Free Essay

Mlb Stat

In: Business and Management

Submitted By bori0620
Words 1336
Pages 6
Major League Baseball Research Paper


April 11, 2012

Major League Baseball Research Paper

Research is made of two categories, applied research, and basic research. Applied research is used by individuals on a daily basis to solve problems that occur in a business or a personal atmosphere. Basic research, also known as fundamental research, or pure research, is used to create a body of knowledge that is available to solve or predict problems before they occur. The purpose of basic research is not the formation of a definite solution, but to create a set of probabilities to predict current or future events. Team B has chosen a set of data that includes statistic relating to the business of Major League Baseball. The statistical value of this sport is more main-stream than ever after the release of Money Ball, a movie based on true events that focused solely on statistics and not player’s visual abilities or presence. Team B will use the statistics presented to determine if there is a measurable advantage in the production of games won based on a team’s payroll, facility size, and attendance record. The statistics provided are for the years of 1989 to 2005. Team B will attempt to predict who the Major League Champion will be in 2006 using only the statistics given in the data set. Purpose of the research The purpose of this research is for Team B to try and determine the 2006 Major League Baseball, (MLB) champion with data provided only through 2005. The problem with this research is there are multiple variables that take place. For example, the data shows teams with higher attendance both in the higher bracket and lower bracket of wins. Same goes for the error statistics; St Louis Cardinals committed 100 errors but also the most wins with 100. One more obvious problem in this research is the wide gap in team salary ranging anywhere from 29 million dollars to more than 200 million dollars. These identified problems are critical to the investigation of who will be the 2006 MLB world champion because there is no regulated formula used by team owners to become world champions. Team B however will take the limited data and provide a hypothesis with various possible outcomes. “The purpose of research is really an ongoing process of correcting and refining hypotheses, which should lead to the acceptance of certain truths” (Purpose Of Research, 2008-2012). Problem Definition According to Decision Making (2010), "A clear problem definition is the first, and, perhaps, most important step toward rationally selecting the best alternative. Many dedicated and intelligent individuals have produced elegant solutions for problems other than those they were tasked to solve” (Problem Definition). In this case Team B’s primary goal is to find the 2006 Major League Baseball (MLB) champion. Unfortunately, runs scored which is one of the key components are not listed on the data provided, therefore Team B will investigate using alternative statistics such as team’s payroll, facility size, attendance record, and wins. Statistics prove that teams with the least amount of errors do not necessarily have the greatest amount of wins. Statistics also prove that teams with the higher amount of salaries do not necessarily have the greatest amount of home runs. Statistics do show, however, teams with the lowest ERA often finish with the most wins.
|Team |Salary -mil |Wins |ERA |HR |Error |
|Seattle |87.8 |69.0 |4.49 |130 |86 |
|Atlanta |86.5 |90.0 |3.98 |184 |86 |
|Los Angles Angels |97.7 |95.0 |3.68 |147 |87 |
|Oakland |55.4 |88.0 |3.69 |155 |88 |
|Houston |76.8 |89.0 |3.51 |161 |89 |
|San Francisco |90.2 |75.0 |4.33 |128 |90 |
|Philadelphia |95.5 |88.0 |4.21 |167 |90 |
|Washington |48.6 |81.0 |3.87 |117 |92 |
|Chicago White Sox |75.2 |99.0 |3.61 |200 |94 |
|Arizona |62.3 |77.0 |4.84 |191 |94 |
|New York Yankees |208.3 |95.0 |4.52 |229 |95 |
|Toronto |45.7 |80.0 |4.06 |136 |95 |
|St Louis |92.1 |100.0 |3.49 |170 |100 |

