Free Essay

Mining

In: Historical Events

Submitted By csimons1169
Words 265
Pages 2
You certainly don’t have to look hard to find that Mining was the very first economic boom in the West. It all started around 1860 in the region of Mountains and Plateaus. They were first settled by Migrants hoping to hit the jackpot. Of course, there was also a boom in California in 1849. The mining boom lasted until the 1890’s then it died down. 65
When the word got out that there was a strike for Gold or silver it would create a mad rush to that area. Then people would settle in the area and work in the mines. There were numerous mining towns that flourished into Cities. The area of Denver, Colorado was once a mining town. Gold was discovered in the Pikes Peak Region. Large corporations would come in after the small prospectors got what they wanted. The Corporations were looking to mine quartz and lode. 84
The work in the mines was extremely hard on people. The conditions were very dangerous and hot. Some of the workers would die from heat stroke and pneumonia. There were also frequent accidents and explosions that claimed a lot of lives. Poor ventilation in the mines contributed to carbon dioxide build up. This causes head aches and dizziness. Poisonous gasses would also be breathed which causes lung disease. 68
Since so many people believed there were a lot of riches to be found the area attracted bad men. This forced communities into vigilantes and creating their own Justice system. Some communities were even run by criminals. 37

Reference: American History: A Survey, 12th edition

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Mining

...Surface mining involves the basic procedures of topsoil removal, drilling and blasting, ore and waste loading, hauling and dumping and various other auxiliary operations. Loading of ore and waste is carried out simultaneously at several different locations in the pit and often in several different pits. Shovels and frond-end loaders of various sizes are used to load material onto trucks. Hauling material from the shovel production faces to the dumping sites must be accomplished through a network of haul roads of various length and grades. Haul roads can be extremely complex, cover large surface areas and pass through extreme elevation changes. Loading times of shovels depends on shovel capacity, digging conditions, and the truck capacity. Queues often will form at the shovels since trucks of various sizes may be used at individual shovels. Thus, allocation of trucks to haul specific material from a specific pit or shovel becomes a complex problem. Obviously, efficient mining operations are strongly dependent on proper allocation of trucks to shovels and the respective allocation of trucks along the appropriate haul roads and dump sites. The number and type of trucks and shovels are two important factors in determining the optimum design parameters of an open-pit mining system. Also, the characteristics of truck’s arrival and loading times at shovels determine the performance measures (i.e. total production) of truck-shovel system. The assumptions of identical truck travel and...

Words: 688 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Mining

...Mining For over centuries, fossil fuels and minerals, which are unrenewable resources and took millions of year to produce under pressure, have played an important roles as raw materials to create human supplies such as: transports, building houses, technology and up to Medicine. However, as the world population is expanding every year, people has depleting an excessive amount of it to satisfied their demands without concerning the impact of their behaviors on the environment. Mining minerals and gold is one of the act that depleting natural resources. Global warming and losing of habitats are the outcome that cause by two type of mining: Strip mining and Underground mining. For better understanding, Strip mining is surface mining by excavate soil and rock for extract underground minerals, which result in destruction and deforestation. Underground mining is a type of mining that allow to extract deeper coal underground. It’s often view to be less destructive than surface mining, but it still cause a major damage to environment. (Green Peace, 2010) One global aftermath that contaminate on environment are dam spill or acid mine drainage (AMD). For mining case, Dam is something that was built to stored toxic waste from mining forever. Acid mine drainage is when the dam spill and toxic waste from mining that were reserved, leak into the water, land surface and evaporate into the air. This issue resulted in damage soil, toxic air and......

