Free Essay

Mineral Resource

In: Science

Submitted By omar130981
Words 7694
Pages 31
DEVELOPMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES OF BALOCHISTAN
Introduction
Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan with 44 percent landmass of the country but has 5.6 percent of the population. The province which is almost half of the country’s land mass has been receiving least attention by successive governments since independence. Therefore the huge potentials of this province to become a strong economical hub could not be exploited and till today it remains the poorest of all four provinces. Apparently a barren province from agriculture point of view is rich in its natural resources. Huge reserves of mineral deposits, gas, oil and long sea shore makes this province extremely attractive at regional as well as at international level. The absence of basic development infrastructure and effective strategy coupled with backwardness, scant population base, rugged terrain exploited by sub nationalist leaders and sardars continue to undermine the progress and socio economic development of the area.
Aim
To carry out an indepth analysis of vast potential of natural resources in Balochistan with a view to suggesting a pragmatic natural resource development strategy for the province.
Scope
The paper will be developed in the following sequence:- a. Part I: Balochistan – Some Facts. b. Part II: Natural Resources – Potentials and Constraints. c. Part III: Recommendations. d. Concl.

PART I
FACTS ABOUT BALOCHISTAN

Largest province of Pakistan, stretching over 44 percent of total area of the country. It is the most backward and least developed province with 5.6% of total country's population. The province spreads over an area of about 347,182 square kilometres. It has a population of 6.6 million people. The province has 26 districts and 60 Tehsils. Quetta is the capital of Balochistan.
|PROVINCE |DISTRICT |SUB |TEHSIL |SUB |
|/DIVISION | |DIVISION | |TEHSIL |
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
|Balochistan |26 |50 |60 |60 |
|Quetta |4 |9 |9 |1 |
|Zhob |5 |10 |8 |9 |
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
|Sibi |4 |9 |9 |7 |
|Nasirabad |4 |11 |9 |9 |
|Kalat |6 |14 |16 |17 |
|Makran |3 |7 |9 |8 |

Balochistan shares borders with Iran and Afghanistan. It has 723 miles long borderline with Afghanistan in the northwest and 520 miles borderline with Iran in the west. Indus Valley bounds it to the east and the Arabian Sea to the south. The Mackran coast lies opposite to the Straits of Hormuz, which is an important route of the oil tankers bound for Japan and the Western countries enroute to the Persian Gulf. a. Historical Perspective. Historically, Balochistan came under influence of British colonial rule in 1876. It had a divided status under colonial rule. British divided it into two regions from administrative point of view. While one region comprised of the princely states of Kalat, Kharan, Mekran and Lasbela, the other region was known as British Balochistan. After independence, the States of Kalat, Kharan, Mekran and Lasbela acceded to Pakistan. Balochislan remained as administrative unit under British rule, but it did not enjoy the status of province. It was denied all forms of reforms. It was deliberately kept backward and least attractive to foreign powers under colonial rule. It served as military base for the British due to its geo-strategic location. British in fact pursued a policy of containment against the expansionist designs of the Tsar of Russia, who had an eye on the strategically important Balochistan. b. Strategic Location. Geographically, the province is located at an easy access to the other three provinces of Pakistan and has very long borders with Afghanistan and Iran. Its proximity with Central Asian Republics enhances its strategic position. Balochistan is strategically located in a region of immense geo-political importance. It is situated at crossroad of South Asia, Central Asia and Middle East. The regions like Afghanistan, Iran and Arabian Gulf surround it, which are rich in oil and gas reserves. While on one hand it is located in the midst of oil and gas reserves, on the other side the most important international sea routes pass by Balochistan. It has the potential to become the centre of international trade. c. Unity in Diversity. Balochistan sets examples of unique amalgamation and mixture in geography, ecology, cultures and life-styles. Land of the province is characterized by set of paradoxes in terms of its physical features- uplands, plains, mountains and coastal areas. Whereas humid coastal areas like Mekran lie here, the arid and hottest areas of Kachhi plain and Kharan desert are also included in Balochistan. Not only the hottest place of Sibi but also the coldest place of Kanmehtarzai is located in this province. A unique amalgamation of modern life-style in urban areas and traditional and tribal life-style in rural areas gives different colours and shades to the social life in Balochistan. d. Tribal Society. Originally, Balochistan is a tribal and traditional society. The tribes in rural Balochistan strictly follow the tribal norms, traditions, customs and conventions. The Jirga or the gathering of tribal chiefs is still convened to resolve tribal feuds and vendetta between different tribes and hostile clans. Jirga in fact performs a peacekeeping role in the tribal society and its decisions are honoured and acted upon by the tribes. e. Multicultural Population. The major ethnic groups in the province are Baloch, Brahui and Pathans. Moreover, the Sindhi, Saraeki, Persian, Punjabi and Urdu speaking pockets of population also exist in different districts of the province. In short, Balochistan has a multicultural population. f. Climate. The province comprises of four distinct climate regions - tropical coastal region, sub tropical continental plateau, sub tropical continental low lands and sub tropical continental high lands. It has four geological regions- the Central Mountain Ranges, Chaghi hills and Raskoh Ranges, Mekran Mountain Ranges and the Kharan Basin. Temperate, tropical and coastal- the simultaneously three climates in Balochistan gives it distinction-and greater scope for growth of Agriculture and horticulture. The Five ecological zones due to the province's location with respect to height above sea level also provide it added importance and diversity in agriculture production. g. Coastal Belt. The province has 770-KM long coastal belt along the Arabian Sea, which links Lasbela and Gwadar districts. The coastline of Balochistan is 70% of Pakistan’s total coastal belt. It has huge potential for development of fisheries, tourism and seaports. h. Agriculture. Balochistan is a water-scarce and land-rich region in Pakistan. Agriculture development in Balochistan is linked to the development of water resources. Except Naseerabad district, there is no perennial system of irrigation in Balochistan. It depends on rain, Karezat and tube-wells for irrigation. Approximately 11.77 million acres of land in the province is still lying arid and uncultivated. j. Fruit Basket of Pakistan. Balochistan is highly suitable land for cultivation of fruit and growth of horticulture. The province produces millions of tones of fruits annually. Balochistan is rightly considered fruit basket of Pakistan. It contributes country's 90% production of grapes, cherry and almonds, 60% of peach, pomegranate, apricot and 34% of apple and 70% of dates. The date production of 130 varieties in Mekran may earn a large foreign exchange for the country by exporting it to foreign countries. The apples produced in Balochislan are popular all over the world for their peculiar taste, superb quality and a good variety. k. Livestock and Fisheries. The province is rich in livestock resources contributing about 40 per cent of Pakistan's total livestock population. It provides approximately 90 per cent of its total area for livestock raising. Balochistan's economy is basically a pastoral economy. The nomadic and transhumant livestock producers get 70 percent of feed for their livestock from pasture ranges in Balochistan. The huge sea resources including enormous fish and seafood potential of Balochistan feast is yet to be tapped. In real sense, Balochistan has been confined to merely on-shore water fishing due to lack of infrastructure facilities. l. Energy Resources. Balochistan is rich in Energy resources. It produces more than 40 percent of the primary energy of the country in the form of natural gas, coal and electricity. Geological surveys have reported reserves of 1.9 trillion cubic feet of gas and 6 trillion barrels of oil during offshore exploration in Balochistan. Only 500 million cubic feet of gas production per day was reported from Sui Gas fields in Dera Bugti in 1998 by Planning and Development department. Reports confirm huge reservoir of Petroleum and gas in Kalat, Kharan, Kohlu and Lasbela districts in Balochistan. m. Cultural Heritage. Balochistan is rich in cultural heritage. It has been at the crossroad of civilizations. The excavations at Mehar Garh (7000 B.C), older than that of Manjo Daro in Sindh, reveals that the province has been the cradle of civilizations. The cultural heritage of the province is as old as humanity itself. It inherited the relics of the Stone Age. The archeological sites and historical monuments discovered reveal human activity throughout the ages in the province. n. Handicrafts. Balochistan enjoys uniqueness, quality and diversity in handicrafts sector. The province is known for unique and intricate production of handicrafts particularly the fine mirror work, embroidery, marble work and fine quality precious stones. Baluchi embroidery is famous for its uniqueness and has the potential to capture local and international markets. o. Mineral Resources. Balocbistan is rich in mineral resources. Its tremendous mineral potential is yet to be tapped. A large number of metallic and non-metallic minerals are found in Balochistan, but among metallic minerals only Chromite is being mined since 1903. Among non-metallic minerals in exhaustive reserves of limestone occur in Balochistan. Other mineral deposits include barite, fluorite, gypsum/anhydrite, magnesite, marble and sulphur. The estimated reserves of all coalfields are 196 million tones. Balochistan has tremendous potential for copper mining as a number of prospects have already been identified, including the Saindak deposit in Chaghi. The total estimated iron ore reserves are about 273 million tones in Balochistan. So for thirty prospects of Zinc-Lead mineralization have been located in the Lasbela and Khuzdar districts. Manganese ore has been found in various localities of Lasbela and Khuzdar districts. p. Highways and Roads. About 35 percent of entire network of national Highways of the country pass through Balochistan. The international, national and inter-provincial Highways passing through Balochistan include Pak-Afghan Highway, Pak-Iran Highway, Balochistan-NWFP Highway, Balochistan-Sindh Highway and Balochislan-Punjab Highway. The roads in Balochistan are in dire need of repair and maintenance. Roads indicate fully the acute state of backwardness. The total black topped roads in the province are 2148 kilometers and shingle roads are 17098 kilometers. q. Environmental Resources. Balochistan is rich in environmental resources. The juniper forests of Ziarat and Harboi in the province are rated as second largest forests in the world. The province enjoys diversity in wildlife resources and is rich in biodiversity. It has biologically significant habitats of animals, birds and other species rarely found in the world. r. Tourism. Balochistan is rich in tourism resources. By virtue of its natural treasure trove, captivating scenery, significant sites of multi fold importance, variety of flora and fauna, diversity of climates and unique geology, it possess huge potentials in tourism. The province can emerge as prime focus of attention of foreign tourists for its archaeological importance. Discovery of first Dinosaur fossil at Barkhan district in the province has opened new vistas of study and research for vertebrate palaeontologists, taxonomists and ecologists from all over the world.

