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02.13

General Certificate of Secondary Education January 2013

Additional Science / Chemistry (Specification 4408 / 4402) Unit 2: Chemistry 2

CH2HP

Final

Mark Scheme

Error! Unknown document property name. – Error! Unknown document property name.- Chemistry – Error! Unknown document property name.– Error! Unknown document property name. 2013 Mark schemes are prepared by the Principal Examiner and considered, together with the relevant questions, by a panel of subject teachers. This mark scheme includes any amendments made at the standardisation events which all examiners participate in and is the scheme which was used by them in this examination. The standardisation process ensures that the mark scheme covers the students’ responses to questions and that every examiner understands and applies it in the same correct way. As preparation for standardisation each examiner analyses a number of students’ scripts: alternative answers not already covered by the mark scheme are discussed and legislated for. If, after the standardisation process, examiners encounter unusual answers which have not been raised they are required to refer these to the Principal Examiner. It must be stressed that a mark scheme is a working document, in many cases further developed and expanded on the basis of students’ reactions to a particular paper. Assumptions about future mark schemes on the basis of one year’s document should be avoided; whilst the guiding principles of assessment remain constant, details will change, depending on the content of a particular examination paper.

Further copies of this Mark Scheme are available from: aqa.org.uk Copyright © 2013 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Copyright AQA retains the copyright on all its publications. However, registered schools/colleges for AQA are permitted to copy material from this booklet for their own internal use, with the following important exception: AQA cannot give permission to schools/colleges to photocopy any material that is acknowledged to a third party even for internal use within the school/college. Set and published by the Assessment and Qualifications Alliance.
The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA) is a company limited by guarantee registered in England and Wales (company number 3644723) and a registered charity (registered charity number 1073334). Registered address: AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.

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Information to Examiners 1.     General the marks available for each part of the question the total marks available for the question the typical answer or answers which are expected extra information to help the Examiner make his or her judgement and help to delineate what is acceptable or not worthy of credit or, in discursive answers, to give an overview of the area in which a mark or marks may be awarded.

The mark scheme for each question shows:

The extra information is aligned to the appropriate answer in the left-hand part of the mark scheme and should only be applied to that item in the mark scheme. At the beginning of a part of a question a reminder may be given, for example: where consequential marking needs to be considered in a calculation; or the answer may be on the diagram or at a different place on the script. In general the right-hand side of the mark scheme is there to provide those extra details which confuse the main part of the mark scheme yet may be helpful in ensuring that marking is straightforward and consistent. 2. 2.1 Emboldening In a list of acceptable answers where more than one mark is available ‘any two from’ is used, with the number of marks emboldened. Each of the following bullet points is a potential mark. A bold and is used to indicate that both parts of the answer are required to award the mark. Alternative answers acceptable for a mark are indicated by the use of or. Different terms in the mark scheme are shown by a / ; eg allow smooth / free movement.

2.2 2.3

3. Marking points 3.1 Marking of lists This applies to questions requiring a set number of responses, but for which students have provided extra responses. The general principle to be followed in such a situation is that ‘right + wrong = wrong’. Each error / contradiction negates each correct response. So, if the number of error / contradictions equals or exceeds the number of marks available for the question, no marks can be awarded. However, responses considered to be neutral (indicated as * in example 1) are not penalised. Example 1: What is the pH of an acidic solution? (1 mark) Student 1 2 Response green, 5 red*, 5 Marks awarded 0 1

Error! Unknown document property name. – Error! Unknown document property name.- Chemistry – Error! Unknown document property name.– Error! Unknown document property name. 2013 3 red*, 8 0

Error! Unknown document property name. – Error! Unknown document property name.- Chemistry – Error! Unknown document property name.– Error! Unknown document property name. 2013 Example 2: Name two planets in the solar system. (2 marks) Student 1 2 Response Neptune, Mars, Moon Neptune, Sun, Mars, Moon Marks awarded 1 0

3.2

Use of chemical symbols / formulae If a student writes a chemical symbol / formula instead of a required chemical name, full credit can be given if the symbol / formula is correct and if, in the context of the question, such action is appropriate.

3.3

Marking procedure for calculations Full marks can be given for a correct numerical answer, without any working shown. However, if the answer is incorrect, mark(s) can be gained by correct substitution / working and this is shown in the ‘extra information’ column or by each stage of a longer calculation.

3.4

Interpretation of ‘it’ Answers using the word ‘it’ should be given credit only if it is clear that the ‘it’ refers to the correct subject.

