Premium Essay

Mine

In: Other Topics

Submitted By MissMarnie
Words 20773
Pages 84
Psychological Review 2005, Vol. 112, No. 3, 629 – 649

Copyright 2005 by the American Psychological Association 0033-295X/05/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.112.3.629

Toward a More Pragmatic Approach to Morality: A Critical Evaluation of Kohlberg’s Model
Dennis L. Krebs and Kathy Denton
Simon Fraser University
In this article, the authors evaluate L. Kohlberg’s (1984) cognitive– developmental approach to morality, find it wanting, and introduce a more pragmatic approach. They review research designed to evaluate Kohlberg’s model, describe how they revised the model to accommodate discrepant findings, and explain why they concluded that it is poorly equipped to account for the ways in which people make moral decisions in their everyday lives. The authors outline in 11 propositions a framework for a new approach that is more attentive to the purposes that people use morality to achieve. People make moral judgments and engage in moral behaviors to induce themselves and others to uphold systems of cooperative exchange that help them achieve their goals and advance their interests. Keywords: moral development, cognitive development, cooperation, moral judgment

After two decades of research on Kohlberg’s (1984) cognitive– developmental model of morality, we abandoned it in favor of a more pragmatic approach. In this article, we explain why. We identify problems with Kohlberg’s model, describe revisions aimed at solving them, and offer reasons why a new approach is necessary. We end with a new beginning, introducing a more pragmatic approach in a set of propositions that, we argue, is better equipped than Kohlberg’s model to account for the ways in which people make moral decisions in their everyday lives. This approach rests on the assumption that individuals invoke a variety of affectively and cognitively-based strategies to pursue goals and advance their...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Mine.

...Answer: Strengths: Community Health Nursing, Medical-Surgical Nursing & Psychiatric Nursing • Basically, CHN is a favourite of mine. Having been exposed in the community, the illnesses that are rampant and how the people cope, I find it very interesting. • Medical-Surgical Nursing too, is of high regard. Just knowing the different kinds of diseases, pathophysiology and the nursing care rendered, the subject becomes very overwhelming, and at the same time augments my learning in the process. • Psychiatric Nursing is precious because the subject is very complex. I deem to see how human beings are dynamic and complicated altogether. Although this subject is quite unfathomable, especially that it concerns the brain, as a human, it sparks incredible fascination. Weaknesses: Fundamentals of Nursing, Maternal...

Words: 606 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Mine

...In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than in mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course. Since this country was founded, each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to its national loyalty. The graves of young Americans who answered the call to service surround the globe. Now the trumpet summons us again — not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need; not as a call to battle, though embattled we are — but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, "rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation" — a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself. Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance, North and South, East and West, that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind? Will you join in that historic effort? In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility — I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it — and the glow from that fire can truly light the world. And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you — ask what you can do for your country....

Words: 638 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Mine

...Marketing Research Analysis James Freeman MKT 421 Henry Tran March 1, 2014 Marketing Research Analysis: Kudler Fine Foods Kathy Kudler has a passion for cooking and gourmet food, and so she started Kudler Fine Foods in 1988. She has successfully opened three locations for her store, in La Jolla, Del Mar, and Encinitas. Kudler Fine Foods sells gourmet-quality foods, like baked goods, seafoods and meats, fresh produce, cheese and other dairy products, and fine wine. They are achieving a great deal of success, and they will likely be able to expand. Kathy wants her business bigger, and now she is looking for the right place to put her new shop. Kudler Fine Foods says that their mission is to “provide their customers with the finest selected foodstuff, wines, and related needs in an unparalleled consumer environment (University of Phoenix, 2008).” Market research will help Kathy find the right marketing strategy to help her business do even better. Importance of Marketing Research Like Kathy, people who start businesses “need information in order to produce products and services that create value in the mind of the customer (Internet Center for Management and Business Administration, 2010).” Market research considers the business, their competitors, and their customers. Before they expand, Kudler Fine Foods needs to do market research to be sure that they have all of...

Words: 1164 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Mine

...CURRICULUM VITAE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Bio Data: Name: mwangi kenneth Date of Birth: January 20 1992 Gender: Male Phone: +254713580805 Email:mwangikenneth@hotmail.com Postal Address: 35208-00100, Nairobi, Kenya ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Personal Attributes: I am a highly motivated and energetic individual who is eager to succeed. I am team player who believes and practices hard work. I am also a quick learner, respectful to authority and possess high integrity values. Lastly I am not afraid to take up new challenges as I believe this is the only way to gain competent work experience. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Career Interests: To harness and develop the skills I have acquired from school by application in a real world practical environment of engineeriing, Investment and management related departments. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Communication: I have an excellent command of written and spoken English, Swahili and a little German. As an extension to this I also possess good social skills that enable me to adapt to......

