Premium Essay

Mindfulness and Depression

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By ticatatica
Words 10431
Pages 42
Behar. Res. Ther. Vol. 33. No. I. pp. 25-39. 1995


0 005-7967(94)E001 !-7

C opyright ('~ 1994 Elsevier Science Ltd
P rinted in Great Britain. All rights reserved
0005-7967/95 $7.00 + 0.00

' MRC Applied Psychology Unit, 15 Chaucer Road, Cambridge CB2 2EF, England,
2Clark Institute of Psychiatry, Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Toronto,
3Department of Psychology, University College of North Wales

(Received 12 November 1993; receivedfor publication 17 January 1994)
S ummary--There is encouraging evidence that structured psychological treatments for depression, in p articular cognitive therapy, can reduce subsequent relapse after the period of initial treatment has been completed. However, there is a continuing need for prophylactic psychological approaches that can be administered to recovered patients in euthymic mood. An information-processing analysis of depressive m aintenance and relapse is used to define the requirements for effective prevention, and to propose mechanisms through which cognitive therapy achieves its prophylactic effects. This analysis suggests that similar effects can be achieved using techniques of stress-reduction based on the skills of attentional control t aught in mindfulness meditation. An information-processing analysis is presented of mindfulness and mindlessness, and of their relevance to preventing depressive relapse. This analysis provides the basis for the development of Attentional Control Training, a new approach to preventing relapse that integrates features of cognitive therapy and mindfulness training and is applicable to recovered depressed patients.


T he prevention...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Reaction Paper

...Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Reaction Paper Denise Dugan California Baptist University Author Note This paper is being submitted to Dr. Kristen White in partial fulfillment for the requirements for MFT Counseling Techniques, PSY 525, on March 1, 2014.   Abstract Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a group therapy approach that utilizes mindfulness techniques and cognitive therapy for depression relapse prevention. This paper will reflect the effectiveness of MBCT from a personal worldview. It will also discuss if MBCT can be utilized in different areas of psychological treatment including: marriage and family therapy, patients with anxiety, culturally diverse groups, and in working with religious patients.  Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Reaction Paper Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a group therapy treatment that integrates mindfulness and cognitive therapy practices to help individuals that suffer from recurrent depression in the prevention of depression relapse. Zindel Segal, John Teasdale, and Mark Williams developed MBCT, which was adapted from the mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) work of Jon Kabat-Zinn at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center for helping people with chronic physical illnesses (Sipe & Eisendrath, 2011). The core element of this treatment modality is mindfulness. MBCT teaches focus on the here and now and to be mindful of the thoughts that are taking place. ......

Words: 1622 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...Mindfulness practices like Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) are rooted in Buddhist traditions but it is delivered independently from the religious and cultural origins in mental health practices (Sipe & Eisendrath, 2012; Baer 2003). MBCT was created by cognitive therapists John Teasdale, Mark Williams and Zindel Segal as a form of therapy that combines aspects of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy(CBT) and Jon Kabat-Zinn’s Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) programme (Williams, Russel, & Russel, 2008; Shapiro & Carlson, 2009). The programme was originally developed to target the cognitive vulnerability in patients with depressive relapse to help them break habitual dysfunctional cognitive patterns, to reduce the recurrence or relapse of depression (Van der Velden, et al. 2015; Williams, et al. 2008). The combination of cognitive and mindfulness based therapy provides a long term form of preventing relapse (Shapiro and Carlson, 2009). Usual CBT concentrates on teaching patient’s how to cognitively approach and understand the aetiology of mood disorder and then apply certain skills to change dysfunctional and automatic thoughts (Beck, as cited in Manicavasgar, Parker, & Perich, 2011). The mindfulness component of the MBCT programme focuses on teaching patients to become aware of their bodily sensations, thoughts and feelings in a non-judgemental way. This awareness allows patients to face difficulties and discomfort from a perspective where......

Words: 807 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Human Services Scenario understand how what may appear minor in their opinion could negatively affect their client in the greatest way. A scenario of a 45 year-old Hispanic female diagnosed with clinical depression will be used as a hypothetical case and the approach in helping her will be explored. The attempt to analyze, diagnose and treat her effectively given her unique situation is the goal. With each case and clinician being different it is apparent that unique interviewing skills and techniques must be applied differently for each client. Each person’s set of circumstances and personal characteristics should be considered one of a kind and handle as such. The clinician’s goal is to prepare a stage for the client to become open and accept guidance to healing. Communication Style Griselda Martinez was referred to me by her social worker handling her Child Protective Services case. She is court ordered to have 16 weeks of therapy as part of her reunification plan. Her 12 year-old daughter was removed from the home and placed in temporary foster care because the school psychologist reported possible child neglect and endangerment. Griselda has attempted suicide twice and her daughter witnessed both attempts. She is currently not under doctor’s care and taking no prescribed medications to deal with the depression. The first interview is arranged at her home since she expressed extreme difficulty in leaving her home. I plan to wear casual clothing since we are meeting in her home......

