Free Essay


In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By saurabhk16
Words 3738
Pages 15
An Introduction to the Global Trade Item Number® (GTIN®)


An Introduction to the

Global Trade Item Number® (GTIN®)
Executive Summary ..............................................................................................1 Key Benefits of the GTIN ......................................................................................2 Why is the GTIN Useful? ......................................................................................2 Definitions .............................................................................................................3 Assignment of GTINs to Packaging Levels...........................................................7 Common GTIN Mistakes Explained ......................................................................8 Examples of GTIN Use .......................................................................................10 Frequently Asked Questions ...............................................................................11 Resources...........................................................................................................13

Executive Summary
The Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) is the foundation of the GS1 System (formerly the EAN.UCC System) for uniquely identifying trade items, which includes both products and services that are sold, delivered, and invoiced at any point in the supply chain. GTINs provide unique identification worldwide. The GTIN is encountered most frequently at point of sale and on cases and pallets of products in a distribution/warehouse environment. GTINs can be encoded into various types of GS1 bar codes and Electronic Product Codes™ (EPC) which are programmed into Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. The GTIN is a required component of the Global Data Synchronization Network™ (GDSN™) and various types of e-commerce transactions. They are most commonly used on purchase orders, and delivery and payment documents. Companies can be confident that a GTIN, when used correctly, will uniquely identify their products as they move through the global supply chain to the ultimate end user. This global identification system of GS1 ensures that the GTIN placed in a bar code or EPC is the same information contained in the corresponding electronic documents processed between trading partners. GS1 US™ has developed the Data Driver® to help companies with the assignment and management of GTINs. Data Driver is a key benefit of GS1 US Partner Connections and is presently used by companies of all sizes and in various industries to manage more than a hundred thousand GTINs. Companies new to GTINs or those who are in the process of migrating to GTINs are urged to use Data Driver, which ensures the accuracy of GTIN assignments as well as, quality of bar code specifications. Find out more about Data Driver and GS1 US Partner Connections at or contact GS1 US for more information at

Page 1
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

Key Benefits of the GTIN
• • • • • • Facilitates the global flow of trade items (products and services) and associated information used in electronic commerce Uniquely identifies trade items at all levels of packaging (item, case, and pallet) Allows accurate machine reading of trade items when placed in bar codes and EPCs which are programmed into RFID tags Delivers trade item data in a consistent format and structure Simplifies supply chain management Employs the globally accepted GS1 System whose language is standardized, understood and used by multiple industries

Why is the GTIN Useful?
Uniqueness: The GTIN identifies an item uniquely. The rules for assigning GTINs ensure that every variation of an item (product or service) is allocated a single reference number that is globally unique. Non-significance: The GTIN numbering structure does not contain any meaningful information in itself. A GTIN is a simple pointer to database information that can be directly used in any company and in any country. Multi-sector: GTINs are unique across all business sectors. This means that a healthcare product, a grocery product, or an apparel product are all identified in a compatible manner. International: GTINs are unique worldwide. A GTIN can be assigned anywhere in the world and can be used anywhere in the world. Security: Security of GTINs are provided through a combination of database look-up and the fixed length, numeric format that includes a standard Check Digit. Data Integrity: The Check Digit ensures the integrity of data passing through the system. Source Numbering: The GTIN is assigned by the brand owner of the product. Once assigned, all trading partners and internal users can use the GTIN. The same GTIN can be used to identify a series of identical items. Automatic Data Capture: One of the key benefits of the GTIN is that it can be encoded in many automatic data capture technologies (such as a bar code or EPC used in RFID tags). Machine reading allows the information flow to be linked to the physical flow of trade items through the supply chain.

Page 2
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

The GTIN is the unique GS1 System Identification Number used for trade items (products and services). The term trade item refers to any product or service upon which there is a need to retrieve pre-defined information; this product or service may be priced, ordered, or invoiced at any point in the supply chain. This includes individual items as well as all of their different packaging configurations. GTINs are 8 digits, 12 digits, 13 digits, or 14 digits in length. It is recommended that a GTIN be represented in software applications as 14 digits by right justifying and zero filling left, as appropriate. There are four GTINs that can be represented in a bar code and each provides unique numbers when right justified and used in a 14-digit database field: • GTIN- 8 (used in EAN-8 bar codes) • • • Seven digits containing a GS1-8 Prefix and Item Reference One digit representing the Check Digit

GTIN-12 (used in UPC-A and UPC-E bar codes) • • Eleven digits containing a U.P.C. Company Prefix and the Item Reference assigned by your company One digit representing the Check Digit