Words: 1331 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Mining in Palawan

...Mining in Palawan and its impacts to biodiversity and local communities • The country has 3% old growth forest left, and much of this is in Palawan. We cannot let this go. Mining and logging go together because you cannot mine without cutting trees. • Palawan has 17 Key Biodiversity Sites; 7 protected areas; 2 World Heritage sites. Yet most of mining applications in Palawan overlap key biodiverstiy sites. We need to remember that reforestation does not not restore lost biodiversity. • There are many laws designed to protect Palawan, including its declaration as a UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserve; Mangrove Reserve and Wildlife Reserve. Three-fourths of Palawan has been declared protected. The Palawan SEP law states that there should be no mining in natural forests. Mining in Palawan is a gross violation of these laws. • The stand of miners that there can be mining in the southern part of Palawan while leaving the Northern Part for tourism is foolish to say the least. The southern part is equally rich in diversity. It is archaic thinking to believe that one can mine one part of the island without affecting the other. • Palawan is very narrow, and the topography is steep. Any mining, being large or small scale, is a risk to the farmlands and fishing resources. Cutting down forests in the mountain causes erosion that kills coral reefs, and mine tailings spill into farmlands. • Citinickel is currently mining in Narra - the rice granary of Palawan - severely......

Words: 728 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Mining in India

...Mining was a profitable business during British colonial times. However, although the British did indeed support coal, gold, silver, iron ore and steel mining, they did not look favorably upon mining other metals such as lead. They believed that India's development of metallurgy would lead to production of weapons for the "natives," a potential threat to British rule. The British implemented the Arms Act in 1878 to outlaw Indian ownership of firearms and limited Indians from mining and working metals that might "sustain it in future wars and rebellions." (14) Several mines were actually closed down under British rule. IV.4 Coal Mining Large-scale commercial coal mining in India began in 1774 under the East India Company in the Raniganj Coalfield along the Western bank of the Damodar River. The introduction of steam locomotives in 1853 made possible the effective transportation of coal from the mines to urban centers and ports (15). India's output of coal rose from 2,203 thousand metric tons in 1890 to 30,695 in 1947 (16). Coal mining proliferated during and after World War I; from 1920 to 1930, national coal output increased from 18,250 to 24,185 thousand metric tons (16a). However, coal mining declined during the early 1930s, when the output dropped by more than 4,000 thousand metric tons in just three years. The facts collaborate with other sources that claim Indian industries declined along with Britain's economic stagnation during the......

Words: 422 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mining Africa

...www.miningsecurityforum.com & MINING SECURITY CRISIS MANAGEMENT FORUM 2014 12-13 November Taj Cape Town South Africa Supported by: Gold Sponsor: Sponsors: Exhibitor Sponsor: Organised by: ABOUT THE SUMMIT MINING SECURITY & CRISIS MANAGEMENT FORUM 2014 | 12-13 NOVEMBER 2014 | CAPE TOWN The mining sector in the developing world is growing rapidly, but As global resources dwindle, companies are venturing into ever associated new risk and threat environment is crucial to the equipment and valuable minerals from mines, work place violence and and tested crisis management planning Terrorism across Africa is a growing concern, in 2013 the mining world was shocked by the deadly on the Areva mine in Niger, The Mining Security & Crisis Management Forum will address Managing and being highly alert to the insider opportunity to with industry a rise Security Survey 2013 found that 41% of the mining and metals 2 Mining Security & Crisis Management 2014 Forum SPEAKERS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Security • • • • MEDIA PARTNERS FireSpec Systems AFIMAC Global Control Risks Mwana Africa Vale (Mozambique) De Beers Namibia Debswana Diamond Co. Exxaro Resources Vale Brazil Antwerp World Diamond Centre (AWDC) De Beers Consolidated Mines Newmont Mining Mining Security & Crisis Management 2014 Forum 3 DAY 1 | WEDNESDAY 12TH NOVEMBER 2014 • • • • • • • • • mining industry • • • • • • • • P •...

