development Goals

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Utangulizi
Toleo la pili la Darubini ya Dira ya Maendeleo ya Taifa 2025 (au Dira 2025), ni mwendelezo wa kuelezea utekelezaji wa nguzo ya kwanza ya Dira 2025 kupitia mipango na mikakati iliyoandaliwa ili kuleta maendeleo nchini. Mipango na mikakati hiyo, ni pamoja na Mpango wa Maboresho ya Utumishi wa Umma, Mpango wa Kurasmisha Rasilimali na Biashara za Wanyonge Tanzania (MKURABITA), Malengo ya Maendeleo ya Millenia, Mkakati wa
Kukuza Uchumi na Kupunguza Umaskini (MKUKUTA), Mpango Elekezi wa Maendeleo ya Taifa wa Miaka 15, Mpango wa Maendeleo ya Taifa wa Miaka Mitano na Mkakati wa
Kupata Matokeo Makubwa Sasa (Big Results Now - BRN) ambao pia unaitwa “Tekeleza
Sasa kwa Matokeo Makubwa”. Dira 2025 imeundwa na nguzo kuu tano ambazo ni: (i)
Kuboresha hali ya maisha ya Watanzania (ii) Kuwepo kwa mazingira ya amani,usalama na umoja (iii) Kujenga utawala bora (iv) Kuwepo jamii iliyoelimika vyema na inayojifunza, na
(v) Kujenga uchumi imara unaoweza kukabiliana na ushindani kutoka nchi nyingine. Toleo hili litaelezea kwa kina ni kwa kiasi gani Serikali ya Tanzania imefanikisha utekelezaji wa nguzo ya kwanza ya Dira 2025, ambayo ni kuboresha hali ya maisha ya Watanzania.
Nguzo ya kwanza ya Dira 2025 iliweka malengo yafuatayo ifikapo mwaka 2025: (i) Usalama wa chakula (ii) Kutoa elimu ya msingi kwa watoto wote (iii) Kuwepo usawa wa kijinsia kwenye masuala la kijamii, kiuchumi na kisiasa (iv) Upatikanaji wa huduma bora za afya kwa wananchi wote (v) Utolewaji wa huduma bora za afya ya uzazi kwa rika mbalimbali
(vi) Kupunguza vifo vya watoto wachanga na vifo vya wanawakevitokanavyo na uzazi (vii)
Upatikanaji wa maji safi na salama (viii) Ongezeko la wastani wa umri wa kuishi kufikia kiwango cha nchi za kipato cha kati, na (ix) Kuondokana na umaskini uliokithiri.

Utekelezaji wa nguzo ya kwanza ya
Dira 2025

pamoja na mradi wa umwagiliaji katika Manispaa ya Singida ulioanza kutekelezwa mwaka 2010 na kumalizika mwaka
2012, ambapo Serikali kuu, kupitia Mfuko wa
Maendeleo ya Umwagiliaji
Wilaya, ilitumia shilingi milioni 750 kugharamia mradi wa umwangiliaji kwa njia ya matone katika kijiji cha Kisasida. Vilevile, katika kipindi cha mwaka 2005 hadi 2009, Serikali ilikamilisha ujenzi wa mabwawa ya Ulyanyama (Sikonge), Kisangwa
(Bunda), Nyamilangano (Kahama), na Masware (Babati).
Tathmini iliyofanywa na Wizara ya Kilimo Chakula na Ushirika, mwezi Januari 2013, imeonyesha kuwa mabwawa ya umwagiliaji yamewezesha ongezeko la uzalishaji wa mazao. Uzalishaji wa mazao ya chakula kwa ujumla kwa mwaka 2011/12 ulifikia tani milioni 13.34 zikiwemo tani milioni 7.44 za nafaka na tani milioni 5.90 za mazao yasiyo ya nafaka. Uzalishaji huo ukilinganishwa na mahitaji ya chakula ya tani milioni 11.97 kwa mwaka 2012/2013 ungeweza kutosheleza mahitaji ya chakula kwa asilimia 112. Ongezeko la uzalishaji wa mazao ya chakula umeenda sambamba na ujenzi wa maghala ya kuhifadhi chakula ili kuongeza uwezo wa kuhifadhi mazao. Wakala wa Taifa wa Hifadhi ya Chakula ame jenga ghala lenye ukubwa wa kuhifadhi tani 5,000 za chakula katika wilaya ya Songea.
Vilevile, maandalizi yanafanyika ili kujenga ghala lingine la kuhifadhi tani 5,000 katika Wilaya ya Mbozi.

