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# Mixtures and Compounds

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Mixtures and Compounds
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SCI-110
9 May 2011

Mixtures and Compounds
Describe the difference between a mixture and a compound. Chemical compounds are in every known object or substance. They are composed of two elements that combine with each other. They can also be more than two elements. Compounds are one of three forms of matter, and the other two are element mixtures. Compounds have a definite composition, as water will always consist of 88.9% oxygen and 11.1% hydrogen. In contrast, the elements that make up a mixture of iron and sulfur are black iron granules and yellow sulfur crystals which are recognizable. By use of a magnet, iron can be removed from the mixture, and sulfur can be dissolved. In addition, iron and sulfur can be mixed together by just stirring them together (Clarified, 2011).
Suppose that you have a pure substance. How can you tell whether it is a compound or an element? A pure substance is an element that cannot be broken down by chemical techniques, like heating, cooling, or reactions from chemicals. This type of pure substance has only one atom, like copper, gold or silver. A large chunk of gold will have millions of gold atoms, and no other atom exist in it. Take for example if you were to heat up copper to the point you melted it, the smallest unit of copper, called an atom is still copper, regardless if it is a solid, liquid, or gaseous state. The atom is the smallest subdivision of an element, but it will maintain the property of the pure substance (Clarified, 2011).
What is the difference between an ionic and a covalent bond? Two ions with opposing charges is an ionic bond, they attract each other and stay together, which happens when atoms gains or loses electrons. Covalent bonding on the other hand share electrons when two atoms come together, where covalent bonds have a definite shape, ionic bonds has no definite shape, and occur mainly between metallic and non-metallic atoms.
Explain why ionic compounds are formed when a metal from the left side of the periodic table reacts with a non-metal from the right side. Give two examples of such compounds. Ionic compounds do have a higher melting and boiling point, and are brittle. They also do not conduct electric current in a solid form, but in a liquid state, ionic compounds does conduct electric current. While in a molten state the ions move freely to a negative electrode acquiring electrons, and when moving to a positive electrode it can acquire electrons resulting in a flow of electricity. Additionally when the ionic compounds formed from the positive cations on the left side of the periodic table attract anions on the right side of the periodic table, which forms a network of opposite charged ions. An example of an ionic compound would be; sodium chloride, which forms an ionic bond with chloride anion.
Explain why covalent bonds are formed when non-metals from the right side of the periodic table bond with each other. Give two examples of such compounds. Non-metallic elements combine with other compounds and react with other non-metals to form new substances. Take a combustible engine when running; it has high temperatures and pressure, which produces nitrogen oxides, from the oxygen and nitrogen gasses. This is sharing electrons that reflect the periodic trend of elements from the right side to not give up electrons easily when forming a bond, because of high electronegativity. They tend to either accept electrons from metals that form salt, or share electrons with other non-metals to form covalent compounds (Table, 2011). In essence, everything has an element, or compound to include the molecules of a human being.

References
Clarified, S. (2011, May). Compound, Chemical . Retrieved May 9, 2011, from Science Clarified: http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ci-Co/Compound-Chemical.html
Table, P. (2011, MAy). Book Rags. Retrieved May 11, 2011, from Periodic Tables: http://www.bookrags.com/research/periodic-table-wop/

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