Although the ERA is not the determining factor of the MLB champion, it is a contributor. Team B will take this into consideration as well as other variables in the data provided. Research Hypothesis The outcome of attendance has a major role for the hypothesis formed by Team B and is the dependant variable. Team B’s null hypothesis is that the attendance has not changed in the year of 2005. A team’s outcome due to a team’s attendance record is a key factor in Team B’s hypothesis in determining the measurable advantage in a team’s record of ball games won in a year. Team B’s hypothesis is that teams with abnormally attendance records will help determine the team that will produce more wins due to attendance records based on these facts alone. A Hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two variables, usually in the form of a prediction: “If A, then B” (Paul & Elder, 2006). When conducting research on a team’s payroll, Team B must look at the numbers generated through the years of 1989-2005 to determine whether or not these numbers have an active role in the productivity of a team’s record within junction of attendance. This will help to clarify the reasoning between teams with an elite record as opposed to a team with a bad record. This variable will be tested through the later weeks of this assignment and will be a factor for Team B as analyzing different variables becomes relevant. A team’s facility size will also be a variable that will be conjured upon and serve as a tool for clarification in games won throughout the baseball season. Attendance records will be Team B’s dependent variable and will most definitely be a deciding variable that will enhance a team’s record. Each of these variables will have different levels of measurements and the scale of measurements in the facts in Team B’s statistics given in the data set. The levels of measurement used will be ordinal, interval, and ratio to determine how attendance will be a factor in wins in a season. Deciphering between these variables in the data set alone will give Team B a concrete platform to base the statistics given to determine which variable has more of an influence on games won. A team’s payroll is a measurement of high concern because it allows teams to trade, bargain, and buy out players of high caliber from other teams. The measurement of a team’s facility size is a variable that will be discussed and looked upon. This variable is a factor but likely a smaller variable when considering the other factors that will transpire to a team’s winning record. The last variable to consider is attendance. This particular variable will be high on the list of deciding factors of how a team performs and how it reflects a team’s record. The measurement and dependant variable for week two for Team B is attendance. In conclusion, to predict the 2006 winner of the World Series, Team B will take into consideration the variables stated herein. These variables will help to clarify and determine how Team B will come to a conclusion for the winner of the 2006 baseball season. From here out, Team B will gather these facts and other peer reviewed articles and discuss how other sources of information is relevant. Team B will also calculate the measurements of central tendencies, dispersions, and statistical data to conclude how the winner of the 2006 Major League Baseball was found through statistical data using graphical and tabular techniques.


Decision Making. (2010). Retrieved from
Paul, R. & Elder, L. (2006). Critical thinking: Tools for taking charge of your learning and your

life (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River: NJ: Prentice Hall.

Purpose of Research. (2008-2012). Retrieved from

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Mlb Cba

...University Professional Sports Seniority System By: Overview and History of the MLB CBA Major League Baseball (MLB) Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA) was agreed upon on December 12, 2011, and ends December 1, 2016. The CBA agreement is a five-year agreement between to 30 Major League Clubs and the MLB Players Association (MLBPA). According to the MLBPA CBA (2011), “Clubs and the MLBPA entering CBA agreement on certain terms and conditions of employment of all MLB players for duration of CBA agreement”. The MLB CBA establishes guidelines for proper protocol for contact negotiations, grievances, arbitration, Uniform Player Contracts, specified determination of a player’s playing status, and other key components that must bet set in place between the Clubs and the Player’s. The CBA also covers the use of sports agents and the guidelines they must follow. According to the MLB CBA agreement, “a player may designate an agent to conduct on his behalf, or assist him in, negotiations of individual salary and/or Special Covenants to be included in his Uniform Player Contract”. In terms of the Uniform Player Contract, specified salary minimums are established for each year the CBA is in play for MLB players and Minor League Players. The CBA agreement establishes a baseline for the MLBPA as sole and exclusive collective bargaining agent for all MLB players, and individuals who may become MLB players during the term of the CBA agreement. According to the MLBPA CBA,......

Words: 3654 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay


.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Limitations and Common Misinterpretations of Hypothesis Testing . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 6 10 15 17 Stat 3011 Chapter 9 CHAPTER 9: HYPOTHESIS TESTS Motivating Example A diet pill company advertises that at least 75% of its customers lose 10 pounds or more within 2 weeks. You suspect the company of falsely advertising the benefits of taking their pills. Suppose you take a sample of 100 product users and find that only 5% have lost at least 10 pounds. Is this enough to prove your claim? What about if 72% had lost at least 10 pounds? Goal: 9.1 Elements of a Hypothesis Test 1. Assumptions 2. Hypotheses Each hypothesis test has two hypotheses about the population: Null Hypothesis (H0 ): Alternative Hypothesis (Ha ): 1 Stat 3011 Chapter 9 Diet Pill Example: Let p = true proportion of diet pill customers that lose at least 10 pounds. State the null and alternative hypotheses for the diet pill example. 3. Test Statistic Definition: Test Statistic A test statistic is a measure of how compatible the data is with the null hypothesis. The larger the test statistic, the less compatible the data is with the null hypothesis. Most test statistics we will see have the following form: What does a large value of |T | reflect? NOTE: 2 Stat 3011 Chapter 9 4. p-value The p-value helps us to interpret the test statistic. Definition: p-value Assume H0 is true. Then the p-value is the probability...