3.5

Errors carried forward Any error in the answers to a structured question should be penalised once only. Papers should be constructed in such a way that the number of times errors can be carried forward are kept to a minimum. Allowances for errors carried forward are most likely to be restricted to calculation questions and should be shown by the abbreviation e.c.f. in the marking scheme.

3.6

Phonetic spelling The phonetic spelling of correct scientific terminology should be credited unless there is a possible confusion with another technical term.

3.7

Brackets (…..) are used to indicate information which is not essential for the mark to be awarded but is included to help the examiner identify the sense of the answer required.

3.8

Ignore / Insufficient / Do not allow Ignore or insufficient is used when the information given is irrelevant to the question or not enough to gain the marking point. Any further correct amplification could gain the marking point. Do not allow means that this is a wrong answer which, even if the correct answer is given, will still mean that the mark is not awarded.

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Quality of Written Communication and levels marking
In Question 2(d) students are required to produce extended written material in English, and will be assessed on the quality of their written communication as well as the standard of the scientific response. Students will be required to:  use good English  organise information clearly  use specialist vocabulary where appropriate. The following general criteria should be used to assign marks to a level:

Level 1: basic
        Knowledge of basic information Simple understanding The answer is poorly organised, with almost no specialist terms and their use demonstrating a general lack of understanding of their meaning, little or no detail The spelling, punctuation and grammar are very weak.

Level 2: clear
Knowledge of accurate information Clear understanding The answer has some structure and organisation, use of specialist terms has been attempted but not always accurately, some detail is given There is reasonable accuracy in spelling, punctuation and grammar, although there may still be some errors.

Level 3: detailed
    Knowledge of accurate information appropriately contextualised Detailed understanding, supported by relevant evidence and examples Answer is coherent and in an organised, logical sequence, containing a wide range of appropriate or relevant specialist terms used accurately. The answer shows almost faultless spelling, punctuation and grammar.

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CH2HP question 1(a) answers because sulfur / S forms which is insoluble / a solid / a precipitate 1(b)(i) 32 correct answer with or without working gains 2 marks accept evidence of 31 + 33 / 2 for 1 mark allow 35 for 1 mark 1(b)(ii) reaction rate increases because of more particles (per unit volume) and because there is an increase in frequency of collisions allow because particles are closer together accept because particles are more likely to collide or higher chance of collision ignore more (successful) collisions Total 7 if incorrect reference to energy = max 2 1 1 1 extra information mark 1 1

2

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CH2HP question 2(a)(i) answers because they are positively charged extra information accept they are positive / H+ accept oppositely charged or opposites attract ignore they are attracted 2(a)(ii) gains one / an electron accept H+ + e–  H or multiples allow gains electrons 2(b) 3 bonding pairs 1 lone pair accept 2 non-bonding electrons on outer shell of nitrogen do not accept sodium hydroxide ignore state symbols ignore word equation 1 1 1 mark 1

2(c)(i) 2(c)(ii)

hydroxide / OH– H+ + OH– → H2O

1 1

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CH2HP question 2(d) answers extra information mark 6

Marks awarded for this answer will be determined by the Quality of Written Communication (QWC) as well as the standard of the scientific response. Examiners should also refer to the information on page 5. Level 1 (1-2 marks) There are basic descriptions of advantages or disadvantages of the electrolysis cells. Level 2 (3-4 marks) There are clear descriptions of environmental or economic advantages or disadvantages of the electrolysis cells. Comparisons may be implied.

0 marks No relevant content.

Level 3 (5-6 marks) There are detailed descriptions of environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages, comparing the electrolysis cells.

examples of chemistry points made in the response: Accept converse where appropriate.  mercury cell is more expensive to construct  mercury is recycled but membranes must be replaced  mercury is toxic but membrane / polymer is not  removing traces of mercury from waste is expensive  mercury cell uses more electricity  mercury cell produces chlorine that is purer  mercury cell produces higher concentration / better quality of sodium hydroxide (solution) Total 12

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CH2HP question 3(a)(i) 3(a)(ii) answers to increase the rate of reaction H2SO4 on the left hand side H2O on right hand side 3(a)(iii) filtration allow centrifuging or decanting ignore evaporation if after filtration 3(a)(iv) crystallisation or evaporation / heating / boiling / cooling 3(a)(v) any one from:  because of an incomplete reaction accept not all acid reacted accept impure reactants accept unexpected reaction ignore reversible reaction must specify when lost accept some (copper sulfate or acid) spilt 1 ignore reference to filtration unless given as an alternative 1 extra information mark 1 1 1 1

 because some (copper sulfate) lost on filtering or when poured into evaporating basin or boiled over or left in apparatus  weighing error (of copper sulfate) 3(b)(i) reversible (reaction)