GTIN-13 (used in EAN-13 bar codes) • • Twelve digits containing a GS1 Company Prefix and the Item Reference assigned by your company One digit representing the Check Digit

GTIN-14 (used in ITF-14, GS1-128 (formerly UCC/EAN-128), Reduced Space Symbols, and Data Matrix bar codes, plus EPCs) • • • One digit representing the Indicator digit to indicate packaging level Twelve digits the GS1 Company Prefix and the Item Reference assigned by your company One digit representing the Check Digit

GS1 Company Prefix – The globally unique number assigned to a company by GS1 US™ or another GS1 Member Organization. GS1 Company Prefixes are assigned to companies in varying lengths. Some GS1 US™ BarCodes and eCom™ members may have a membership certificate that shows only a U.P.C. Company Prefix (formerly a UCC Company Prefix). A U.P.C. Company Prefix is converted to a GS1 Company Prefix by adding a zero to the front of the U.P.C.
Page 3
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

Company Prefix. The following table illustrates the conversion of a U.P.C. Company Prefix to a GS1 Company Prefix. U.P.C. Company Prefix 801234 8412340 81123400 Converted to GS1 Company Prefix 0801234 08412340 081123400

Note: The GTIN-12 requires the use of the U.P.C. Company Prefix, not the GS1 Company Prefix. Item Reference – The number assigned by the holder of the GS1 Company Prefix to uniquely identify a trade item within the company. The Item Reference varies in length as a function of the Company Prefix length. Check Digit – A calculated one-digit number used to ensure data integrity. To understand how this digit is calculated; refer to

Global Trade Item Number®
GTIN data structures • Globally unique 8, 12, 13, and 14-digit numbers to identify trade items (products or services) GTIN-14 GTIN-13 GTIN-12 (U.P.C.) GTIN-8

Page 4
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

GTINs in a GTIN Compliant database
1 2 GTIN-12 GTIN-13 GTIN-8 GTIN-14 0 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14


0 X X X X X X X X X X X X C 0 0 0 0 0 0 X X X X X X X C


As previously stated, a GTIN may be encoded in EAN/UPC, ITF-14, GS1-128, Reduced Space Symbology, and Data Matrix bar codes, plus Electronic Product Codes. The appropriate GTIN and bar code or EPC combination is determined by many factors, such as the type of product, point of sale vs. distribution, and printing material used for the product packaging. The following table provides examples of unique product identification at various levels and using various bar codes. Descrip. Product A Product A Product B Product B Product B Product B Product B Product B Item 1 Unit 96 Units 1 Unit 6 Pack 12 Pack 2x12 Pack 4x12 Pack 8x12 Pack Level Consumer Case Consumer Consumer Consumer Case Case Case Bar Code UPC-A ITF-14 UPC-A UPC-A UPC-A GS1-128 GS1-128 ITF-14 Encoded GTIN 614141000012 00614141000029 614141000777 614141000883 614141000999 10614141000996 30614141000990 50614141000994 GTIN in database 00614141000012 00614141000029 00614141000777 00614141000883 00614141000999 10614141000996 30614141000990 50614141000994

Page 5
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

The following illustrates the use of a GTIN in UPC-A and EAN-13 bar codes:


14141 00044


9 401234 567894 >

UPC-A symbol GTIN-12 structure

EAN-13 symbol GTIN-13 structure

The following illustrates a GTIN in a GS1-128 bar code:

( 01) 90614141000415 ( 3202) 000712
Note: • When GS1-128 symbology is used to encode a GTIN, the Application Identifier of (01) is required and precedes the GTIN • Ability to string together (concatenate) multiple fields (Here, the GTIN plus net weight in pounds)

The following illustrates a GTIN in an ITF-14 bar code:






Note: • ITF-14 = The GS1 system’s only use of Interleaved 2 of 5. It is only used to encode the GTIN • Any of the GTIN data structures may be used, as long as they are expressed as a 14-digits

Page 6
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

Assignment of GTINs to Packaging Levels
The following illustrates the assignment of GTINs at various item and package levels; note that uniqueness can be achieved through the use of different Indicator digits or different Item References at the higher levels of packaging.

Item Reference for higher levels of packaging

2880 widgets
144 widgets
12 widgets 1 widget

0 0614141 47296 3 0 0614141 31859 9 0 0614141 72690 5 0 0614141 10923 4

Indicator digit (always zero)

Unrelated Item References

Indicator digit for higher levels of packaging

2880 widgets
144 widgets
12 widgets 1 widget

7 0614141 12345 1 5 0614141 12345 7 2 0614141 12345 6 0 0614141 12345 2

Indicator digit
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved.