Words: 406 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Mine

...WORKING WHILE IN CLASS MAEVELYN Q. CALAPARDO Submitted to the COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION University of the Philippines Diliman In partial fulfillment of the requirements For the degree of Bachelor of Arts in Film and Audio-Visual Communication October 2011 WORKING WHILE IN CLASS by MAEVELYN DE QUIROZ CALAPARDO has been accepted for the degree of BA Film and Audio-Visual Communication by Professor Olivia L. Cantor and approved for the University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication by Professor Roland B. Tolentino Dean, College of Mass Communication BIOGRAPHICAL DATA Name Maevelyn de Quiroz Calapardo 4 Toclong 1st - C Imus, Cavite Permanent Address Mobile Number Email Address 0927 412 1288 maevelyn018@yahoo.com Date and Place of Birth July 18, 1988 Mandaluyong City EDUCATION Secondary Level St. Emilene Academe Imus, Cavite Primary Level St. Emilene Academe Imus, Cavite WORK EXPERIENCE Associate Producer / Assistant Camera Person Sa Ilalim ng Tulay, Cinemaone Originals October 2011 Video Editor Talk, Understand, Care: Discipline Without Violence October 2011 Intern, Roadrunner Inc., May-June 2009 PASASALAMAT Ipinararating ang taos pusong pasasalamat sa lahat ng taong sumuporta at gumabay upang maisakatuparan ang proyektong ito. Pasasalamat sa aking mga magulang na sina Mobil at Leny Calapardo para sa pagmamahal at walang sawang pagtitiwala sa aking kakayahan. Sa aking mga......

Words: 30375 - Pages: 122

Free Essay

Mine

...Engl. 1213-009 29 November 2010 Letter from Birmingham Jail In Martin Luther King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”, Dr. King expresses his grief for his fellow black people, after seeing and hearing about the injustice that was taking place in Birmingham, Alabama. Dr. King is very explicit in the letter; he makes a very obvious argument on the immeasurable amount of injustice taking place. A reader experiences firsthand that it was about time for necessary action to take place, considering how long the black people had waited for equality through nonviolent protest. “Letter from Birmingham Jail” was a response to eight clergymen’s letter called “A Call for Unity”. In the letter, Dr. King addresses his critics that believed his actions were “unwise and untimely” (King 204). To achieve his personal proposal, King uses ethos, pathos and logos to convey a sense of understanding a reason for equality and sympathy. The main point in Dr. King’s letter is that black people have patiently waited long enough for their God-given rights; “We have waited for more than 340 years for our constitutional and God-given rights” (King 207). And despite what anyone might have said, it time for change to take place. He starts his counterargument towards the clergymen, ministers and civil leaders of Birmingham adequately; he wrote “You deplore the demonstrations taking place in Birmingham, but your statement, I am sorry to say, fails to express a similar concern for the conditions that......

Words: 941 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Mine

...Desert Vista Model Congress 2010 |COMMITTEE: |Principal Author: Jamie Long | |Bill No: SB.17 |Delegation: | |Title of Bill: | |Lowering the Drinking Age | | | Be It Enacted By The Desert Vista Model Congress |1 |Preamble: Whereas the legal drinking age in the United States is 21 in every state. That means you are not allowed to buy or consume | |2 |any amount of alcohol. The government should take a look at the drinking because around the world other teens are allowed to consume | |3 |and perish alcohol as young as 17 years old. | |4 | | |5 |SECTION 1: The drinking age should be 19 years old to buy and consume the alcohol......

Words: 258 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mine

...1. Monroe Doctrine- noted that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries. 2. Morse, Samuel F.B.- He contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs, was a co-inventor of the Morse code, and also an accomplished painter. 3. New Jersey Plan- was a proposal for the structure of the United States Government presented by William Paterson at the Constitutional Convention on June 15, 1787.[1] The plan was created in response to the Virginia Plan, which called for two houses of Congress, both elected with apportionment according to population.[2] The less populous states were adamantly opposed to giving most of the control of the national government to the more populous states, and so proposed an alternative plan that would have kept the one-vote-per-state representation under one legislative body from the Articles of Confederation. The New Jersey Plan was opposed by James Madison and Edmund Randolph (the proponents of the Virginia Plan). 4. Northwest Ordinance of 1787- was an act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States, passed July 13, 1787. The primary effect of the ordinance was the creation of the Northwest Territory, the first organized territory of the United States, from lands south of the Great Lakes, north and west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River. 5. Nullification- in United States......