Words: 1128 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Mining

...Tech. A project part-1 submitted to Gujarat Technological University In partial fulfilment of The Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering In Mining Engineering October 2012 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Ms. Mamta Jaswal of BE. Semester VII (Mining engineering) has completed her one full semester on project work Titled “STUDY OF SLOPE STABILITY IN LIGNITE MINES” Satisfactorily in partial fulfilment of requirement of Bachelor of Engineering In Mining Engineering, Gujarat Technology University, Ahmedabad in the year 2012. Date: / / 2012 Place: Palanpur Internal Guide Prof. V.J. Sharma Prof. Rajesh Arora Head of Department (Mining engineering) Seal of institute CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Mr. Nilay J. Patel of BE. Semester VII (Mining engineering) has completed his one full semester on project work Titled “STUDY OF SLOPE STABILITY IN LIGNITE MINES” Satisfactorily in partial fulfilment of requirement of Bachelor of Engineering In Mining Engineering, Gujarat Technology University, Ahmedabad in the year 2012. Date: / / 2012 Place: Palanpur Internal Guide ......

Words: 7835 - Pages: 32

Free Essay

Mining Industry

...MINING INDUSTRY IN CONGO - DRC MINING INDUSTRY IN CONGO- DRC The Democratic Republic of the Congo (abbreviated DR Congo or DRC), previously known as Zaire, is rich in resources. The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is home to vast reserves of a wide variety of natural resources – primary among them being metals such as cobalt, copper, gold and precious stones, including diamonds. DRC is believed to contain around 4% of the world‟s copper reserves and one-third of its cobalt reserves. The mining industry, like the rest of the economy in the central African nation, had suffered due to an unstable political environment, coupled with widespread strife caused by the six-year civil war that ended in 2003. However, there are indications that investors are now willing to discount the political risk premium of investing in the DRC, given the high prices of minerals on global markets, and therefore the potential of holding mineral rights within the country. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Africa's largest nation, has abundant mineral resources including, cobalt, copper, gold and diamonds. A majority of the mineral resources are concentrated in the southern and eastern provinces of the nation. The DRC is the world's largest producer of cobalt. However, the production of cobalt is not expected to chart an exceptional growth path, with many small mining players switching from the metal to copper. Constrained supply and political instability are pushing up cobalt......

Words: 5164 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Canadian Mining

...Canadian mining- Impact of cost inflation and volatility and the road ahead Introduction With a 9.8% share of Canada’s GDP, the mining sector is critical to the future of the Canadian economy (Deloitte Report). Unfortunately, rising cost inflation, unprecedented volatility in commodity and energy prices and a strong Canadian dollar have negatively impacted the performance of this sector over the last year. This report seeks to uncover the drivers behind cost inflation and evaluate the hedging strategies utilized by Canadian companies to mitigate volatility through a case study of Barrick Gold. We will also examine the impact of tightening margins on the capital expenditure decisions of this company. Part 1: Cost Inflation Cost inflation in the mining industry has been driven by increases in both Operational expenses and Capital expenditures. Operational expenses have been driven by three factors 1) Wage Increases 2) Energy Costs and 3) Supply cost increases. Wages in this industry have increased dramatically over the past 10 years and the Canadian mining industry now boasts the highest wages of all industrial sectors in Canada. The average weekly pay for a mining worker in 2011 was $1,436, which surpassed the earnings of workers in forestry, manufacturing, finance and construction by 47%, 46%, 35% and 32% respectively (DELOITTE REPORT) Source: Mining Association of Canada – 2012 Facts & Figures Report http://www.mining.ca/www/media_lib/MAC_Documents/P...

Words: 2092 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Artisinal Mining

...ARTICLE IN PRESS Resources Policy 34 (2009) 24–31 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Resources Policy journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/resourpol Recognizing and nurturing artisanal mining as a viable livelihood Petra Tschakert à Department of Geography and Alliance for Earth Sciences, Engineering, and Development in Africa (AESEDA), Pennsylvania State University, 315 Walker Building, University Park, PA 16802-5011, USA a r t i c l e in f o Article history: Received 7 February 2008 Received in revised form 3 May 2008 Accepted 4 May 2008 JEL classification: L72 Q32 Keywords: Artisanal and small-scale mining Recognition Flourishing Alternative livelihoods Ghana a b s t r a c t Much of the discourse and literature on artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) in sub-Saharan Africa has inherently prescriptive recommendations on how the sector should develop. Devaluation, misrecognition, and criminalization of artisanal, largely illegal miners hamper their participation not only in environmental and political decision-making but also in negotiating potential alternative livelihoods. This article addresses the following three questions: (a) what are the pull and push factors in Ghana’s artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector?; (b) what concrete livelihood options exist for unregistered miners when regularization is impeded and undermined?; and (c) in the absence of promising alternative livelihoods, how can the ASM sector be re-imagined to allow...