Same Item Reference (Common base number)
Page 7
December 2006

Combination of Indicator digit and Item Reference for higher levels of packaging

2880 widgets
144 widgets
12 widgets 1 widget

4 1234567 88888 8 2 1234567 88888 4 0 1234567 88888 0 0 1234567 10924 4

Common GTIN Mistakes Explained
GTINs incorrectly assigned to products cause invoice errors and time to market delays. The following examples show the most common mistakes and explain how these mistakes can be avoided.

Mistake #1: Retail Unit and Case have the same GTIN
Retail Unit Product A 18 oz. Case 12 x Product A 18 oz. Incorrect
GTIN-12 in UPC-A symbol: 6 14141 45324 5 GTIN-14 in ITF-14 symbol: 0 06 14141 45324 5

A unique GTIN is required for the retail unit and the case. In this example the GTIN of both is: 0 0614141 45324 5. The GTIN must differentiate between the two. The symbology does not differentiate. A valid GTIN for the case would be 1 06 14141 45324 2.

Page 8
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

Mistake #2a: Indicator digit used without a hierarchy
Retail Unit Product H 8 oz. Case 12 x Product H 8 oz. Incorrect
GTIN-12 in UPC-A symbol: 6 14141 00324 2 GTIN-14 in ITF-14 symbol: 1 06 14141 45000 5

The Indicator digit, in this example the first “1” in the GTIN-14, when 1 thru 8 indicates a packaging hierarchy. Thus, the GTIN-14 should be either: 1) 1 06 14141 00324 9 creating the packaging hierarchy of the retail unit or 2) 0 06 14141 45000 8 making the Indicator digit “0” to eliminate the packaging hierarchy.

Mistake #2b: Indicator digit used without a hierarchy
A product without a lower level of packaging, e.g. a 5 gallon pail of chocolate chip cookie dough

GTIN-14 in ITF-14 symbol: 1 06 14141 77777 5

Because there is no packaging hierarchy, the GTIN-14 must have an Indicator digit of “0” and a valid GTIN would be 0 06 14141 77777 8.

Page 9
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

Mistake #3: A wrong GTIN for a mixed case
An orderable mixed case box contains: 12 x Product C: Retail Unit (6 14141 77777 8) 12 x Product D: Retail Unit (6 14141 88888 7)

GTIN-14 in ITF-14 symbol: 1 06 14141 77777 5


Because there is more than one product in the case the Indicator digit may not be 1 thru 8 to indicate a packaging hierarchy. Thus, the GTIN-14 must have an Indicator digit of “0” and a new Item Reference – a valid GTIN would be 0 06 14141 00444 7.

Mistake #4: The same trade item has two different GTINs
Case 12 x Product A 18 oz. Retail unit marked with
GTIN-12 in UPC-A symbol: 6 14141 45324 5 GTIN-12 in UPC-A symbol: 6 14141 76890 5


GTIN-14 in ITF-14 symbol: 1 06 14141 45324 2

A single unique GTIN is required for a trade item – not two: 1 0614141 45324 2 and 0 0614141 76890 5. There should only be one symbol per standard. If unavoidable based on trading partner requirements, the next best action is to assign the GTIN in the ITF-14 the same GTIN-12 in the UPC-A symbol 0 0614141 76890 5

Examples of GTIN Use
In October, 2001 AT Kearney was engaged by the Grocery Marketing Association (GMA) and the Food Marketing Institute (FMI) to evaluate and provide recommendations for e-commerce collaboration. Recommendations of this study included the adoption of an industry-wide, standardized numbering
Page 10
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

system, providing benefits and savings across the supply chain such as out of stocks, cost of reconciling invoice errors, receiving times, and speed to market. More significant, but more difficult to capture, were the benefits from supply chain visibility and collaboration, that can drive significant inventory reductions across the whole supply chain.” In the book industry, the move to computerize book information led to the realization that a descriptive/alpha system was too cumbersome. In the grocery industry, the idea had been around, but the evolution of commercially viable scanning equipment signified an opportune moment. It is significant to note that both industries adopted an all-numeric schema. Only in the grocery industry have significant attempts been made to quantify the benefits of using GTINs. Net benefits (after implementation costs) were initially estimated at approximately 1% of sales, but more recently revised to 2.8% of sales, or US$8 billion. These benefits were primarily due to increased process efficiencies and productivity gains. The same studies also estimate that an additional US$15 billion of benefits could potentially be realized through improved collaboration1. In the case of the book industry, the benefits and savings of using a standard product identification numbering system were considered so obvious that a cost/benefit analysis was not even done to quantify anticipated results. In conclusion, the agreement to adopt a standardized product identification numbering system provides the foundation to reap extensive benefits throughout the supply chain, not only for all the individual members but also in growing the whole industry.