PART II NATURAL RESOURCES- POTENTIALS AND CONSTRAINTS
Minerals and Mining
Minerals are considered of immense importance for their vast applications in the fields of electronics, optics, advanced materials and environmental sustainability. Today, the Industrialized and developed nations have tremendous consumption of minerals. The trade and production of minerals indicate the socio-economic development of a nation-state. Control over mineral resources, their mining and production serve as major indicators of progress of the country. Mineral Potential of Balochistan. Balochistan is known for its tremendous potential in mineral sector. The changing geopolitical realities and emerging shape of future warfare, which is highly likely to be a fight over control of natural resources demands that Balochistan mineral potential is tapped efficiently, immediately and honestly. Unfortunately, no crucial efforts were made, from the very outset to explore and exploit colossal potential in mining and minerals in the province. Pakistan can save a huge amount, which is spent on the import of minerals each year and earn a large foreign exchange by exporting minerals, and its products. The Pakistan import bill of mineral and its products has been on rise with the surge in the consumption in the country. Pakistan Steel's cost of production could not be reduced due to import of iron. Saindak project could make Pakistan one of the major copper producers and exporter in the world increasing its foreign exchange reserves, but the project was closed when it had reached the production stage. No government in the past realized the need to develop mineral resources of Balochistan in real terms. If some steps were taken in the past, the vested interests blocked the way of such moves. Some practical efforts were made by present administration. The Saindak Copper-Gold project was revived and given to Chinese on lease. Similarly, Pak Steel signed an agreement for buying iron ore reserves at Dilband, District Mastung Balochistan for using it in Steel Mill. Balochistan abounds in both metallic and non-metallic minerals. Only Chromite is being mined since 1903 among metallic minerals. Other mineral deposits include barite, fluorite, gypsum/anhydrite, limestone/dolomite, magnetite, marble and sulphur. Coal resources are also found in Balochistan. a. Metallic Minerals 1) Chromite. There are a number of deposits of Chromite in various parts of Blochistan. Presently Chromite is being produced from Muslimbagh, Qilla Saifullah, Wadh, Khuzdar and Kharan. 2) Copper. Balochistan has tremendous potential for copper mining as a number of prospects have already been identified, including the Saindak deposit in Chaghi. Out of 20 prospects the major ones are at Koh-I-Dilal, Dasht-e-Kain and Durbanchah. 3) Iron Ore. The total estimated iron ore reserves are about 273 million tones in Balochistan. Iron ore deposits in Chaghi are located in Pachin Koh, Chigendik and Chilghazi areas. The reserves in Pachinkoh, Chigendik and Chilghazi are 45 MT, 5 MT and 23 respectively. 4) Lead & Zinc Ores. So for thirty prospects of Zinc-Lead mineralizations have been located in the Lasbela Khuzdar districts. Three significant deposits have been evaluated and estimated reserves at Duddar are 10 million tones, Ounga 18 million tones and the Surmai 3 million tones of zinc-lead ores. 5) Manganese Ore. Manganese ore has been found in various localities of Lasbela-Khuzdar districts. The significant deposits are at Khisona Khal, Madohi and Srumajo around Sonaro village Khuzdar District.