Sehemu hii itaelezea mafanikio pamoja na changamoto zinazoikabili Serikali katika kufanikisha utekelezaji wa nguzo ya kwanza ya Dira 2025.

Pamoja na juhudi zinazofanyika kuongeza uzalishaji wa chakula, moja ya changamoto kubwa inayoikabili sekta ya kilimo ni gharama kubwa zinazotozwa na magari katika usafirishaji wa chakula. Hali hii inasababisha ongezeko la bei za vyakula kwa kiasi kikubwa, na hivyo kupunguza uwezo wa wananchi wengi kumudu bei hizo.

Kuhakikisha uwepo wa usalama wa chakula

Kutoa elimu ya msingi kwa watoto wote

Usalama wa chakula inamaanisha upatikanaji wa chakula cha kutosha chenye ubora kwa bei ambazo wananchi wote wanaweza kumudu kukipata. Upatikanaji wa chakula cha kutosha unategemea kwa kiasi kikubwa ongezeko la uzalishaji katika sekta ya kilimo, hususan mazao ya nafaka, ambayo upatikanaji wake hupunguza gharama za maisha kwenye chakula. Utekelezaji wa Dira 2025, umeonyesha kwamba changamoto kuu inayoikabili sekta ya kilimo ni kuweza kuongeza uzalishaji wa mazao ya chakula, ili kutosheleza mahitaji ya chakula nchini na kupata ziada ya kuuza nje ya nchi, ili kuongeza mapato ya wakulima na ya nchi kwa ujumla. Kwa kiasi kikubwa, hali hiyo imetokana na mabadiliko ya tabia nchi, hususan miaka ya hivi karibuni, ambayo imesababisha kupungua kwa mvua na hivyo kukwaza kilimo kinachotegemea mvua.

Serikali imefanya juhudi kubwa kuhakikisha watoto waliofikisha umri wa kuanza shule wanapata elimu ya msingi kama ilivyoainishwa kwenye Dira 2025. Katika kutekeleza lengo hilo, Mpango wa Maendeleo ya Elimu ya Msingi (MMEM) uliandaliwa mnamo mwaka
2000, ambao uliondoa ada katika shule za msingi za Serikali ili kuwawezesha hata watoto wanaotoka katika familia zenye kipato duni nao waweze kupata elimu. Kutokana na hatua hiyo, uandikishwaji wa watoto katika shule za msingi umeongezeka kutoka asilimia 59 mwaka 2000, hadi kufikia asilimia 95.4 mwaka 2010.

Katika kukabiliana na changamoto hizo, Serikali ya Tanzania imekuwa ikigharamia miradi mbalimbali ya kuendeleza kilimo cha umwagiliaji nchini. Mojawapo ya miradi hiyo ni

Ili kuhamasisha watoto kwenda shuleni, hasa vijijini, Wizara ya Elimu na Mafunzo ya
Ufundi, kwa kushirikiana na Shirika la Chakula Duniani (World Food Programme – WFP), ilianzisha mpango wa kitaifa wa lishe shuleni, kwani njaa ilionekana kuwa kikwazo kikubwa cha wanafunzi kuhudhuria shuleni, na hivyo kusababisha matokeo mabaya katika mitihani yao. Mpango huo, ulianza kwa majaribio mwaka 2000, ukihusisha wilaya 11 zilizopo katika mikoa ya Dodoma, Arusha na Singida. Wilaya zilizojumuishwa katika mpango huo