Frequently Asked Questions
1. Is GTIN a new standard? GTIN is a term, not a new standard. The term was introduced to ensure consistent terminology around the world. Since the U.P.C. symbol encodes a 12-digit GTIN, GS1 US has been promoting the GTIN since 1972. GTINs ensure that trade items are identified uniquely around the world, which enables more efficient global trading.

17 Billion Reasons to Say Thanks: The 25th Anniversary of the U.P.C. and Its Impact on the Grocery Industry, PriceWaterhouseCoopers, December 14, 1999. Page 11
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006


2. Does GTIN replace the U.P.C.? No, GTIN is a term only. Remember the U.P.C. symbol encodes a 12-digit GTIN. The U.P.C. does not go away; companies that place a GTIN-12 (U.P.C.) on products now should continue to do so. 3. Is a unique GTIN required for every level of packaging? Yes. There should be a unique GTIN identifying the consumer unit, an inner pack, multi-pack, case, or pallet where applicable. 4. What is GTIN Compliance? A company that is able to process, store, and communicate information about their products with trading partners using all GTINs, whether 8, 12, 13, or 14 digits, is considered to be GTIN Compliant. Companies become GTIN Compliant by expanding the appropriate systems and applications to 14digits. This will support the GTIN on products at all levels of packaging (consumer, inner packs, multi-packs, cases, and pallets, etc. It is necessary to become GTIN Compliant to take advantage of the benefits of: • Data synchronization using the Global Data Synchronization Network (GDSN) • Reduced Space Symbology® (RSS®) • EPCglobal Network™ 5. Does my company need a new GS1 Company Prefix to create GTINs? No. Continue to use the one you have. 6. If a change is made to the product does the GTIN need to change? A separate unique GTIN is required whenever any of the pre-defined characteristics of a trade item are different in any way that is relevant to the trading process. The guiding principle is if the consumer is expected to distinguish a new trade item from an old trade item and purchase accordingly, a new GTIN should be assigned to the new trade item (product package and shelf edge label declarations should appear the same to the consumer). For complete information, refer to the GTIN Allocation Rules (available through the GS1 US Product Catalog) or refer to the Bar Codes and Identification Numbers section of the Solutions Center. 7. When is a “9” used as the Indicator digit in a GTIN? It is used to indicate a variable measure product.

Page 12
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

8. What are the correct ASC X12 EDI qualifiers for GTIN? The correct qualifiers are: • UK for GTIN-14 • EN for GTIN-13 • UP for GTIN-12 • EO for GTIN- 8 9. What can be identified using the GS1 Identification Numbers? • • • • • Trade items: Products and services upon which there is a need to retrieve pre-defined information at any point in the supply chain (Global Trade Item Number®/GTIN®). Logistic units: Physical units established for transport and storage of products of any kind that need to be tracked and traced individually in a supply chain (Serial Shipping Container Code/SSCC). Assets: Fixed or returnable assets (Global Individual Asset Identifier/GIAI, Global Returnable Asset Identifier/GRAI). Locations: Physical, functional or legal entities requiring a permanent identification, such as a company, department, or warehouse (Global Location Number/GLN). Service Relations: Public or private service provider to track any entity’s service requirements and needs over a continuing relationship (Global Service Relation Number/GSRN).

Note: All GS1 identifiers use the same GS1 Company Prefix assigned to the company or organization

Data Driver Data Driver is a tool developed by GS1 US to assist companies with the assignment and management of GTINs. Data Driver is a key benefit of GS1 US Partner Connections and is presently used by companies of all sizes and in various industries to manage thousands of GTINs. Companies new to GTINs or those who are in the process of migrating to GTINs are urged to use Data Driver, which ensures the quality and accuracy of bar codes. Find out more about Data Driver and the GS1 US Partner Connections Program at or contact GS1 US for more information at GTIN Allocation Rules The GTIN Allocation Rules are available in the Solutions Center. They can also be obtained through the GS1 US Product Catalog. The correct assignment of GTINs is critical to your business processes. It is strongly recommended that you refer to a copy of this guide to ensure correct assignment of GTINs to your products.
Page 13
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