b. Non-Metallic Minerals 1) Limestone And Dolomite. Limestone and dolomite are the principal carbonate rocks of sedimentary origin. Limestone of tertiary and Mesozoic ages are extensively exposed in Quetta, Loralai, Sibi, Khuzdar and Lasbela districts, particularly in the vicinity of Bolan Pass, Khost, Sharigh, Hamai and Spintangi. The limestone reserves are in billions of tones. Dolomite reserves are not exactly estimated but very large deposit occurs near Lak Pass, west of Quetta valley. 2) Magnetite. Magnetite is a carbonate of magnesium. The magnetite deposits are located in Muslimbagh, Qilla Saifullah district and Baran Lak, Khuzdar district. 3) Marble. Marble in Chaghi district is of onyx variety and is being mined since 1950's. Commercial marble occurs at a number of localities in Lasbela, Khuzdar and Chaghi districts. 4) Sulphur. Sulphur medium size deposit occurs at Koh-i-Sultan, Chaghi district and small size deposit at Sanni, Kachhi district. Total estimated reserves of Sulphur are about 937,000 tones in the province. 5) Barite. Barite is found in nature as sulphate of barium. The barite deposits are located in Duddar, Lasbela, Gunga, Surmai and Khuzdar district. Currently Gunga deposits are the principal producers of barite in the country. The total estimated reserves of Ganga, Surmai and Duddar deposits are over 30 million tones. 6) Fluorite. Significant reserves of fluorite occur at Maran, Pad-Maran and Dilband areas of Kalat and Mastung districts. The total estimated reserves are about 100,000 tones. 7) Gypsum. Gypsum is used as the construction materials, soil conditioner and in cement industries. Substantial reserves of Gypsum and anhydrite occur at Spintangi in Sibi district, Chamalang-Bahlol in Loralai district and Nisau-Vitakri in Kohlu district in Balochistan. Total reserves have been estimated over 300 million tones in the province.
Agriculture Sector
There is no dearth of landmass, as Balochistan is the largest province in the country with respect to area. With four ecological zones, Baloehistan has great potential for development of Agriculture. Agriculture is the main constituent of local economy. The crops contribute about 62 percent of gross farms income. This sector employs 67 percent of Balochistan's total work force. Development of Agriculture in Balochistan would stimulate, revive and strengthen not only the provincial economy but also the national economy. Naseerabad, Jafarabad, Dera Murad Jamali and Usta Mohammed and many areas of central Balochistan are considered Agricultural regions of the province. Agriculture Potentials of Balochistan. Balochistan has vast potential and scope in farming sector for holding simultaneously the coastal, tropical and temperate climates and the five ecological zones. It was for the first time that present government took serious measures to develop Balochistan’s potential in farming sector. It promoted cotton growing culture in rural areas of Balochistan providing official patronage to the locals. In the year 2001-02, Balochistan produced 112,000 bales of cotton, more than the estimated target of 10,0000. At present, Balochistan is not self-sufficient in food. A strategy for increasing the cultivated area and per unit production should be followed to tap efficiently the high agrarian potential of Balochistan. Water Scarcity. Balochistan is a water-scarce and land-rich region in Pakistan. Agriculture development in Balochislan is linked to the development of water resources. Agriculture in the province with respect to source of water may be classified as canal irrigated, Karezat irrigated, tube-well irrigated and rain fall agriculture. The underground water channels system locally known as Karezat is one of the oldest systems of irrigation in Balochislan. In the year 2002, the Government spent Rs 4 million to revive Karezat system in the province. 1186 Karezat in different parts of the province are in dire need of rehabilitation. Plight of Growers. No development in agriculture can take place without improving the plight of growers. The Balochistan cultivators are faced with a diversity of problems. Some of them are highlighted as under:- a. They cannot pay high bills of electricity consumption, as their production cost always goes higher. b. The growers utilize all their available resources to have a good yield, but often they are deprived of the fruit of their labour. Natural Calamities. Agriculture in Balochistan always remains exposed to the threat of natural calamities like light and heavy rains, spell of drought which bring disaster to agriculture and livestock in the province. In last drought, nearly 1.2 million fruit trees were totally and 0.8 million fruit trees were partially dried up by the drought devastating the agricultural economy of the province.
Prospects. Agriculture in Balochistan needs to be organized on modern and scientific lines with a view to optimize the productivity of soils and improve the socio-economic conditions of small farmers. The challenges of 21st century can only be met through a shift from traditional to a technology based farming system in the province. This would require the use of appropriate agricultural inputs in technologically feasible and economically profitable manner. Pakistan is faced with the challenge of producing more food and fibre. A marked improvement in agriculture of Balochistan can produce surplus food and other value added products for export. The International experts have recognized the finest quality cotton production in Balochistan matching the one produced in Egypt. The cotton produced in the province is long staple and taint free ensuring a premium price. With the completion of Kachhi canal project within stipulated period of four years, the cotton production will enhance bringing a revolution in Agriculture in Balochistan. There high expectations that Kachhi canal area would develop as cotton growing producing nearly six million bales of finest quality cotton and earning huge foreign exchange for Pakistan.
Livestock
Leather industry, carpet industry and dairy farming are the main consumers of livestock produced in Balochistan. Balochistan caters to the needs and demands of leather and carpet industries in Pakistan by sustaining the supply of wool to these sectors. The export of leather to foreign countries fetches a handsome amount in terms of foreign exchange for Pakistan. The export potential in this sector needs comprehensive and viable Strategies to be tapped fully and efficiently. Pakistan has a rich and diverse livestock sector that plays a significant socio-economic role providing the livelihood to the majority of rural population. It contributes 9.7 percent in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Pakistan earns valuable foreign exchange of around 100 million dollar by exporting livestock to Middle East and other countries. It is a net source of foreign exchange earning and 12.3 percent exports of the country are derived from livestock and livestock products. Livestock plays a vital role in the agricultural sector. It constitutes 40 percent of Agriculture sector, which ultimately contributes to 25 percent in the national income. Pakistan is not only self-sufficient in the livestock sector but is also exporting animals, meat and other products. Production of livestock should increase in relation to increase in population of the country. Contrary to this, livestock production is not growing with much speed as the population is increasing in Pakistan. That is why, the prices of meat go higher and higher in the country. The private sector should make investment to meet the growing demand of livestock in the country and abroad. Integrated efforts are vital to generating livestock development activities to attain required pace of progress for improvement of national economy. The exploitation of enormous potential is must for development of livestock including inland fisheries. Potential And Constraints. Balochistan's economy is basically a pastoral economy. It depends upon pastures and rangelands supporting about 40 percent of the country's total livestock population. The large lands constitute about 90 percent of the total area of Balochistan and out of this 65 percent are good for grazing. Unfortunately, the livestock development ever received least attention from the successive governments in Balochistan. In other words, vast potential in this sector could not be developed following inconsistent policies and no comprehensive development programs in the past. Huge potential in livestock sector is yet to be tapped. It is the key sector of provincial economy contributing 20 percent of provincial GDP. It is the primary sustainable source of living for about 80 percent of the population of Balochistan. According to rough estimate, more than 30 million of livestock is found in the province. Balochistan maintains 10.841 million sheep, 9.369 million goats, 1.341 million cattle, 14.964 million poultry and 0.750 million other livestock. About 120,000 livestock producers or flock owners are engaged in livestock raising in Balochistan. Reforms and Development Schemes. There is a need to improve the quality of livestock and allied products in the province for taping the tremendous export potential in this sector. Under present government, five schemes were launched for sustainable development of livestock sector. No doubt, livestock is the backbone of Agriculture sector in Pakistan. This sector needs vital reforms for its improvement and enhancement of production. Structural changes were made in line with the devolution plan in the re organizational setup of the department in Balochistan for improving its efficiency and revenue generation. The reforms were fruitful to a great extent. Government collected an amount of Rs. 19.099 million from the Government dairy, poultry, sheep farms, in an year. During FY 1999-2000, Rs.86.722 million foreign-funded projects vaccinated 6.5 mill livestock in Balochistan against various diseases. During FY 2002-2003, RS.57 million were allocated to run seven schemes in Livestock sector to improve production and introduce new technology for animal feed shortage. The 9th five year plan for the province of Balochistan attached high priority to live stock. Emphasis was on increase in productivity, improving feed and fodder, improving coverage of animal health care, provision of extension services, marketing systems and intensification of relations with private sector.