Words: 1164 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Capstone Topic

...provide an analytical view of the chosen article, determining the applicability of the findings, the clinical importance, the validity and the reliability of the issue addressed in the article. There are many different types of mediation practices. Transcendental meditation and mindfulness based stress reduction meditation are two of the most commonly researched. Meditation is now widely accepted into mainstream and is being used as a way for maintaining health and wellness. Several medical and rehabilitation facilities have proved meditation to be a safe and effective tool for treating: “stress, fatigue, depression, anxiety, fibromyalgia, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, tinnitus, congestive heart failure, general pain, as well as many other health ailments. (Natural Medicine Database, 2014) Article Introduction The introduction to the study was clear and concise. It clearly identified what the researchers were looking to establish. The introduction explains that mindfulness meditation is defined as “paying attention on purpose, being in the present moment, and reacting non-judgmentally to the unfolding of experiences moment by moment.” It also educates the reader about mindfulness mediation and the many health benefits it can have on certain populations. The researchers had two purposes for this research study. The first purpose...

Words: 1202 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...Martinez, & Simpson (2012) conducted a study of the effects of participation in a mindfulness program for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. I believe that PTSD is a state of mind that an individual has or how the deal with a certain traumatic event that has taken place in their life. According to Santrock (2006), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychological disorder that develops through exposure to a traumatic event, such as war; severely oppressive situations, such as the Holocaust; severe abuse, as in rape; natural disasters, such as floods and tornados; and unnatural disasters, such as plane crashes (p.132). Much of what is known about PTSD comes from individuals who have developed the disorder because of combat and war-related traumas. Kearney et al. (2012) studied using new research to assess outcomes associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) for veterans with PTSD. It has been suggested that acceptance of mindfulness-based approaches may be useful in the treatment of PTSD, though currently outcome data are lacking (Kearney et al., 2012). There were initially 167 veterans referred to the MBSR during the study period. From the charts I found that after orientation and evaluation of the subjects only forty-seven veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder were randomized to treatment as usual (TAU; n = 22), or MBRS plus TAU (n = 25). PTSD, depression, and mental health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were assessed at......

Words: 794 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Group Therapy Interventions for Combat Veterans Suffering from Ptsd

...Group Therapy Interventions for Combat Veterans Suffering from PTSD Name Academic Institution Author Note Class Professor Date Group Therapy Interventions for Combat Veterans Suffering from PTSD The process of group therapy can be extremely beneficial for individuals suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the interventions used in the group therapy setting must be appropriate to each individual within the group, adding a level of complexity to the job of the therapist choosing the interventions. By using a number of different therapeutic theories and interventions, the therapist can hope for the best possible results for the group as a whole and for the individual clients. Some of the most flexible therapeutic frameworks that work well in group therapy settings are cognitive-behavioral therapy, solution-focused therapy, and psychoeducation. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a popular therapeutic framework that has been used with great success with patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. One intervention suitable to the group therapy setting is thought-stopping. Thought-stopping involves analyzing the thought patterns our brains have created and interrupting the process at the point where thoughts begin to turn irrational. For example, in the group therapy setting a member of the group may report that while walking on the sidewalk one day, a man began to approach from the opposite direction and the group member, a combat......

Words: 1366 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...Buddhist Meditation Implications for Physical and Psychological Health RELIG2212 Buddhism: Beliefs and Practices April 13, 2009 RELIG 2212 Buddhism: Beliefs and Practices April 13, 2009 I. Introduction a. Meditation as a central role in Buddhism b. Thesis statement: there is great potential for Buddhist meditation techniques to provide both physical and psychological health benefits. II. Meditation and anxiety a. Meditation and anxiety reduction b. Study by John Miller on Clinical Implications of a Mindfulness Meditation- Based Stress Reduction Intervention in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders. III. Meditation and health a. Meditation and cardiovascular disease/blood pressure b. Study by Vernon Barnes on the “ Impact of Transcendental Meditation on Cardiovascular Function at Rest and During Acute Stress in Adolescents with High Normal Blood Pressure.” IV. Meditation and neurology a. Meditation and mind and brain functioning/neuroscience b. Visual imagery/attention studies c. Studies on virtuous mental states/meditation on lovingkindness V. Conclusion: These scientific studies demonstrating lowered stress and blood pressure, and demonstrating the possibility for a better understanding of brain functioning, make it clear that there is a great potential for Buddhist meditation techniques to provide health benefits and advances in modern science. Under a Bodhi tree, a man in robes vows to remain in seated meditation......