Solutions Center The Solutions Center is your one-stop source for GS1 System solutions to help you improve supply chain management and conduct business more productively. You will find the essential education and implementation resources you need to: • • • • Integrate and utilize the standards of the GS1 System in your business Guide you through the bar coding process Improve the efficiency of your electronic commerce activities Uniquely identify your company's products, assets, locations, and logistics units throughout the global supply chain

Specifically, Bar Codes for Different Uses will guide you through the implementation process, giving you specific solutions and guidelines to properly mark products and logistics units for use within the GS1 System. This easy-tofollow system will guide you through the essentials of the bar coding process to help you: Assess where you will use the bar code Determine the specific information to include in the bar code Prepare bar code specifications for those responsible for printing your bar codes A preview of the Solutions Center can be seen at GS1 US Glossary GS1 US Product Catalog Further Help email: Phone: 1.937.435.3870 Website: • • •

Page 14
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS Princeton Pike Corporate Center 1009 Lenox Drive, Suite 202 Lawrenceville, New Jersey 08648 USA CUSTOMER SERVICE 7887 Washington Village Drive, Suite 300 Dayton, OH 45459-8605 USA T +1 937.435.3870 F +1 937.435.7317 email: info@gs1us .org

© GS1 US 2006

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Mind

...The mind is a tool; maybe even a weapon and it can be very deadly or dangerous to mankind. The mind has created some of the most destructive creations know to man including the nuke, or atom bomb. These are two things that have destroyed cities, houses, and even killed thousands of human lives. Then you have a superior mind such as Beethoven created amazing pieces of musical art work. Beethoven wrote most of the famous pieces we know today as a deaf man, that just tells you what a mind is capable of doing. It is amazing what the mind can do considering that they say we are only able to use so much of the brain. I’m not saying that the brain and mind is the same thing because they are not. A brain is a physical thing or something that you can hold, a mind is just something that can’t be seen with eyes. In Buddhist scriptures it is said that the human body is equal to a guest home and the mind as a guest dwelling. The mind leaves our body, when it is time for us to die, and goes to the next life. This is similar to the guest leaving the house and moving elsewhere. Well anyways back to the point Mr. Deville only 10% of our brains are used and is said that if we were able to tap the other 90% that we could read “pie” to the twenty thousandth decimal place, or even have telekinetic powers. There is even a website called that students from Harvard university had came up with, which includes brain training activities online that work and that help your mind skills...

Words: 1049 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Beautiful Mind

...There are many ways to be in prison within the mind. Many people think just because you are free means your mind is too but some think that the people who are physically in prison are the most free mentally. In order to be completely free in your mind you must understand wisdon and the educated aspect of everything. In “Everyday Use” the mother and sister of Dee are not educated but work in the yard and do house work in order to survive. It allows them to have wisdom about things that a college education cant do. Maggie who is Dee’s younger sister and who has always envied her is growing up with the same wisdom as her mother but has not got an education also. They are prisoned within their own minds because they are uneducated and live like they did when you get beat up for looking a white man in the eyes, so when they talk to a white man they look away like they are ashamed of themselves. Dee has always been different she would look anybody in the eyes because she is educated and is very proud of that but she is missing out on the knowledge that her mother and sister both acquired by working in the yard all of the years. Dee is very smart, pretty, and has a more popular mind set about everything in her life. She never wanted to be in the country but she liked the big city and fancy things while her family was completely opposite. Her mother is proud of the fact she has meat on her bones and can kill and prepare her own meals, but Dee thinks that she is to good for that......

Words: 646 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Psychology of the Mind

...According to the Psychology of Mind, the mind is the source of an offender’s thinking and how he interprets life. The Psychology of Mind has been departed into three major principles: Mind, Consciousness, and Thought. The mind is also his ability to experience the world and his perceptions. All forms of delinquent and criminal behavior could possibly be explained using the logic of the principles of the mind. The mind is the source of how things look to us and it generates how we think about things. The mind is not an easy subject and it is hard to give a valuable description on how it works, so therefore it is impossible to have a complete picture on how the mind really works. Everyone is born with a consciousness, and according to the POM, the consciousness brings forth a persons thoughts to life. This would be considered our senses. Our consciousness combines with our thoughts to produce reality. Or in other words, consciousness brings to light what a person is thinking. The POM has proposed two different types of thinking used by all offenders. The two processes are called unconditioned thought and conditioned thought. Unconditioned thought is an innate, rational, and insightful thought process, it is also described as the positive change. Where as conditioned thought people are working to find understanding and solutions, but are not assessing creative ideas because they are focused on what they already know. Feelings of security lead an offender towards one type of...