Words: 6792 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Ecosystems and Mining

...Adam Weaver Bio280 Ecosystems and Economics 08/04/13 The Human impact on any ecosystem is usually a negative impact. When I think about the situations that surround our influence on ecosystems the most poignant example that comes to mind is that of the strip mining industry. In this industry we see the largest amount of economic gain go head to head with the worst ecologic destruction. I grew up in West Virginia where mining was a way of life and the local economies still bend to whims of the coal mining industry. Today I live in South Dakota, home of the Homestake Mine, the longest running gold mine in the country which is almost 8,000 feet deep. (Homestake,2013) Coal mining is billion dollar industry here in the United States and the economic upside of it is hard to deny. Whole towns are still in existence due to the support that coal brings to their economies. Mining traditionally however brings many problems with it. Mining in general is associated with the following ecological problems: Saltiness, aridity and scarcity of water caused by the waste of enormous amounts of fresh water during the extraction process, heavy metals which are liberated and migrate into the ecosystem, the dislocation of thousands of tons of ore causes for sedimentation in rivers and susceptibility to both geologic and water erosion, migration of highly toxic cyanide into the subsoil and surface waters as well as the whole ecosystem, and acid drainage. (Shipirt, 2006) Finally, and......

Words: 629 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Gold Mining in the Philippines

...Gold Mining: Why it should be banned in the Philippines? Gold mining in the Philippines can be traced hundreds of years back before the colonizers came to the country. As early as 1521, our ancestors were already panning gold and have decorated themselves with gold accessories. As years passed, the growth of the mining industry has increased. In 1995, Philippine Mining Act was passed which the government allowed foreign companies to fully operate in the country; it created backlash from Filipinos stating that they should be the only ones to mine their own resources but the government still allowed it for large investments coming from foreign companies which will boost the economy. 1 The country’s mining industry was also ignited by the legend of Yamashita’s treasure. The legend has attracted tourists and curious treasure seekers to look out for the supposed ‘treasure’ of gold that the Japanese Army had hidden in the different parts of the country. 2 It seems that gold mining is a lucrative business. But is mining helpful to the country? Mining have garnered vast impacts in every aspect of the country. It boosts the economy by letting the mining companies give the government its share of their profits. But only a margin of profits is being given to the government. According to Governor Joey Salceda of Albay, “which hosts the Rapu-Rapu Polymetallic Project, only received P3.4 million from the mining company’s revenues. The company’s export value reached P7.7......

Words: 964 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Effects of Illegal Mining

...CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1Background to the study Mining is the extraction of minerals and precious metals from the earth. These minerals and metals consist of manganese, tantalum, copper, tin, silver, diamonds and gold. Mining may be considered in two forms: large scale mining and small scale mining. Large scale mining generally employs large number of people and produces huge tonnes of gold. Examples of companies who engage in these are the Anglo-Gold Ashanti of Ghana, Newmont Ghana, Goldfields Ghana and Minas Serra Palade Mines in Brazil which employed about over thousands workers and yielded thousands tonnes of gold (Amankwah and Anim-Sackey, 2003). Small scale mining is a form of mining that is done at small levels and mostly employs relatively a low number of people (Appiah, 1998). It is generally engaged in by local people within the area where these activities occur, and comes along with it the influx of people from other areas. Small Scale Mining companies use a considerable number of the labour force in the country. While there is no accurate SSM employment number for Ghana (Appiah, 1998), it is estimated that some 500,000 people are openly employed in the sector while additional 500,000 may indirectly be benefiting from the doings. About half of those directly engaged in the S.S.M are said to be illegal operators (Amankwah & Anim-Sackey, 2003) commonly known as “galamsey operators”. The actions of small-scale miners also generate economic linkages with other...