Words: 2147 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Not Mine

...>UCLA Newsroom>All Stories>News Releases Extinction of woolly mammoths may have been due to addition of a predator: humans By David Stauth and Stuart WolpertJuly 01, 2010Category: Research Illustration of sabertooth cat fighting with woolly mammoth. (Credit: Mauricio Anton, courtesy of Oregon State University) The extinction of woolly mammoths and other large mammals more than 10,000 years ago may be explained by the same type of cascade of ecosystem disruption that is being caused today by the global decline of predators such as wolves, cougars and sharks, life scientists report July 1 in the cover article of the journal Bioscience. Then, as now, the cascading events were originally begun by human disruption of ecosystems, a new study concludes, but around 15,000 years ago the problem was not the loss of a key predator, but the addition of one — human hunters with spears. This mass extinction was caused by newly arrived humans tipping the balance of power and competing with major predators such as sabertooth cats, the authors of the new analysis argue. An equilibrium that had survived for thousands of years was disrupted, perhaps explaining the loss of two-thirds of North America's large mammals during this period. "We suggest that the arrival of humans to North America triggered a trophic cascade in which competition for the largest prey was intensified, ultimately causing the large non-human carnivores to decimate the large herbivores," said Blaire Van......

Words: 1013 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Mine

...Managerial Perspective: 17-2 Philip O’Kane ACC/561 May 1, 2014 University of Phoenix Paula White Summary Case study 17-2 in Accounting: Tools for Business Decision Making asks the reader to analyze the Ideal Manufacturing Company as it decides to expand their services to outside agencies that want to use their tool in evaluating its costs using activity based costing, which is a two-step process to calculate overhead costs. The first step is to assign overhead costs to activity cost pools, instead of departments, as is the practice in traditional costing The second step is to use cost drivers to allocate overhead to the correlating activity. A cost driver is any factor which has a direct relationship with resources consumed. In this particular scenario, Ideal Manufacturing has been successful in its research and development department for manufacturing agricultural machinery. They recently recognized that their research and development costs were out of control. Activity based costing helps them to gain control of their costs and identify the basis of cost for charging external companies wishing to hire their research and development department. The table below illustrates how Ideal Manufacturing uses activity based costing to calculate costs (Kimmel, Weygandt, & Kieso, 2011). Table 1 To calculate costs for each activity pool, Annual costs are divided by the total estimated cost drivers. ACTIVITY | COST DRIVER | ANNUAL COSTS | TOTAL ESTIMATED DRIVERS...

Words: 580 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Mine

...Chapter 5 – Mathematics of Finance 5.1 – Simple Interest and Discount Interest is the fee paid for using someone else’s money. You pay if you borrow money. You earn if you lend money. Principal – The amount of money borrowed The amount of interest paid depends on: * Interest rate * Time Time Period | Years | Stated Rate | Decimal Form | 72 days | 72/365 | 6 % | .06 | 4 months | 4/12 | Seven and one eighth % | .07125 | 18 months | 1.5 | Half a % | .005 | Interest can be computed two ways: * Simple Interest * Compound Interest Simple Interest Formula – I = Prt where: * I – the amount of interest * P – the amount of principal * r = interest rate per year * t = length of time in years Simple Interest is normally used for loans or investments of a year or less. An exception is corporate bonds. See example 1 and 2 from page 260 Future or Maturity Value for Simple Interest A = P( 1 + rt ) where A is the future or maturity value See example 3 from page 261 Do problems 4, 8, 12, 16 Present Value with simple interest – the amount deposited today (the principal) that will yield some future value. ------------------------------------------------- Since A = P(1+ rt) then : P = See examples 5 and 6 on page 263 Discount In a simple discount loan the interest is deducted in advance from the amount of the loan and the balance is given to the borrower. The full value of the loan must be paid......