Words: 689 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Capabilities of the Mind

...Capabilities of the Mind The ideology of life itself and self-discovery form under the influence of nameless sources that our minds may not yet comprehend. Alain de Botton, author of “On Habit” comes to a realization that not only he but the world have come to a conclusion that their universe seemed to be uninteresting and dull. Through the blurred vision of modern culture, as humans, what we perceive to be anything but the ordinary seems to bring about curiosity. By way of the attentions that allure the concentrations of individuals we force upon ourselves framed thinking and tolerate expectations. By Botton becoming introduced to Xavier de Maistre’s reading Journey around My Bedroom, and Nocturnal Expedition around my Bedroom, it had flipped the switch in his head like a light bulb. Xavier de Maistre was used an example in de Botton’s reading to help circumnavigate and rediscover ways to appreciate not only the travels one goes on forth, but to discover the unknown and unseen appraisals that have been disregarded. Being accustomed to a situation or ones surroundings induces habituation where acknowledgments lack. For the reason that, a person’s mind craves new experiences and endures ventures that have not been accomplished yet because they believe there is nothing left to learn in the place they are familiarized with. When De Botton returned from his trip to Barbados and back home to London he states, “That the city had stubbornly refused to change… [He] felt despair...

Words: 916 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Unconscious Mind

...People do have an unconscious mind. Although it isn’t a physical part of of the brain, like the parietal lobe or the hypothalamus, it never ceases to function which affects our thoughts, feelings, and behavior. There are situations when you make no conscious thinking but still produce your emotions. For example, if someone threatens or insults you, chances are that you immediately feel at risk. The feeling arises with almost no considering. Your mind doesn’t waste time on a process to analyze, then synthesize and finally decide that you become anxious. Believe it or not, psychoanalysis may impact your unconscious conflicts and help to change your thoughts. During the treatment, these conflicts are brought to consciousness. The patient gets to know the sources where his/her her behavior rooted. Once S/he realizes now that the environments nurturing his/her conflicts no longer exist, the conflicts may be solved, the patient’s thoughts need a change and the patient consequently adjusts his/her wrong behaviors. What’s more, Psychotherapy can help to change a patient’s schemas, the most basic units of intellect, and the cognitive patterns of ideas. “ Schema-Focused Therapy has shown remarkable results in helping people to change negative ("maladaptive") patterns which they have lived with for a long time, even when other methods and efforts they have tried before have been largely unsuccessful.” ( To summarize,......

Words: 260 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Integrity of the Mind

...sacred but the integrity of your own mind.” –Ralph Waldo Emerson When one’s life is stripped down bare, all dignity removed, the only thing that is left for them is their mind. There is nothing like the human mind, so intricate that except for that mind itself, no one can understand it. Though all humans try to express what’s going on in their mind through ways of dance, letters, language, communication, and writing, the mind is the only place that expresses it all, and no one except the beholder can access and understand it. Not only that, but one’s own mind is the only real privacy in their world. Because it is the only place one truly is comfortable in and understands, one must rely upon themselves—their thoughts, dreams, morals, and ideas—to guide them. In a world where everybody wants not just to be unique, but also to stand out because of that, everyone attempts to avoid conformity. However, this can only be seen as a conformist action. So what is one to do when the typical teenager is now the atypical teenager? You depend on yourself to guide you through the maze of so called black and white conformists and noon-conformists. And since no one can understand what goes through your head, all that you do is unique because no one else thinks that way. I’ve grown up with three siblings, all amazing and all unique. Just by nature, I am the quieter child, and in the past I’ve had trouble with discovering who the real me is. Our minds are what make us all unique, and if......

Words: 529 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

No Minds for Computers

...No Minds for Computers In this paper I will argue why computers can’t have a mind. In order to prove my argument, I will focus on two reasons. First I’ll argue how computers are created and controlled by humans. Then I will explain why computers don’t have the ability to think on their own. These two arguments will demonstrate why computers aren't able to have a mind. First let me elaborate what I mean by computers being created and controlled by humans. Computers are created to perform one or multiple tasks that make human life easier. Humans initiate very complicated programs in modern computers that allows the machines to fulfill millions of different tasks. The key here is that humans program these computers to complete tasks, giving the hardware only one duty which is given only by the human. So am I saying that programming is what makes a computer? Well lets take a deeper look at programming. Programming is simply providing a computer with coded instructions for the automatic performance of a particular task. Lets take an example of how a program works in a computer. In a paper written by John R. Searle, Minds, Brains, And Programming, John talks about how he pretends to be a program in a computer. In this program he is locked in a room and is given the task of answering questions in Chinese symbols. John has never spoken, written or understood any Chinese before. Outside the room will be Chinese natives asking and receiving Johns answers. John is given a manual...