Words: 2258 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Operation Acupuncture Case Study

...Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome of widespread pain associated with sleep disturbance, fatigue, depression, headache, abdominal pain, and poor concentration (Clauw). The American College of Rheumatology updated the diagnostic criteria for FM in 2010 to include these accompanying symptoms in addition to widespread pain (Wolfe). FM is associated with significant personal and socioeconomic costs, including limitations in work ability and high health care utilization (Palstam, Wolfe, Berger, White). The prevalence of FM among the general population in the United States is estimated to be between 1.1% and 6.4% (Vincent). FM is more common in both civilian and veteran women than men (Marques, Higgins). The prevalence of FM among veterans of Operation...

Words: 1125 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Article Review

...Journal Article Review: Use of prayer and scripture in therapy Liberty University Use of prayer and scripture in therapy Summary Effectively integrating psychology and theology has been an ongoing endeavor for many Christian therapists who wish to be ethically sound in their therapeutic practices and yet honor the use of the Holy Spirit as the ultimate Counselor and Comforter. Use of prayer and scripture in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy is a study that focuses specifically on the efficacy of the use of prayer and scripture within the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model. While CBT is more than 30 years old (Tan, 2007, pg. 101), it has been “expanded to include mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies” (Tan, 2007, pg. 101). The author bases his article on the findings that there are a minimum of 10 outcome studies providing empirical support regarding the efficacy of “religiously-oriented or spiritually-oriented CBT with religious clients” (Tan, 2007, pg. 102). The article describes the author’s development and use of an ethical and appropriate approach to utilizing prayer and scripture within a Christian modality of CBT. The author has used this approach in a variety of settings including hospital, college, and private practice. The key points to his Christian approach to CBT very briefly include the emphasis of agape love, dealing adequately with past issues, the possibility of demonic involvement, use of alignment with God’s word, focusing on problems......

Words: 1638 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Behavior Therapy Outline

...Behavior Therapy B.F. SKINNER • (1904–1990) Reported that he was brought up in a warm, stable family environment. • As he was growing up, Skinner was greatly interested in building all sorts of things, an interest that followed him throughout his professional life. • He received his PhD in psychology from Harvard University in 1931 and eventually returned to Harvard after teaching in several universities. • He had two daughters, one of whom is an educational psychologist and the other an artist. • Skinner was a prominent spokesperson for behaviorism and can be considered the FATHER OF THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH TO PSYCHOLOGY. • Skinner championed radical behaviorism, which places primary emphasis on the effects of environment on behavior. • Skinner was also a determinist; he did not believe that humans had free choice. He acknowledged that feelings and thoughts exist, but he denied that they caused our actions. Instead, he stressed the cause-and-effect links between objective, observable environmental conditions and behavior. • Most of Skinner’s work was of an experimental nature in the laboratory, but others have applied his ideas to teaching, managing human problems, and social planning. Science and Human Behavior best illustrates how Skinner thought behavioral concepts could be applied to every domain of human behavior. • In Walden II (1948) Skinner describes a utopian community in which his ideas, derived from the laboratory, are applied to social issues. • His......

Words: 4080 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Personal Theory of Counseling

...feelings and my actions. I learned to identify distorted thinking, engage in realistic thinking, and to employ problem-solving and coping skills. This method helped me through my own difficult times and therefore I know it works and would like to help others through its use. View of Human Nature People possess faulty beliefs and maladaptive information processing (automatic thoughts) which can lead to cognitive distortions and depression (Chadwick, 1994). In cognitive therapy clients learn to identify these distorted cognitions through evaluation. Corey states (2009) that once clients gain insight into how these unrealistically negative thoughts affect them, their feelings, and behaviors; they can begin to “use their automatic thoughts to reach the core schemata and then begin to introduce the idea of schema restructuring” thus easing the depression (p. 288). Key Tenets Cognitive therapy is based on three tenets: (1) you feel the way you think, (2) thoughts are dominated by a pervasive negativity, and (3) negative thoughts related to depression are almost always irrational and distorted. Therapy includes the recognition and...