Words: 2046 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Stats Formula

...Mean Alpha = 1 - Confidence Level Margin of Error (E): E =CONFIDENCE(alpha,SD,n) E =CONFIDENCE.T(alpha,SD,n) (small sample) Confidence Interval: = (mean - E) to (mean + E) Confidence Intervals, Proportion z =NORMSINV(confidence level + alpha/2) E =z * SQRT(p * (1-p)/n) Confidence Interval: =(proportion - E) to =(prop + E) Sample Size, Mean z = NORMSINV(confidence+alpha/2) n = (z * SD / E)^2 Sample Size, Proportion Validation: n*p ≥ 5 and n*(1-p) ≥ 5 n = p*(1 − p) * (z / E)^2 Hypothesis Testing Mean: 1-tail: z =NORMSINV(confidence level) 2-tail: z =NORMSINV(confidence level + alpha/2) Test Statistic: z = (sample mean - mean) / (SD/SQRT(n)) less reject if stat is more – than decision more reject if stat is more + than decision T2 reject if more – or + than decision Proportion: z = (pS - p) / SQRT(p*(1-p)/n) Test Statistic: z = (ps - p) / SQRT(p*(1 - p) / n) Std error= sqrt(p*q/n) q=1-p Small Sample: 1 tail: =TINV(2 * alpha,df) 2 tail: =TINV(alpha,df) Where df = degrees of freedom = n - 1 =T.INV(alpha,df) =T.INV.2T(alpha,df) P-Value: 1-tail: z =NORMDIST(sample mean, population mean, SD / SQRT(n),1) 2-tail: z = NORMDIST(sample mean, population mean, SD / SQRT(n),1)*2 Regression Analysis y = m*x + b (but in statistics it's written y = a + bx) In Excel statistics analysis: "Multiple R" = coefficient of correlation...

Words: 671 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...STAT 302 – Statistical Methods Lecture 8 Dr. Avishek Chakraborty Visiting Assistant Professor Department of Statistics Texas A&M University Using sample data to draw a conclusion about a population • Statistical inference provides methods for drawing conclusions about a population from sample data. • Two key methods of statistical inference: o o Confidence intervals Hypothesis tests (a.k.a., tests of significance) Hypothesis Testing: Evaluating the effectiveness of new machinery at the Bloggs Chemical Plant • Before the installation of new machinery, long historical records revealed that the daily yield of fertilizer produced by the Bloggs Chemical Plant had a mean μ = 880 tons and a standard deviation σ = 21 tons. Some new machinery is being evaluated with the aim of increasing the daily mean yield without changing the population standard deviation σ. Hypothesis Testing: Evaluating the effectiveness of new machinery at the Bloggs Chemical Plant Null hypotheses • The claim tested by a statistical test is called the null hypothesis. The test is designed to assess the strength of the evidence against the null hypothesis. Usually the null hypothesis is a statement of “no effect” or “no difference”, that is, a statement of the status quo. Alternative hypotheses • The claim about the population that we are trying to find evidence for is the alternative hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis is one-sided if it states that a parameter is larger than or...

Words: 921 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Mlb Return on Investment

...May 10, 2010 MLB’s Return of Investment In 1842, organized baseball, now known as Major League Baseball (MLB), was created (Haupert, 2007). Since then, the industry has grown tremendously as a business enterprise and as many Americans’ favorite pastime. With its popularity, several controversial issues have arisen over the last few decades in regards to players’ salaries and imbalance of competition. From 1975 to 2002, the average MLB players’ salaries increased 5200% (Haupert, 2007) and competition concerns have been addressed by developing the luxury tax and revenue sharing throughout the industry (DeMause, 2006). To investigate these issues further, Team D is studying the relationship between MLB players’ salary, team wins, attendance and market. At the end of the research process, Team D anticipates reaching a valid conclusion to determine whether higher salaries (investment) are justified by increased attendance (return), and if there is a large inequality between large and small markets. Research Objectives The objective of this study is to determine the return of investment (attendance) on the salary structures present in MLB teams and if there is a disparity between “large” and “small” market teams in providing a successful product. The investigation will focus on the relationship between salaries, wins, attendance, and market sizes of MLB teams. Throughout the research, Team D will seek to answer the following questions: Are players’......