ni Dodoma vijijini, Mpwapwa, Kondoa, Ngorongoro, Monduli, Simanjiro, Singida Vijijini,
Manyoni na Iramba. Katika wilaya hizo, jumla ya wanafunzi 72,120 wa shule 210 za kutwa walipatiwa uji na chakula cha mchana shuleni. Mpango wa lishe shuleni ulipanuka zaidi mwaka 2010 na kufikia mikoa mitano ambapo Shinyanga na Manyara iliongezeka, na hivyo wilaya nazo kuongezeka kufikia 16. Wilaya zilizoongezeka katika mpango huu ni Shinyanga
Vijijini, Meatu, Kishapu, Longido na Karatu. Aidha, idadi ya shule zilizohusika katika mpango huu ziliongezeka kutoka 210 zilizokuwemo hapo awali na kufikia 1,153.
“Mpango wa Lishe Shuleni” umeonekana kuongeza kiwango cha taaluma, kwa kuwafanya wanafunzi wakae shuleni hadi kuhitimu darasa la saba, kuongeza uandikishaji, hasa katika maeneo ya wafugaji na maeneo ya ukame, kupunguza mdondoko na kuimarisha mahudhurio. Vilevile, usikivu umeongezeka na afya za wanafunzi zimekuwa bora zaidi.
Aidha, jamii pia imejiongezea kipato kutokana na kuuza mazao yao ya chakula kwa Shirika la Chakula Duniani kwa ajili ya kutumika shuleni.
Kuwepo kwa usawa wa kijinsia
Wanawake wana mchango mkubwa katika kuleta maendeleo ya nchi, japokuwa kwa miaka ya nyuma ushiriki wa wanawake ulikuwa mdogo. Lengo la kwanza la Dira 2025 linasisitiza uwepo wa fursa sawa kwa wanawake na wanaume na pia kutambua mahitaji maalum ya jinsia katika jamii.
Dhana ya usawa wa kijinsia humaanisha haki na fursa za maendeleo kwa watu wote bila kujali jinsi, umri au tabaka. Usawa katika haki na fursa za maendeleo hugusa michakato na nyanja zote za maendeleo, yaani kisiasa, kijamii, kisheria na kiuchumi. Ili kufikia lengo la usawa wakijinsia, Serikali, kwa kushirikiana na mashirika binafsi, imeendelea kutoa elimu kupitia vyombo vya habari, ili kuwaelimisha wananchi kuondokana na unyanyasaji wa kijinsia. Mwitikio wa wananchi umeonyesha mwelekeo mzuri. Wazazi wengi sasa wametambua umuhimu wa kumpa elimu mtoto wa kike kama ilivyo kwa mtoto wa kiume. Takwimu kutoka Wizara ya Elimu na Mafunzo ya Ufundi zinaonyesha ongezeko la udahili wa wanawake vyuoni hadi kufikia asilimia 36.4 ya wanafunzi wote wa vyuo mwaka
2012 ikilinganishwa na asilimia 34.2 mwaka 2009. Vilevile, katika juhudi za kuhakikisha uwepo wa usawa wa kijinsia, Serikali iliruhusu kuundwa kwa vyama, mashirika, asasi na taasisi mbalimbali zinazojishughulisha na matatizo ya kijamii na kiuchumi yanayowakumba wanawake. Mtandao wa Jinsia Tanzania (TGNP) ni moja ya asasi zinazopambana na unyanyasaji wa kijinsia, kwa kuhamasisha wanawake na kuwapatia ushauri wa kijinsia.
Ingawa zimetungwa sheria nyingi zinazolinda haki za wanawake, bado kuna changamoto nyingi zinazowakabili wanawake. Matukio ya unyanyasaji, kama vile ubakaji, udhalilishaji wa kijinsia, ukatili majumbani na ukeketaji, bado unaendelea katika baadhi ya maeneo nchini. Hivyo juhudi zaidi zinahitajika kukabiliana na matukio hayo, ili kuweza kufikia lengo lililowekwa la kuwepo usawa wa kijinsia.
Huduma bora za afya
Ili wananchi waweze kufanya kazi kwa ufanisi wanahitaji kuwa na afya bora. Kwa kutambua umuhimu wa afya bora katika kuleta maendeleo ya nchi, Dira 2025 inasisitiza upatikanaji wa huduma bora za afya kwa wananchi wote, huduma bora za afya ya uzazi na kupunguza