Energy Sector

It is undeniable fact that oil, gas and coal are the main sources of energy of today's world, which meet 75% of global energy needs. These energy sources played a key role in socio-economic uplift of the people and improved quality of life worldwide. Balochistan is strategically located in a region of immense geo-political importance. It is surrounded by the regions like Afghanistan, Iran and Arabian Gulf, which are rich in oil and gas reserves. While on one hand it is located in the midst of oil and gas reserves, on the other side the most important international sea routes pass by Balochistan. It has the potential to become the center of international trade and the politics also.

Oil and Gas. Balochistan has become center of attention for foreign petroleum firms. The international players of oil politics have focused their eye on huge oil and gas reserves still unexplored in Balochistan. Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL) has been dominating the area of oil exploration for many decades in Balochistan. The Chinese company (BGP) is reportedly resuming the seismic and aerial survey in Bugti tribal area shortly. The company had suspended the survey in Sui in the year 2001 due to security reasons. Balochistan produces more than 40 percent of the primary energy of the country in the form of natural gas, coal and electricity. Geological surveys have reported reserves of 19 trillion cubic feet of gas and 6 trillion barrels of oil during offshore exploration in Balochistan. Only 500 million cubic feet of gas production per day was reported from Sui Gas fields in Dera Bugti in 1998 by Planning and Development department. Reports confirm huge reserves of Petroleum and gas in Kalat, Kharan, Kohlu and Lasbela districts in Balochistan.

Oil & Gas Exploration in Balochistan

a. In 1952 Pakistan Petroleum Ltd discovered a huge natural gas field at Sui in Bugti tribal area in Balochistan. It was the seventh largest gas field in the world and the biggest in Pakistan at that time. From that day the natural gas got name and fame as "Sui gas' all over the country.

b. The gas reserves discovered in Sui were to the tune of 9.625 trillion cubic feet. This being the biggest gas reserve in Pakistan, is a real asset for the economic development of the country. The Sui Gas Field is still the single largest gas field in Pakistan.

c. At present, the Sui Gas Field produces around 800 MMscf of natural gas daily from 87 wells completed during 48 years of production. It is the pioneer gas-producing field. The quantum of natural gas production from Sui gas field is a vital source of huge foreign exchange savings for the country as the same would have been spent on the import of energy had the gas reserves, in abundance not been discovered.

d. As the consumption of Sui gas increased manifold, the pressure decreased. However, after the installation of most sophisticated state-of-the-art compressor station costing million of dollars, the Sui Field Gas Compressor Station stands tall and works at 99.9 percent efficiency level.

Ongoing Exploration and Development Activities

a. Under its ongoing exploratory program, the Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) is following an aggressive exploration strategy and plans to drill 100 exploratory wells in the country by the end of June 2008. The company has also joined hands with a French company to explore in off-shore blocks comprising 15,000 sq km area.

b. The Government recently granted a Petroleum Exploration License to an international investment company - and a local company for Zhob district in Balochistan province. The license has been awarded covering an area of 1120.39 square kilometers. Under the agreement, the company will make a minimum investment of $0.405 million in the first three years with an additional contingent investment of $4.5 million based on the outcome of results of the first phase.

c. Earlier, the government granted Petroleum exploration license to another local company (Lasmo Oil Pakistan Limited) covering an area of 2482.44 square kilometers in district Lasbela and Khuzdar. According to the agreement signed with the company, it would make an investment of $0.72 million in the first two years with an additional contingent investment of $1.6 million based on the outcome of results of the first two years.

Geological studies have proved that the oil reserves are found below the gas (methane) reserves. Oil and gas are the hydrocarbons, which are today to be the symbol of riches. The province is endowed with vast hydrocarbon reserves. Any discovery of a huge oil reserve in Balochistan may change the fortune of Pakistan. Oil exploration in Balochistan should not be limited to Marri-Bugti Area but other districts- Sunny Shoran, Kharan, Zarghoon area, Chaghi, Lasbela, Bolan, Mekran and Coastal regions may be explored.

Coal. Coal is the cheapest source of thermal energy used in industrial sector. It has the potential to replace other expensive fuels such as furnace oil. In this regard, the first sector, which is in the process of switching over from oil to coal, is the cement industry.

Balochistan possesses huge reserves of coal. The estimated reserves of all coal fields in the province are 196 m tons. Presently about 1.5 m tons of coal is being mined from the coal fields of Balochistan. Coal is being exploited from the coalfields at Mach, Khost-Harnai, Dukki, Sor Range-Deghari and Pir Ismail Ziarat in Balochistan. Local production of coal is estimated at three million tons out of which over 80 percent is being utilized by brick kilns, while the rest is being consumed by cement plants in blending it with the imported coal to reduce the cost of production. About one percent of local coal is utilized by power stations.

For absence of significant market, the production of coal remained stagnant for the period of last 15 years in Balochistan. Coal is a provincial subject in energy subsector. It is regulated by the government of Balochistan. The provincial government plays key role in mining, production and marketing of coal. Private sector is also playing important role in coal production in the province.

Potentials and Constraints

a. Current estimates are that requirement of foreign coal for the consumption in Pakistan's cement industry may increase to three million tons in the next three years in view of the rising number of cement makers switching over to coal from fuel oil.

b. According to an estimate, the cement industry utilized one million tons of imported coal worth $35 million this year despite the availability of indigenous coal at much cheaper rates. This coal was imported from South Africa and Indonesia.

c. Need For a Coal-Washing Plant. The increasing dependence of cement plants on imported coal necessitates the establishment of coal washing plants to produce coal of specific standard meeting the requirements of cement plants.

Electricity & Electrification. Electricity is the major constituent of energy sources consumed in Balochistan. Fourteen thermal power stations including Quetta and Pasni power stations are in operation in the province. These stations provide electricity to the national grid. The total installed capacity of thermal power houses in public sector is 116 megawatts. The districts in Central and Northern Balochistan, are getting enough electricity from different directions. There are two main power transmission lines from Guddu, mainly Sibi and Jacobabad, connecting Quetta and other regions. Moreover, the Habibullah Coastal Power Plant in private sector can also meet the additional power requirements of Quetta and other areas. Gwadar is going to become the mother port of the region. It would need enough electricity to meet the demands of its future commercial and industrial estates. The future port city of Gwadar will have power supply from the Pasni Power House, the Panjgur Power Plant and Iran.