Words: 1046 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Mine

...Ryan Leomiti  03/30/2015  EN1420 Mon. AM   A Family of a Different Feather    In this article” A Family of a Different Feather” by Sarah Yoest Pederson she  writes about a childs book titled ​ And Tango Makes Three. ​here a penguin named  W Tango is the first penguin in the zoo with two daddies.Wishing this book had come out a  year ago she wrote of her own personal experience when asked by her child about her  classmate with two mommies and how being prepared helped them tremendously.   Basing off the article, Tango seems to demonstrate support for families with  same­sex parents, which is an idea many people in the United States unfairly disagree  with. In an article posted to the website of the American Library Association, in 2006,  the book had received a total of 546 formal challenges against the book being available  in libraries based on the issues of presenting homosexuality to a younger audience. The  book seems to have been challenged based on the idea that both homosexuality and  same­sex couples raising families should be considered socially unacceptable, when in  reality there is no rational argument to suggest that there is a problem with these  families’ influence on their children. The people who wrote the 546 complaints about the  book likely have many biases regarding the outcome of children raised by same­sex as  opposed to opposite sex parents. The only difference however, is that the child raised ......

Words: 615 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Mine

...Lydia Wilson Wilson 1 English 12 Mrs. Conrad 1/23/15 Question 2 Essay In the book Night, by Elie Wiezel, there is one scene where a young boy is hung in front of many spectators. Elie describes that they have seen many hangings but none of them where quite like this one. In history there was no event to compare to the Holocaust, that’s why some say the hanging of the Pipel, the young boy, represents the Jewish people during this time. The next few paragraphs will show the symbolism of the hanging to the Jews in the Holocaust. Wiesel goes out of his way in the book Night to put a scene in our mind, a young Jewish Pipel being hung in front of thousands of his own people. He describes this event as being different from the many that he had previously seen. “I never saw a single victim weep… Except once.” (Wiesel 63) It was one thing for a man to be hung but it was a much different situation for a child. This in some way resembles the event of the Holocaust. Innocent people were being killed for an act that was not to be found at fault, religion. As the viewers came to the gallows people were morning and asking where was God. “For God’s sake, where is he.” (Wiezel 65) When we look back on the event today we my wonder the same things ourselves about the Holocaust, where is God? How could something so terrible and inhumane happen to so many people? Wiesel also describes the Pipel’s actions before the hanging. “He too was Wilson 1 tortured.” (Wiezel 64) He......

Words: 627 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Mine

...Occupational stress is a recognized problem in health care workers.1 Nursing has been identified as an occupation that has high levels of stress. In an investigation conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in the USA, nurses were found to be one of the occupations that had a higher than expected incidence of stress related health disorders.3 It was found that job stress brought about hazardous impacts not only on nurses’ health but also their abilities to cope with job demands. This will seriously impair the provision of quality care and the efficacy of health services delivery.  In a study of job stress among hospital nurses, it was found that 27% of the subjects experienced psycho physiological symptoms of stress, and 38% reported consulting a doctor in the past 6 months. It has also been found that different nurses experience job stress different (Josef, 2003). In recent years there has been broad discussion on the nature of stressors experienced by members of “high risk” occupations and professions, for instance nursing and emergency workers, whose role is to support others through traumatic scenarios. Most people can cope with stress for short periods but Chronic stress produces prolonged changes in the physiological state.8 Effectiveness of coping behaviors depends on the situation in which they are used. Some coping behaviors may work well for some situations but not for others.9 In general terms, coping are a strategy that helps people......

Words: 1000 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Mine

...PAGE # 1 Essentials of Corporate Finance, 7/e Solved McQs PAGE # 2 Introduction to Financial Management Q#1 Business finance includes determining which long-term assets a firm should purchase. A) True B) False Q#2 The board of directors has the power to act on behalf of the shareholders to hire and fire the operating managers of the firm. In a legal sense, the directors are "principals" and the shareholders are "agents." A) True B) False Q#3 In capital budgeting, the financial manager tries to identify investment opportunities that will increase the value of the firm. A) True B) False Q#4 Three advantages of the corporate form of organization are the ease of transfer of ownership, limited liability for the shareholders and an unlimited life for the business entity. A) True B) False Q#5 The intent of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 is to protect the public from accounting fraud and financial malpractice. A) True B) False Q#6 Financial managers are responsible for determining: I. how suppliers will be paid. II. the appropriate level of debt for a firm. III. which projects a firm should undertake. IV. how to invest the firm's cash. A) I and II only II and III only B) C) I, II and III only D) II, III and IV only E) I, II, III and IV Q#7 Ann is interested in purchasing Ted's factory. Since Ann is a poor negotiator, she hires Mary to negotiate a purchase price. Identify the parties to this transaction. A) Mary is the principal and Ann is the agent. B) Ted is the......

Words: 14965 - Pages: 60