Words: 1517 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Absorbent Mind

...The Absorbent Mind The Absorbent Mind I decided to do my report on The Absorbent Mind written by Maria Montessori. This book is about the mental powers of a child from birth to age six. Dr. Montessori believes that if a child is properly educated by unlocking their mental ability than the world can overcome things such as war. The book explains how a child from birth to age six with obstruction and without teaching surpasses all living things. Dr. Montessori says that a child cannot be taught at such a young age as birth to age two so their learning ‘’transcends the narrow limits of teaching’’ (Montessori, 1949). After all a child does not yet fully understand launge at that young of an age. Because of the time in history when this book was written, the end of World War II, the first chapter has a stong call to advance society through the education and understanding of our children. The author states ‘’Men are not sufficiently educated to control the events, rather they become the victims of them’’ (Montessori, 1949). The book goes over the current tools being used in the advancement of society. Philosophies, religions, and the old lines of education of transmitting knowledge. Dr. Montessori says that if we stick to only these tools ‘’there would be no hope for the world’’ and that ‘’the human personality alone can lead us to salvation.’’ (Montessori, 1949). The author then goes into detail of why a child in it’s frist two years of life shows ‘’the laws of psychic......

Words: 1236 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Battlefield of the Mind

...Battlefield of the Mind “Is it impossible? Is it going to be hard?” These are the dilemmas that Joyce Meyer gave to the reader, when it came to letting God into our personal worlds. Would these questions make any difference in the way we think and guard our thoughts from an unseen enemy? Like a soldier on the front line, our minds do so much for us; just like the soldier on the frontline, it’s important to guard and protect our minds as well. As neurons fire and dopamine travels an atomic distance from receptor to receptor, the proof can be seen in our everyday actions; from the smallest twitch to the words we speak, our brain… our mind play’s a central role in every action we make. The assigned article, “Battlefield of the Mind”, provided a shock to my outlook on the mind and made me reflect on what I really let into the space between my ears. The mind is a window into my inner spirit man. If someone pours oil into water you can see the instant separation and the distinct difference; the same goes for our mind and what we let influence our thoughts and thought process’. Just like what’s read in Genesis, everything God had created “was good.” Just like in Genesis, man has found a way to pervert and mold the mind into something that is more fitting for himself, instead of God. The great thing that comes from this article is the fact that even though all of the aforementioned “bad” things fermenting inside our brain from not protecting it can ruin us, we also have a......

Words: 582 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Mind and Body

...QUESTION 1 Our mind and bodies always seem to be in synch, but what if we covered our eyes, would our brains and our bodies still be in synch? In class we watched a demonstration of two students. One student was blindfolded and touched the second student's nose. The second student touched the first student's nose at the exact same time the blindfolded student touched the second student. This made the first student think that he was touching his own nose and that his nose had gotten longer because the blindfolded student could feel the touch of the second student, thinking it was his own finger. This demonstration's purpose was to show the class an example of temporary representations and to show that they only have to do with increasing or decreasing the size of a body part, not completely removing it. Our minds can change the representation it has of our body parts by making them grow or shrink, but it is hard for our minds to take out the representation of that body part. This demonstration relates to the phenomenon of “phantom limbs” because they both have to do with the minds map of its body. Phantom limbs happens when you loose your hand and you still have feelings of sensation in a hand that you no longer have. When you loose your hand, the hand area in the homunculus does not go away. During this demonstration, half of the people who have performed this study have thought their nose is 2 feet long. Our minds stretch out to incorporate the tool that we are using,......

Words: 765 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Bodies and Minds

...How do our bodies and minds change from early to late adulthood? Joshua Lansberry Ashford University PSY 304 Lifespan Development Prof. Pamela Vincent May 18, 2015 How do our bodies and minds change from early to late adulthood? As we age does our mind simply begin to deteriorate in the same fashion as our body does in regards to it physical capabilities? Have you wondered what affect does peri and post-menopause have in relation to memory decline in women? Is dementia directly related to cognitive aging? All of these conditions have one thing in common, they all occur as the human body starts to age into late adulthood. Aging from early to late adulthood has an interconnected negative impact both mentally and physically on the human body but physical activity can help protect against cognitive decline. First we need to understand physical and cognitive development and the stages associated with early and late adulthood. Then we will examine the age related decline in mentalizing skills; how cognitive aging is related to dementia; and how aging is related to peri and post-menopause and it effects has on the body. Physical changes as the body ages from early to late adulthood are predictable and undeniable. Physical Development depends on maturation, or the biological unfolding of growth. Every individual has a schedule built into his or her genes that controls both the timing and......