Development Projects

a. Electrification is considered highly complicated and costly due to the vastness, remoteness and backwardness of area and scattered nature of population in Balochistan.

b. Under the present government 132KV 'Khad Koocha' grid station in Mastung was constructed. This project cost Rs.50 million. With this grid station, agricultural economy of the area is expected to take a high boost, where the drought played havoc with agriculture and livestock aggravating the grievances of local masses.

c. The construction of 132KV grid station in Kohlu is included in the development program of WAPDA, however, Rs 6.1 million are needed to complete the work on Kohlu grid station.

d. QESCO is undertaking the task to improve the electricity supply system in Balochistan. The performance of QESCO in capacity of organization in the public service sector has been good. It is however contended that QESCO has to do more in this context.

e. The QESCO started supplying electricity to the people of Mekran after getting supply from the Iranian power transmission line system on September 8, 2003. The QESCO has constructed the power transmission lines and finally connected it with Iranian grid system. It spent Rs 138 million on building the power transmission system. Iran is supplying electricity through its 132KV line.

f. With the supply of power from Iran, the QESCO made a saving of Rs 700 million. According to an estimate, Mekran needs 17.5 Megawatt of electricity. Iran will supply 30 MW, so the additional power supply will be used by the growers, industrialists and farmers.

Solar Energy. In a broadest sense, solar energy supports all life on earth and is basis of almost every form of energy which we use. Amount of solar energy that falls on earth is enormous, yet its accounts for only 1 percent of global energy source being used.

It is convincing proposition that the development and adoption of solar energy technology in Pakistan and particularly Balochistan can bring a revolution in the life style and living standards of low-income people living in remote areas.

Potentials and Constraints. Lack of infrastructure, required know how and absence of target oriented research and development are the bottlenecks in adaptation of solar energy on mass scale. That is why the role of solar energy has been negligible in the total energy picture of Pakistan. Solar energy has so far been used in the country only for demonstration purpose. The experiments in the past in this area were not so successful due to variety of reasons including lack of understanding and poor handling of this technology. Notwithstanding to above, realization among government circles is increasing about the necessity of using solar energy for the purpose of saving the environment and socio-economic uplift of the people living in the remote areas. Thar in Sindh and entire Balochistan province is considered ideal for utilization of solar energy. In Balochistan, 80% of the population lives in rural areas with a thin density with absolutely no road approach. 85% of the villages are yet to be electrified. Light is only requirement of these villages which can be provided to them through use of solar energy.

PART III
RECOMMENDATIONS

Minerals and Mining a. The private firms and foreign companies should be invited to explore and exploit the tremendous mineral potential of Balochistan. Government of Pakistan should facilitate the exploration and evaluation surveys conducted by these firms ensuring security of foreigners in the areas. b. Following the precedent of Saindak Project, other projects for mining should also be given on lease in Balochistan. The lease contracts should be conditional to training of Pakistanis by foreign experts and generation of jobs for local youth in the project. These conditions will ensure a sustainable process of socio-economic process in the province. c. The government of Pakistan must establish Export Processing Zones (EPZ) in different districts of Balochistan where mining and production of metals are underway by the experts. The utilization of EPZ facilities by foreign companies would bring foreign investment in mineral sector in Pakistan. There are other indirect benefits of establishing EPZ such as income from taxation, development of rural areas, infrastructure and support industries and poverty alleviation. d. The optimum use of indigenous minerals should be legalized in the industry in Pakistan to reduce import bill and cost of production. In short, indigenization should be encouraged in this context. e. Government should take stringent measure to cleanse corruption within the domain of export and import of minerals. f. Use of Dilband Iron Ore in Pak Steel. Pakistan Steel could tap the tremendous potential in mineral sector by making optimum use of indigenous iron ore deposits at Dilband. It is estimated that this will save country at least Rs. 200 million per year in foreign exchange. g. Capitalizing Chromite Sector. The most important ore of chromium is Chromite. Chromite is the sole source of chromium used commercially. As an alloying element, it plays an mportant role in metallurgy. The export from Chromite during 2001-02 has been to Rs 404 million. This sector should be capitalized to get maximum benefits. h. Mining of Marble. Marble is largely used in construction and handicrafts sectors. Marble slabs and handicrafts have great demand in national and international market. Pakistan earned $15.8 million foreign exchange with the export of marble during FY 2001-02. The 40 per cent export of the marble was in the shape of handicraft while, the rest of 60 per cent in slabs and bricks form. Pakistan exports marble to USA, Dubai, Korea and Bangladesh while the European countries should be considered potential markets. Mechanization of marble mining is highly needed to capture world marble markets. The Government should take steps to mechanize the marble industry and increase the export of marble in international markets through its better marketing. Export Promotion Bureau (EPB) can play a significant role in tapping the marble export potential of Pakistan. j. There is a need to replace primitive mining methods by modern technologies and strategies of metal mining, which are used in Europe, United States, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. k. Lead & Zinc Project. Balochislan is rich in zinc and lead resources. The estimated reserves at Duddar are 10 million tones, Gunga 18 million tones and the Surmai 3 million tones of zinc-lead ores. Pakistan and China signed a Memorandum of Understanding on March 22, 2002 for the Duddhar Lead Zinc Project in Balochistan. Under the agreement, MCC will invest $ 70 million for the exploitation and development of lead zinc deposits that are estimated at over 14 million tons. Pakistan would have no need to import Lead and zinc. It is expected that the country will soon be an important producer of zinc-lead ore. The project should not stop in the midway. l. Copper Resource Development. The development of copper resources in district Chaghi can bring economic bonanza for Pakistan. Chaghi district in Balochistan is rich in mineral resources. It acquired fame internationally for having huge deposits of copper. An Australian mineral Exploration Company reportedly estimated 78 million tones of copper deposits are present in Chaghi at a grade of 0.8 percent copper. Serious effort vis-a-vis development of copper resources can make Pakistan one of the major copper producers in the world. The international experts have compiled Saindak copper of excellent quality in their survey reports. The copper produced during trial period of 45 days in 1995 was sold in international market at a price of RS.280 million. Saindak Copper and Gold project must be provided security by Government in the interest of country at the same time transfer of technology to own engineers. m. Reko-Dik Copper Project. Reko-Dik mining project has the potential to emerge as second Mega copper and gold project after Saindak in Balochistan. An Australian mineral exploration firm- (TCC) is investing $ one billion in Reko-Dik Copper Project at District Chaghi in Balochistan. The company planned to start the Riko-Dik copper mining project in 2003 with an investment of $130 million. TCC has been actively involved in exploration work at Reko-Dik in Chaghi for the three years. Apart from providing protection, Government must ensure transfer of technology.