Words: 1489 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Coping Mechanism of Ruralist Migrated to Urban

...Website: Abstract When mental health breaks down, the human being grasps at ways of coping with the crisis. The goal of coping is escape from intolerable affect and the means are familiar as 'symptoms' of mental illness. For example, to shut down physically and cease to compete is depression (Gilbert 1992), and drugs and alcohol provide a straightforward way out. As psychological therapists, our task is to devise, evaluate and, most importantly, persuade the client to adopt alternative, healthier, ways of coping; ways that offer less immediate relief, but which do not trap the person in a diminished quality of life. By explaining breakdown in terms of coping with intolerable affect, this approach, developed and evaluated in an acute hospital setting (Durrant, Clarke & Wilson 2007), enables us to offer more adapted skills for coping with affect as the solution. This 'third wave Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)' approach (Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999) takes seriously the discontinuities in human information processing (Teasdale & Barnard 1993) and employs mindfulness to manage them. The coping mechanisms considered are: • Mindfulness • Arousal management techniques • Emotion Regulation skills (Linehan 1993a & b) • Skills for coping with relationships with self and others, including a compassionate mind based approach to self esteem. • Coping with psychosis. Many of these techniques are already familiar......

Words: 8338 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Meditation and Obesity

...Meghan Orlando Dr. Russo Philosophy 281-01 24 April 2015 Mindfulness and Weight Related Disorders Buddhism began in Northern India during the 5th century B.C.E. when a young prince named Siddhartha gave up his royal duties to enter a spiritual life through meditation. After six years he attainted enlightenment and from here went on to teach how to attain a life free of suffering. Meditation is the way you are to understand ones mind and learn how to control it. “As our mind becomes more positive our actions become more constructive, and our experience of life becomes more satisfying and beneficial to others,” (“About Buddhism”). Throughout history there have been many different forms of this practice created all essentially leading its followers to nirvana by riding them of the negative aspects of their life. Buddhist mindfulness meditation is a practice that has been around for what seems like forever and it is just now being seen for many of its benefits in the health field. The purpose of this practice is to transforms one mind and yourself, to be more positive and mindful of the things one does subconsciously. In Andy Fraser’s book, The Healing Power of Meditation, he states, “all fear and anxiety come from a mind that is untamed,” (2013). In taming ones mind you gain control over your whole self, including feelings and actions. Due to the changes in our society stopping to meditate or be mindful of your actions seems nearly impossible. Multitasking is a......

Words: 2726 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Mindfulness empathize, to feel with another person is the focal point of psychotherapy (McCann & Pearlman, 1990). That being the case, clinicians need to learn how to think clearly, modulate their emotions, feel effective when working with clients and maintain help that they are going to be effective. But, if the clinician is put into these states of stress by virtue of listening to others, they may feel inclined to withdraw from their clients (Geller et. al, 2004). When creating a psychotherapeutic relationship between a therapist and a client one approach that is considered as compatible with our theories and clinical foundations is that of the mindfulness based approach. According to Germer (2005), there are two general approaches that clinicians have applied in their clinical work. That of being mindful in psychotherapy and mindfulness – based psychotherapy (Turner, 2008). These two approaches have been shown to be effective and beneficial when in a therapeutic environment. Through...

Words: 1066 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

...Description Treatment Focus Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a system of therapy originally developed by Marsha M. Linehan, a psychology researcher at the University of Washington, to treat people with borderline personality disorder (BPD). DBT combines standard cognitive-behavioral techniques for emotion regulation and reality testing with concepts of distress tolerance, acceptance, and mindful awareness largely derived from Buddhist meditative practice. DBT may be the first therapy that has been experimentally demonstrated to be generally effective in treating BPD. A meta-analysis found that DBT reached moderate effects. Research indicates that DBT is also effective in treating patients who present varied symptoms and behaviors associated with spectrum mood disorders, including self-injury. Recent work suggests its effectiveness with sexual abuse survivors and chemical dependency. Linehan observed "burn-out" in therapists after coping with non-motivated patients who against cooperation in successful treatment. Her first core insight was to recognize that the chronically suicidal patients she studied had been raised in profoundly invalidating environments, and, therefore, required a climate of unconditional acceptance, in which to develop a successful therapeutic alliance. Her second insight involved the need for a commensurate commitment from patients, who needed to be willing to accept their dire level of emotional dysfunction. Treatment Strategies and/or......

Words: 2868 - Pages: 12