Words: 9470 - Pages: 38

Free Essay

Mining a Tropical Paradise

...allows easy strip mining operations. Nauruans enjoyed strip mining for a century as it made them among the richest people in the world. Billions of dollars worth of phosphates had been exported. The damage to their environment due to mining was so severe. The rehabilitation of the devastated land and the replacement of income from phosphate are serious long-term problems. Since 2000, Nauru’s economy has relied largely on payments for fishing rights within its exclusive economic zone and the detention center camps for asylum seekers to Australia, which held Afghan, Burmese, and Sri Lankan refugees. The government-owned mining company, the Republic of Nauru Phosphate Company, or RONPhos, initiated the mining of subsurface secondary reserves of phosphate in late 2009, along with a new rehabilitation program for mined-out land. The rehabilitation program includes the development of a new national cemetery, a nursery for developing native flora for the reforestation of the island, a catchment area for a freshwater reservoir and a conservation area. The Nauru’s example is a warning for the Philippines. The Philippines is the fifth most mineral-rich country in the world for gold, nickel, copper, and chromite. It is home to the largest copper-gold deposit in the world. The Mines and Geosciences Bureau has estimated that the country has an estimated $840 billion worth of untapped mineral wealth. And all the regions (except NCR and ARMM) in the country allow mining operations.......

Words: 349 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Kettle Mountain Mining

...Kettle Mountain Mining Inc. V2 (Adapted with permission of CMA Canada) Andre Rousseau Phd (Environmental Studies), a naturalist and resident of the Northwest Territories discovered multiple mineral deposits beginning in the mid 1990’s. Rousseau incorporated Kettle Mountain Mining Inc (KMM) in 1999 with the intent of developing the mineral deposits and pledged that his company will add to the quality of life within the surrounding community. The company remains private. Rousseau says “Going public would mean bowing to the almighty earnings per share and having to answer to the analysts instead of the citizens.” He did, however, recognize that there may be short run trade offs between economic benefits and social fabric of the community and a zero environmental footprint In 2002, the company discovered a promising seam just outside the town of Carlsbad. Preliminary sampling indicated high concentrations of several valuable minerals including G2, S2 and P1. In 2003, the mine shaft was constructed along with a processing plant and administrative offices. The development of the mine lead to the economic revival of the town of Carlsbad. During 2003, twenty new homes, a sixty-unit trailer park and several new businesses were established. Mining and processing operations began in January 2004 and have continued without interruption since that date. KMM currently operates at 80% capacity due to transportation restrictions (see below). During 2011, the company removed 310,000 tonnes of...

Words: 1653 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Mining Code of Germany

...MINING A.1. POLICY AND REGULATIONS A.1.1. FEATURES OF NATIONAL MINING CODES OR MINERAL INDUSTRY CODE The main feature of German mining legislation is its comprehensive structure, implementing integrated risk prevention through an intermedia approach with strict requirements on concessions, health and safety, environment and other issues as well as differentiated mechanisms for compliance and monitoring. This approach directly implements the challenges of the concept of sustainable development, taking into consideration the three pillars of environmental protection, social development and economic development, with each of these three policy areas being mutually supportive of the others. Mining legislation in Germany consists of the Federal Mining Act of 1980 and a number of Mining Ordinances on technical and procedural issues, e.g. the Federal General Mining Ordinance of 1995, the Health and Safety Mining Ordinance of 1991, the Ordinance on the Environmental Impact Assessment of Mining Projects of 1990. These provisions set up a uniform mining law for all important mineral resources in the form of a comprehensive law covering all aspects of mining, including health and safety and environment, supervised by one single administration (one-stop shop). This comprehensive system has been strengthened in the past 30 years several times with the transferring into national German legislation of new European legislation on concessions, environment and health and safety in the......

Words: 2460 - Pages: 10