Agriculture Sector a. Government should encourage the small farmers by initiating an easy loaning policy for them to get bulldozers and tractors so that acute problem of land levelling and land development in remote areas of the province, could be resolved. b. The steps and measures must be taken for construction of farm to market roads, establishment of agro based industries, provision of storage and processing facilities for agro products and farm mechanization to bring green revolution in the province. c. Cotton and other agricultural products must be encouraged with good pay back policies to the farmers. d. The strategies should be made to tap the underground water resources in various districts of the province. e. If the windmill experimental projects meet success, this would bring a revolution in Agriculture of Balochistan. f. The government must devise a comprehensive strategy to resolve the water disputes among the provinces. g. The government should encourage the cultivators in Balochislan by allowing concession in their electricity bills. Similarly, they should be provided tube well connections according to their needs at subsidized rates.
Live Stock a. There is a high need to take steps for making available the green fodder and a health cover for livestock round the year to get improved breed and good production in the Province. b. There is also a need to establish vertical linkages of small-scale producers with processors and marketers to bring improvement in this important sector. c. Modern techniques of milk preservation should be adopted and more chilling units for collection of milk from rural areas be established. d. The Government should be ready to deal with any calamity like drought and homework for its recurrence should be done. The drought played havoc with this important sector of provincial economy in recent past years. A comprehensive strategy to combat drought recurrence is urgently needed to save Agriculture and Livestock in the province. e. For development of livestock in the province, efforts must be focused on quality and marketing aspects. For the improvement of livestock, proper attention should be paid towards maintenance of disease free herds, germless improvement and storage arrangements for poultry products, meat, milk and other dairy products. Energy Sector a. Balochistan has huge potential for oil and gas exploration that needs to be tapped by granting maximum exploration licenses to foreign and Pakistani oil and gas exploration companies. This will bring foreign investment in the country enhancing production and, minimizing oil import bill and ultimately saving huge amount of foreign exchange. b. More coal thermal power plants may be established to meet the energy needs of the province. According to an estimate a 50 megawatt thermal power plant consumes 170,000 tons of coal per annum. c. Use of coal instead of furnace oil would result in saving of nearly Rs495 million per year for a plant producing 3000 tons of cement per day. In terms of dollar the national exchequer would save $170 million if the cement sector runs on 100 per cent capacity. At the present rate of 63 per cent production the saving would be about $100 million a year. d. Pakistan is ideally located in the sun belt to take advantage of solar energy. Balochistan province is particularly rich in solar energy with highest annual mean sunshine in the world. The need is to design and implement an integrated long run plan to develop / adapt technology to benefit from this gift of nature. The ingredients of a successful plan may be enhanced R&D, gaining technical know how through learning from experience of countries at advanced stages of solar technology and creating awareness among masses to identify their needs so that these sources could be controlled by local communities and their organizations for the uplift of their own self. Misc a. The government should guarantee the protection of legitimate interests of local people and provide jobs to local youth in foreign funded projects before launching any project in Balochistan. b. It is also a fact that economic development of an area is vitally linked to the security situation. The Government of Pakistan and its agencies must ensure security and safety of the foreign experts and engineers carrying out survey and other development work in Balochistan. It is better to create and maintain a stable socio-political environment for ensuring a sustainable process of economic development in the country. c. Role of Media. Role of media can be exploited by highlighting the tremendous potentials of Balochistan in terms of Natural resources so that this potential is projected at national and international level. This will not only attract foreign investment but will also give a boost to development projects in Balochistan. d. There is a dire need of establishing and maintaining merit at secondary, higher and professional levels of education. The province needs human capital for sustaining the process of economic development which can only be provided by the quality educational and technical training institutions. This implicates increase in allotment of budget for education sector.
Conclusion
Balochistan being an important part and inescapably linked to our national existence has historically been a poor and backward province. Its natural resources, geo-political contiguity and virgin seashores afford enormous potentials for development and prosperity. It is the time to accord Balochistan top priority in all socio-economic development and investment projects, thereby comprehensively addressing all misgivings and inadequacies tarnishing its image as strong and vibrant Province.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

‘Economic Development of Balochistan’ By Syed Fazl–e–Haider, Chairman Department of Economics, University of Balochistan.

Article on ‘Socio – Economic Development of Pakistan’ By Zawar Haider Kazmi, Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan.

www.syedfazlehaider.com

www.balochistan.org.pk/dp.htm

www.balochistan.org.pk/news.cfm

Environmental Profile Blochistan.

Mineral Statistics of Pakistan.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Mineral Resources - Oman

...The Sultanate’s mineral resources include chromite, dolomite, zinc, limestone, gypsum, silica, copper, gold, cobalt and iron, to name but a few. Several industries have grown up around them as part of the national development process which, in turn, have boosted the minerals sector’s contribution to the nation’s GDP as well as providing jobs for Omanis. Picture illustrate : 1) Chalcedony 2) Massive chalcopyrite 3) Marblized calacite 4) Albite feldspar 5) Specular hematite 6) Pyrite crystals Copper has been mined in Oman for thousands of years. The mineral sector’s operations include mining and quarrying. Several projects have recently been completed including: an economic feasibility study on silica ore in Wadi Buwa and Abutan in the Wusta Region, which confirmed that there were exploitable reserves of around 28 million tonnes at the two sites; a feasibility study on the production of magnesium metal from dolomite ore; a draft study on processing limestone derivatives; a project to produce geological maps of the Sharqiyah Region (Ibra); economic feasibility studies on the exploitation of gold and copper ores in the Ghaizeen area; a study on raw materials in the wilayats of Duqm and Sur for use in the Sultanate’s cement industry; and a study on the construction of a new minerals laboratory in Ghala in the Governorate of Muscat The sultanate produces copper, chromite, gold, and silver. Oman's main copper reserves are in the Suhar area on the Al Batinah......

Words: 2566 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Science

...thinnest zone of the earth. The tectonic plates are various sized areas of the earth’s lithosphere that move slowly around with the mantle’s flowing asthenosphere. The lithosphere is the outer shell of the earth, composed of the crust and the rigid, outermost part of the mantle outside the asthenosphere. A transform vault is an area where the earth’s lithospheric plates move in opposite but parallel directions along a fracture in the lithosphere. Weathering is the physical and chemical processes in which solid rock exposed at earth’s surface is changed to separate solid particles and dissolved material which can then be moved to another place as sediment. Its important because it is part of the rock cycle and the process releases nutrients and minerals to the soil and water for plants and animals to use. A volcano is a vent or fissure in the earth’s surface through which magma, liquid lava, and gases are released into the environment. The nature...

Words: 2213 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Infrastructure of Turkish

...Infrastructure Transportation Main transportation system in Turkey is a road traffic both in passenger and cargo. Turkey have a government managed train system called TCDD (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları) which has 10,940km long railroad. However, there are few trains on that line so that it is exceedingly not convenient. Also, stations and other facilities are not well developed and becoming superannuated. In 2004, TCDD introduced new train vehicle which is able to run as maximum speed of 160km/h. Though, that train causes a derailment accident and 39 people dead because of an insufficient railroad equipment. This accident triggered to decrease a nation’s confidence at train system and the number of passengers of railroad also decreased. Turkish government most focus on road maintenance and improvement. Domestic road network has 63,220km long (in 2004). Not only the cargo transportation but also the passenger transportation is mainly ran by buses bus terminal called “Otogal” and there are many bus company exists and provide many tracks as very often frequency of service. In Turkey, because of the nation’s compensation of employees are still low, and the very high percentage of taxes in gasoline, diffusion rate of car is low. In agricultural area, people uses tractor or horse to transport people and crops. In 2013 there were 98 airports in Turkey, including 22 international airports. In 2014, Istanbul Atatürk Airport is the 13th busiest airport in the world,...