Upatikanaji wa maji safi na salama
Dira 2025 inalenga kuwapatia huduma ya maji ya kutosha wananchi waishio vijijini na mijini ifikapo mwaka 2025, ambapo utekelezaji wake umegawanywa katika vipindi vya muda wa kati na muda mfupi. Katika muda wa kati, Serikali imeridhia Malengo ya Kimataifa ya Milenia ambayo kwa sekta ya maji ni kupunguza kwa asilimia 50 idadi ya watu wasio na huduma ya maji safi na salama na huduma ya usafi wa mazingira na kuweka mfumo shirikishi wa usimamizi wa rasilimali za maji ifikapo mwaka 2015. Serikali imeanzisha miradi ya maji itakayowawezesha wananchi katika maeneo mbalimbali nchini kupata huduma ya maji safi na salama. Kati ya miradi iliyokamilika,ni mradi wa maji Kirua-Kahe katika
Wilaya ya Moshi Vijijini, ulioanza kutekelezwa mwezi
Aprili 2007, na kukamilika mwezi Desemba, 2012.
Mradi huo unawahudumia

DARUBINI YA DIRA YA
MAENDELEO YA TAIFA
2025

Kuondokana na umaskini uliokithiri
Dira ya Maendeleo ya Taifa imeazimia kuwa ifikapo mwaka 2025 Tanzania iwe na hadhi ya nchi zenye kipato cha kati na kuondokana na umaskini uliokithiri. Ili kutokomeza umaskini uliokithiri, wananchi kwa kushirikiana na Serikali, hawana budi kutumia nguvu kazi na rasilimali za nchi ili kujipatia kipato. Tanzania ina fursa nyingi za kiuchumi kwenye maliasili, kama vile misitu, mbuga za wanyama, gesi asilia na madini, ambazo zikitumiwa vizuri zina uwezo wa kuongeza Pato la Taifa kwa kiasi kikubwa na hivyo kutokomeza umaskini uliokithiri. Mkakati wa Kukuza Uchumi na Kuondoa Umaskini (MKUKUTA) pamoja na
Malengo ya Millenia yanahusiana moja kwa moja na jitihada za kupunguza umaskini na kufikia malengo ya Dira 2025. Utekelezaji wa MKUKUTA umekuwa ukifanyika kupitia mipango ya maendeleo katika sekta za uzalishaji na utoaji huduma kwa wananchi.
Kwa kuzingatia kuwa sekta ya kilimo ndio inayoajiri Watanzania wengi zaidi, Serikali imeongeza juhudi za kuboresha sekta ya kilimo kwa kutoa ruzuku za pembejeo na kuhamasisha kilimo cha kisasa ili wakulima waweze kuzalisha kwa tija na hivyo kuongeza vipato vyao vitakavyowawezesha kuondokana na umaskini uliokithiri.Taarifa za Ofisi ya Taifa ya Takwimu, zinaonyesha kuwa mwaka 2000/2001 asilimia 35.7 ya Watanzania hawakuwa na uwezo wa kumudu mahitaji ya muhimu ya kuishi, kama vile chakula cha kutosha, malazi, mavazi na huduma za afya. Mwaka 2007, idadi hiyo ilipungua hadi kufikia asilimia 33.6. Hii inadhihirisha kuwa bado kuna changamoto kubwa ya kuondokana na umaskini na hivyo juhudi zaidi zinahitajika.

Hitimisho
Toleo hili limeelezea kwa ufupi mafanikio na changamoto katika utekelezaji wa nguzo ya kwanza kwenye Dira 2025 kwa kuangalia viashiria vya maendeleo kitaifa na kutumia mifano ya maeneo ya mikoa mbalimbali nchini. Toleo litakalofuata litachambua utekelezaji wa Dira kwa kugawanya mikoa katika kanda mbalimbali na kulinganisha yale yaliyofanyika tangu Dira 2025 ilipoanzishwa hadi sasa.