1

3(b)(ii)

300(J) (energy) given out / released

allow the same accept exothermic / – ignore increasing or decreasing energy Question 3 continues on the next page

1 1

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CH2HP Question 3 cont’d question 3(c) answers extra information 1 mark for dividing mass by Ar (max 2 if Ar divided by mass) mark 1

3.81 63.5
= 0.06 3

0.28 14
= 0.02 1

1 mark for correct proportions 1 mark for correct whole number ratio (allow multiples). Can be awarded from formula ecf allowed from step 2 to step 3 and step 3 to step 4 if sensible attempt at step 1 correct formula gains 1 mark

1 1

Cu3N

1

Total

13

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CH2HP question 4(a) answers it is not used up extra information accept does not change accept reusable allow does not react 4(b) they would melt or they have a low melting point because there are no cross links or there are weak intermolecular forces 4(c)(i) allow would lose their shape ignore soften accept there are weak bonds / forces between (polymer) chains 1 1 mark 1

ignore reference to mass spectroscopy do not accept other incorrect process described substances carried by gas (through) column / coil / tube or (through) solid (material) / powder at different speeds accept different retention times allow (relative) formula mass or relative mass ignore relative atomic mass ignore identity of substance / molecule allow named gas 1 1 1 1

4(c)(ii)

(relative) molecular mass / Mr

Total

7

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CH2HP question 5(a) answers Will kelp last longer than coal as an energy source? any two from:    cannot be determined by experiment based on opinion ethical or environmental or economic reason allow can’t predict how long kelp / coal will last allow more testing needed allow could damage ecosystem allow reference to cost 1 extra information mark 1

5(b)

2

5(c)(i)

7

5(c)(ii)

reference to incorrect bonding or incorrectly named particle = max 2 any or all marks can be obtained from a labelled diagram ignore inner shell electrons if shown sodium (atom) loses (electron) and iodine (atom) gains (an electron) 1 electron (electrostatic) attraction or forms ionic bond(s) 1

1 1

5(c)(iii)

ions can move (in the solution)

1

5(c)(iv)

2 I–



I2

+

2 e–

1

Question 5 continues on the next page

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CH2HP Question 5 cont’d question 5(c)(v) answers hydrogen is formed because sodium is more reactive (than hydrogen) Total extra information mark 1 1

11

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CH2HP question 6 answers extra information reference to incorrect bonding or incorrect particles or incorrect structure = max 3 high melting point accept will not melt (at high temperatures) ignore withstand high temperatures 1 mark

because a lot of energy needed to break bonds because it is covalent or has strong bonds and because it is a giant structure or a macromolecule or a lattice Total accept bonds are hard to break ignore many bonds

1 1 1

4

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CH2HP question 7(a) answers copper has delocalised electrons extra information accept copper has free electrons ignore sea of electrons or mobile electrons allow (electrons) which can carry a charge through the metal / structure correct answer with or without working gains 3 marks (Mr FeCl3 =) 162.5 or 2 (moles of) FeCl3 = 325 or 112  325 can be credited from correct substitution in step 2 1 mark 1

(electrons) which can move through the metal / structure

1

7(b)(i)

11.20  162.5 56
= 32.5 7(b)(ii) 74.8

allow ecf from step 1 accept

1

325  11.2 112
1 1

accept 32.48 accept 74.77 - 75 accept ecf from 7 (b)(i) if there is no answer to part(i) or if candidate chooses not to use their answer then accept 86.79 87

Total

6

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...functional advantages that are specifically tied to the targeted emotions, as well as a technical platform that lends credibility and authenticity to the functional claims. Authority and expertise are critical. If a luxury strategy is well executed, consumers will quickly “ladder” from technical to functional to emotional benefits, responding so powerfully that they will break through traditional price barriers with higher levels of demand. Pet lovers buy gourmet pet food because it is technically superior (it has added nutrients and organic ingredients), functionally reliable (experts attest to its health values), and emotionally satisfying (they are taking care of a “family member”). One word of caution: most traditional market research will miss the emotional underpinnings of new-luxury success, and conventional product testing will just as often undermine the linkages between the emotional, functional, and technical benefit layers. To generate insight, innovative players typically spend more time in the market and conduct one-on-one interviews with their core customers—in their homes, at retail sites, in their domains. 4. Escalate innovation, elevate quality, and deliver a flawless experience. The middle market is rich in opportunity, but it is also unstable. Consumers trade down as well as up. Technical and functional advantages are increasingly short-lived. The quality bar is rising at all price points. Luxury benefits are quickly cascading down-market. Nearly 80......

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