Words: 553 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Rocks and Minerals - a Reflection Essay

...it’s not what we think, that even the smallest thing we learn might be as important and significant as the big ones. In these five different chapters that we’ve tackled and talked over throughout the prelim period, I’ve learned certain things which to somewhat extent can be used and applied in real life situations. For example, minerals. Did we know that we use minerals in our everyday activities? Without them, there would be no cars, trains or planes. I wouldn’t be able to clean my teeth or wash my clothes. Clocks, watches and jewelry, tin cans and aluminum foil - all minerals! And of course, I wouldn't be sitting down, looking at a computer, and making and reading this now if it weren't for minerals. Where would I be without light bulbs? If tungsten in light bulbs are omitted? How can I write without a paper which is made up of minerals? How can I put pen to paper without minerals? How can a house or school be beautified without minerals that are used in making ceramic flower pots? How I can draw the things I view on a microscope in our Anatomy and Physiology using a pencil without minerals? Minerals are important to humans. Mineral resources in the form of metallic and nonmetallic are both used in different ways, in such a way these metals are used for making machines, roads and buildings, computer chips, ceramics, electric circuits; and diamonds and corundum for abrasives and jewelry. Can you picture a world...

Words: 517 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Investigating Secondary Dispersion Patterns of Indicator Minerals Using Gis

...Picturing the Subsurface With GIS: Data Visualization Techniques for Geophysical Images Using ArcGIS By Lucas Donny Setijadji Geoscientists try to understand the earth's crust using geophysical methods such as gravity and magnetic surveys. Mining geologists also use geophysics to search new mineral deposits. In areas such as the Nevada Great Basin, geoscientists rely more on geophysical images than on geologic maps. The Great Basin area holds one of the biggest mineral concentrations in the world. Economically, gold is the most prominent commodity. The most important gold deposits are hosted by carbonate rocks, called the Carlin-type and Carlin-like gold deposits. Carlin-type and Carlin-like gold deposits are unique geologically, are abundant in Nevada, and are hardly found elsewhere. Although much research has been done, a lot of the geology is still unclear. This paper discusses how ArcGIS provides a tool for research on mineral resources. Emphasis is on the functionality of ArcGIS to handle multiple data sets and maps as well as data visualization techniques using ArcGIS. Great Basin Geology Figure 1 shows the distribution of known gold deposits combined with topography, young geologic rocks, and county lines. Data sets were downloaded and compiled from several United States Geological Survey (USGS) Web sites (e.g., Raines et al., 1996). Data processing was done using ArcGIS 8.3 and its 3D Analyst extension. The Great Basin is complicated by its......

Words: 1947 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Kyoto Protocol and Global Warming Evaluation

...Edwards Plateau Aquifer Kathryn Matthews University of Phoenix Through time and the history of the Earth, many events have shaped the land and regions we all, as humans, know so well. One thing is certain, without the resources of our planet home, we would not survive. The natural resources of, air, plants and animal life for food, water, Sunshine, and the Earth and land, we are able to live and breed to continue onward. In this presentation, the element of water resources will be explored and given a voice and praise. We will look at one water source, in particular, the Edwards Plateau Aquifer. This Aquifer developed over millions of years’ time, to be the faithful water supplier we all know in Texas. The water is naturally cycled through limestone and still needs some treatment after it has been in the ground in this matrix of limestone rock beneath. This water supplies many towns and cities in the region and spans thirteen counties. It is fed by rivers, creeks, and tributaries along the distance (Eckhardt, 2011). Because of the cracks, faults, fractures, sinkholes, and caves, the rivers and streams too, can be contaminated carrying the pollutants to the recharge zone, therefore it must be checked often for quality control. The Edwards Aquifer Authority, along with other groups, like the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, and the U.S.......

Words: 1119 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Study Guide

...Study Guide: Midterm Exam Concentrate your studies in the following areas. Questions for the Midterm Exam will come principally from this material. Lutgens and Tarbuck Textbook: Minerals (Chapter 1) * Know the definition of a mineral. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance that is solid and inorganic representable by a chemical formula, usually abiogenic, and has an ordered atomic structure. It is different from a rock, which can be an aggregate of minerals or non-minerals and does not have a specific chemical composition. The exact definition of a mineral is under debate, especially with respect to the requirement a valid species be abiogenic, and to a lesser extent with regard to it having an ordered atomic structure. * Know the basic definition of a rock. * In geology, rock is a naturally occurring solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, the common rock granite is a combination of the quartz, feldspar and biotite minerals. The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock. * Know how atoms of the same element are related. What do they have in common? All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons in the nucleus and consequently have the same atomic number. All atoms of the same neutral element have the same number of electrons as well. Atoms of an element usually have the same number of neutrons as protons. Atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons are called......

Words: 14858 - Pages: 60

Free Essay

Australian Acquisition Proves Rich Seam for Szln

...With the Australian mining industry particularly hard-hit by the international financial downturn, one enterprising Chinese business has managed to provide a lifeline for one ailing Perth-based metal mining company, whilst also establishing a bargain basement foothold in this hugely lucrative market. The deal came as Perilya Limited, a 22-year old base metal mining company, saw its market value slashed from $1billion in 2007 to a low of just $18 million when it announced its intention to seek new funding. Its value eventually rallied to $30 million, but, despite a raft of cutbacks and lay-offs, its future looked far from certain. Australian acquisition proves rich seam for SZLN Zhang Shuijian: "seeking additional foreign partners". Shenzhen Zhongjin Lingnan Nonfemet Co (SZLN), a Shenzen-headquartered State-owned mining business took the opportunity. Realizing the potential of the struggling Australian company, SZLN invested A$ 45 million (200 million yuan) into Perilya last February and acquired a 50.1 percent stake in the business. The deal marked the first time a Chinese metal company had acquired a controlling stake in an Australian mining business. Following the acquisition, SZLN is now China's largest zinc-lead producer. The company's president, Zhang Shuijian, sees the takeover as a hugely significant for SZLN and its "going global" initiative. Zhang is very much looking to the future with his company's new acquisition. In 2010 and 2012 Perilya's......

Words: 1225 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Critical and Creative Thinking Week 1

...and their damages, and if plate shifts will occur resulting in earthquakes. Scientists rate the earthquakes on a scale based on how damaging they are. 5. In what ways do geologic processes affect your daily life? Daily activities including the water we drink or the tress we plant to help prevent and control soil erosion are a part of geologic processes. Earth materials and processes affect our lives through our dependence on Earth resources; through geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, floods and earthquakes; and through the physical properties of the natural environment (Murck, B. W., Skinner, B. J., & Mackenzie, D. (2010)). Understanding Earth’s materials is important because we depend on its resources for building, soil for agricultural needs, energy resources, the air we breathe, and water needed to sustain life. Earth’s natural resources are not all unlimited some or many need management and conservation because they are not infinite. Chapter 2 1. When astronauts brought back rock samples from the Moon, the minerals present were mostly the same as those found on Earth. Can you think of...