Economic and Social Research Foundation
(ESRF)
P.O. Box 31226, Dar es Salaam,Tanzania.
Phone: (+255) 754 780 133, (+255) 777 790 133,
(+255) 782 780 133 • Fax: (+255 22) 2760062
E-mail: esrf@esrf.or.tz • Website: www.esrf.or.tz

P I L I

Taarifa kutoka Wizara ya Afya zinaonyesha kuwa huduma za afya zimeboreshwa, na mabadiliko hayo yanadhihirika kutokana na kupungua kwa vifo vya watoto walio na umri wa chini ya miaka mitano, kutoka vifo vya watoto 112 kati ya 1,000 waliozaliwa hai mwaka
2000, hadi kufikia vifo vya watoto 81 kati ya watoto1,000 waliozaliwa hai mwaka 2010.
Mafanikio hayo yanatokana na juhudi za Serikali katika kutoa bure huduma ya kliniki kwa watoto walio chini ya umri wa miaka mitano, kupunguza bei ya dawa ya mseto ya kutibu malaria ambapo inauzwa kwa bei ya shilingi 1000, ili wananchi waweze kumudu bei hiyo.
Vilevile,Serikali imeendeleza kampeni ya kudhibiti maambukizi ya ugonjwa wa malaria, ambapo mwaka 2011 vyandarua milioni 17.6 vilisambazwa katika mikoa yote ya Tanzania
Bara. Huduma bora za afya huwezesha pia ongezeko la wastani wa umri wa kuishi.
Kutokana na juhudi hizo zinazofanyika kupitia utekelezaji wa Mpango wa Maendeleo wa
Afya ya Msingi (2007-2017), wastani wa umri wa kuishi umeongezeka kutoka miaka 50 mwaka 2000 hadi miaka 57 mwaka 2010. Hata hivyo, juhudi zaidi zinahitajika ili kufikisha huduma za afya karibu zaidi na wananchi katika maeneo ya vijijini ili wananchi wapate huduma za afya kwa urahisi zaidi, bila kuhitajika kusafiri umbali mrefu.

Vilevile, utekelezaji wa Mpango wa dharura wa kuboresha upatikanaji wa huduma ya maji katika jiji la Dar es Salaam unaendelea, ambapo hadi kufikia mwezi Machi 2013,
DAWASA imechimba jumla ya visima virefu 33 katika manispaa za Ilala, Kinondoni na
Temeke. Harakati zinazofanyika kufikia lengo hili la Dira 2025, zinaongozwa na Mpango wa Maendeleo wa Sekta ya Maji, ambao unatekelezwa kwa kuzingatia Sera ya Taifa ya Maji na Mkakati wa Taifa wa Maendeleo ya Sekta ya Maji.

l a

Katika harakati za kupambana na maambukizi ya virusi vya UKIMWI, kampeni mbalimbali za kuhamasisha wananchi kupima afya zao zimekuwa zikifanywa na Serikali ya Tanzania.
Mnamo mwezi Julai 2007 kampeni rasmi ya kupima afya ilizinduliwa na Rais katika mkutano wa hadhara Mnazi Mmmoja, Dar es Salaam na kuonyesha mafanikio makubwa, ambapo hadi sasa Watanzania milioni 18 wamepima afya zao na kiasi cha watu 653,000 wanatumia dawa za kupunguza makali ya UKIMWI (ARV).

zaidi ya wakazi 110,000 katika vijiji 32.

To l e o

vifo vya watoto wachanga pamoja na vifo vya wanawake vitokanavyo na uzazi. Katika sekta ya afya, programu na miradi inayotekelezwa kulingana na malengo ya Dira 2025 ni pamoja na Mpango wa usimamizi wa sekta ya Afya; Mpango wa Taifa wa Kudhibiti
UKIMWI; Programu ya kupunguza vifo vya mama wajawazito; ujenzi na ukarabati vituo vya kutolea huduma za afya, ikiwa ni pamoja na Hospitali ya Taifa ya Muhimbili, Hospitali ya magonjwa ya Saratani ya Ocean Road.

Utekelezeji wa Nguzo ya
Kwanza:
Kuboresha Hali ya Maisha ya Watanzania

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