Words: 2178 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Little Mind

...on our own for the first time we now have a chance to form ideas that may be different from our upbringings. In college we begin to see that there is more going on then what was first thought with our limited levels of experiences. College gives us the opportunity to have new experiences which is important to the growth of us as people. And with these new experiences we now have the opportunity to be exposed to much wider variety of types of people, often times people who have completely different backgrounds and lifestyles. Being exposed to these differences helps change old and narrow views that we may have once had in our high school years. I believe that college is the place where a person’s mind is expanded with new ideas and experiences, and with this expansion of the mind one's view of the world and its issues can be completely...

Words: 323 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

In the Mind of a Veteran

...In the mind of a Veteran To better understand the life of a veteran, I sat down with one who is currently serving in the United States Army National Guard and has sixteen years of service. In order to help me with this, Master Sergeant Xxxxxx X Xxxxxxxxxx provided me with details about his military career starting out as a Combat Engineer and switching over to the Military Police Corps. During our time he explained to me that growing up he didn’t have a lot of money and wanted to go to college. When a recruiter came to talk to him about the military, he told him that the military would pay for his tuition and give him a college fund. At that moment, Master Sergeant Sxxxxxx chose to join the military for two years and seventeen weeks. This was the shortest amount of time he could serve and still qualify for the college fund. By the end of his first enlistment he had gotten married and had a child, which gave him the responsibility of providing for his family. Since the military provided him with the means to care for his family, he decided that it would be best to continue his military career. He never expected to stay in as long as he has or reach the level he is currently at. For this reason he hasn’t regretted his decision of joining the military. He explained to me that he has been deployed overseas seven times, two times to Kuwait, once to Bosnia, Egypt, Romania, Iraq, and Afghanistan. He told me the hardest part of his military career is when he has to leave his family...

Words: 521 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Mind Mapping

...Mind mapping is a useful tool when writing a paper. Mind mapping helps formulate ideas, organize thoughts, and generate direction for a main topic. When writing a paper, information and flow are important to express thoughts most effectively. In this exercise, you will be using a Mind Mapping Template to help you plan your first essay. The first template is a thought bubble template that is more circular thinking. The second is an outline template which is more linear thinking and is more reminiscent of a traditional outline. They both yield the same end result, but the angle of approach is different. Choose whichever one fits you best. Or, if you typically use a traditional outline format, you may continue to do so. The idea is simply to ensure that you use the tools available to construct a coherent and cohesive essay. Copy whichever template you prefer to a Word document. Type over the existing text and fill out each form with one main idea, subtopics, and details of each subtopic. The number of subtopics can be expanded for large papers, and contracted for small ones. The list of details is flexible as well. In general, you want to have a minimum of three subtopics and three details. Mind mapping can also be used as a very effective means for developing presentations, decision making, and planning, among other things. There are a number of websites that present innovative ideas on mind mapping and outlining. Some even offer other templates and free......

Words: 456 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Choas of the Mind

...The Chaos of the Mind Hamlet, although a revenge play by nature, is clearly highly entwined with psychological aspects. This is clearly characterized in the first of Hamlet’s soliloquies (Hamlet I.ii 129-159) portraying the occurrences in the state of Denmark as seen through the eyes of Hamlet, giving the audience a window into his soul and the mechanism of his thoughts. Hamlet begins the passage by cursing himself for what is happening around him. He wishes that he did not exist any longer. He desires that he did not have to live in a world that would allow what is happening to occur. He craves for his body to dissolve into nothing, wishing that he could will his body to “thaw and resolve itself into dew”. Unfortunately, he cannot melt and though he would consider suicide the Christian God whom he holds as “the Everlasting” is against such notions, having “fix’d his canon ‘gainst self-slaughter!” Hamlet feels that things are falling apart around him. He uses the allusion of an un-weeded garden to refer to his surroundings. In this garden there are things growing such as seeds of “things rank and gross in nature” and flowers of treachery and pain. The weeds are the evil King, Queen and the others who follow them without considering their malevolent deeds. This allusion can be considered applicable to the state of Hamlet’s mind as well as to the State of Denmark (being that Hamlet sees the State of Denmark as falling to ruin in the hands of Claudius). Hamlet sees......

Words: 987 - Pages: 4