Words: 1365 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Chemical Bonds Formal Report

...in processing ore, and through water pollution from discharged mine effluent and seepage from tailings and waste rock impoundments. Increasingly, human activities such as mining threaten the water sources on which we all depend. Water has been called “mining’s most common casualty” (James Lyon, interview, Mineral Policy Center, Washington DC). There is growing awareness of the environmental legacy of mining activities that have been undertaken with little concern for the environment. The price we have paid for our everyday use of minerals has sometimes been very high. Mining by its nature consumes, diverts and can seriously pollute water resources. Negative Impacts While there have been improvements to mining practices in recent years, significant environmental risks remain. Negative impacts can vary from the sedimentation caused by poorly built roads during exploration through to the sediment, and disturbance of water during mine construction. Water pollution from mine waste rock and tailings may need to be managed for decades, if not centuries, after closure. These impacts depend on a variety of factors, such as the sensitivity of local terrain, the composition of minerals being mined, the type of technology employed, the skill, knowledge and environmental commitment of the company, and finally, our ability to monitor and enforce compliance with environmental regulations. One of the problems is that mining has become more mechanized and therefore able to handle more......

Words: 2333 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Buildings

...POLICY REFORMS AND INITIATIVES TO REVITALIZE THE PHILIPPINE MINING INDUSTRY HORACIO C. RAMOS Director MINES AND GEOSCIENCES BUREAU Department of Environment and Natural Resources Republic of the Philippines September 2009, Manila Copper Gold Nickel Chromite Polymetallic Processing Plant OPERATING MINES 7 Major Mines: Masbate Gold Operation of Filminera Lepanto’s Victoria and Teresa Gold Mines Philex’s Padcal Copper Mine Rapu-rapu Polymetallic Project. Banahaw Gold Project, Philsaga Mining Corp. Carmen Copper Project Canatuan Copper-Zinc Project of TVI Resources 1 Medium-scale Chromite Mines Redondo Project of Krominco, Inc. 10 Medium-scale Nickel Mines Cagdianao Mining Corporation, Dinagat Province Berong Nickel Project, Quezon, Palawan Rio-tuba Nickel Mining Corp., Bataraza, Palawan Hinatuan Mining Corp. – Tagana-an Project, Surigao del Norte Taganito Mining Corp. – Claver, Surigao del Norte Platinum Group Metals – Cagdianao Nickel Project, Surigao del Norte CRAU Mineral Resources Corp. – Sta. Cruz-Candelaria Nickel Project, Zambales CTP Constn, and Mining Corp. – ACT Project and Carrascal Nickel Projects, Surigao del Sur SR Metals Inc. – Tubay Nickel Project, Agusan del Norte 4 Medium-scale Gold Mines Gold mine of Johnson Gold Mining Corporation Maco Mine, Apex Mining Company Inc. Diwalwal Direct State Development Project Acupan Gold Operations of Benguet 15 Cement Plants and Quarries 1 Nickel Processing Plant in Palawan 1 Copper Smelter (PASAR) in......

Words: 1903 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Banpu

...basically, Mining and Mineral exploration law is dealt with under the New South Wales System of Regulation under the Mining Act 1992 and the Petroleum (Onshore) Act 1991 and accompanying Regulations. These acts of parliament are essential in order to understand the way that the the regulation of mining operates in New South Wales. Many people are unaware that despite owning land, you do not necessarily own the mineral titles which are found on the land and that these can be resumed by the government if there is no license. For this reason a mining licence is necessary to establish the correct title to a mine if the minerals are under the jurisdiction of New South Wales Law. Administratively, this area is handled by the department of primary industries in New South Wales. The Mining Industry has a large body of law and regulations The Department fulfils a number of functions in the administration of mining title in New South Wales. It creates records of exploration licenses, assesses leases and processes mining lease applications. The headquarters of the Department of primary industries in New South Wales is Maitland. The department keeps a register of mineral titles and prospecting licenses. The Department also maintains the computerised Title Administration System (TAS). The overall function of the system of mining title is to provide the control mechanism for government by allowing the government to dictate the operating and environmental conditions of mineral titles in......

Words: 1434 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Dicore Case Study

...This may have little impact on Dicore now, nevertheless, it shows the US government’s determination to protect domestic crude oil and nature gas and to avoid any environmental risks that associated with drilling. 2.2.2. Economical Factors Although Dicore recovered from the 2008 financial crisis and reached the peak of its stock price in 2012 for $5.12 per share (Bremner, 2014), the fluctuation of metal and gold price started in 2013 has deeply damaged the mining industry again, which resulted in a 49% drop of profit and 21% drop of capital expenditure industry-wide, and also led Dicore’s stock price fallen to $0.97 (ibid). It can be seen that both the economic state and the price of mineral have huge impacts on mining companies’ performance. Thus, forecasting mineral price trends seems rather important for mining businesses to mitigate potential risk. 2.2.3. Social Factors Due to the special ground conditions of the southwestern region of the United States, drilling in that region...

Words: 1039 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Case8

...dampening effect on foreign investment in the resources sector. • Starting from Jan 2014: Export of raw unprocessed minerals is prohibited, requiring mining companies to process and refine their product in Indonesia before exporting • Before the export ban really comes into force… From 2012 to Jan 2014: High export tax imposed on exported raw ore --- an average additional export tax of 20% on “base price”, on 14 mineral ore exports including copper, gold and nickel. ★ the export tax for certain concentrates will even rise to 60% by the latter half of 2016 Government aims to… React to Increased Resource Nationalization: The global trend of increased resource nationalization is pushing up the costs of mining for international companies and giving governments in emerging market countries more cash and clout. The stated purpose of this mandatory in-country processing requirement is to follow the global trend and nationalize mining and metal processing within Indonesia. The regulation encourages local processing in order to increase the value of the minerals for export and preserve the country’s resource supplies. It is also supposed to be a way to entice miners into processing their ore locally and so that to create more job opportunities for domestic economy growth. Consequences: Hard times for mining companies, domestic economy, and international investors Under the law, raw ores and semi-processed minerals with purity levels below the......

Words: 825 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Peru

...she was not given the opportunity to work as a field engineer and was restricted to working in the labs. Later she got an opportunity to work as an administrative manager at a company which she keenly took and then later on went on to pursue her MBA from . She specializes in strategic management, organizational design and human resources. With her abundant experience in mining she provided us valuable insights specifically into the mining industry. Peru has an enormous economic strength in the form of multiple mineral deposits and is currently ranked 4th in the world. It currently occupies 7th place among the top 10 leading mineral producing countries, with an estimated production value of US$ 27,063 million. The primary competitive advantage for Peruvian mining is its diversification of minerals being produced: copper, gold, silver, lead, zinc, tin, molybdenum, iron, cadmium, mercury, selenium, indium and other metals. It is the region’s top producer of zinc, tin, lead and gold, and occupies second place in the production of copper, silver, molybdenum, mercury, selenium, cadmium and phosphoric rock. Currently, Peru has a sufficient reserve of minerals to generate a constant flow of metal production for several decades. The high rates of production have attracted a large amount of inbound investment into Peru's mining sector. An estimated US$ 59.5 billion is expected to flow into the country over the next few years. New mines and expansion projects are expected to more than......

Words: 454 - Pages: 2