Words: 2564 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay


...printout given above), Explain (0, (1, also provide the units of slope and y-intercept. Does (0, (1 make sense? d) Is there sufficient evidence to conclude that the model contributes information for predicting the Percentage of refund spent in 3-months? (State Hypothesis, and do the test.) e) Is there sufficient evidence to conclude, "As the family income increases than the Percentage of refund spent in 3-month decreases? (State Hypothesis, and do the test.) (Does it make sense to do this test? Explain) f) Calculate R-sq, what is the practical meaning of R-sq? g) Calculate the Standard error of Estimate, What is the practical meaning of S(? (Get the residual printouts – 5 points) In Minitab, Goto Stat>regression>regression, then follow the screen prints below to get the residual plots. [pic] [pic] And click ok h) State the regression Assumption 1 and test it using the residual plots. i) State the regression Assumption 2 and test it using the residual plots. j) State the regression Assumption 3 and test it using the residual plots. k) State the regression Assumption 4 and test it using the residual plots. l) Calculate R-sq(adjusted). m) Find 95% Confidence Interval for (0 n) Find 95% Confidence Interval for (1 o) Explain the relationship between Confidence Interval and Hypothesis testing. p) What is an Outlier? Are there any outliers? q) What is an...

Words: 1807 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Mlb Internship

...MBL summer internship experience contribute to your short term and long term career goals? What can you contribute to your selected business group? The MLB summer internship experience will contribute to my short term and long term career goals in several ways. First, because the MLB is the highest level of play in professional baseball, an internship would allow me to fulfill a life-long dream of being associated with a renowned organization that produces and nurtures world class talent. Secondly, the opportunity to be exposed to professionals who have superior skills and abilities, as well as proven records of leadership, would allow me to learn from the best. This experience would position me to build upon a broad knowledge base and allow me to contribute at a high level. Finally, I want to grow in the business from the ground up. Whether it is counting balls , cleaning lockers, selling tickets, or playing the game, the more I know about all aspects of the profession and industry, the more efficient I can be in preparing for my career in baseball as I incorporate my love for the game with a career that will be financially profitable as well as gratifying personally. As a result, I will have satisfied both my long and short term career accomplishments. After reviewing the business and operations sectors offered by MLB, I feel that I can make the most meaningful contributions in the following areas: 1. Photos and Publishing 2. Recruitment and......

Words: 497 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mlbpa and Mlb

...Negotiation Contexts with respect to the MLBPA and MLB. Provide specific evidence from the case and support with concepts from the section 3 of the book. In understanding the contextual issues in regard to negotiations between Major League Baseball Players Association and Major League Baseball one would have to go back to a relationship that began over a hundred years ago. The contextual manner that Baseball negotiations present stems from a history of culture that has affected all of America. Baseball negotiations are unique in that the relationships between owners and players are that of friends. Since there is a relationship in many cases between owners and players this may or may be advantageous. When Negotiating with friends we tend to pay more attention to their behaviors and monitor their words and actions for standards of trust and fairness. In this context there is alot more pressure on both parties. Another issue at hand is that in the MLB relationships are very long lasting spanning ten to twenty years at minimum. This creates that much more pressure on both sides as they are bargaining on their relationship as well. There are many contexts in sports that do not exist in other business negotiations. The relationships of athletes to their managers and owners must be preserved no matter how negotiations turn out. There are several key contextual issues that may affect negotiations between the MLBPA and the MLB. These are the history of the relationship,......

Words: 2218 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Conflict Resolution Mlb

...previously. The health of the sport seems good, which should provide opportunities to gain concessions from both sides that will ultimately result in benefits to the business as a whole. Additionally, given that the parties are knowledgeable of each other’s priorities, logrolling may be possible. By one side conceding something to the opposing side that is valued more by the opposing side, they can then gain something from the opposing side that is of greater value to them. Identifying and offering solutions that result in the maximum gain for the other party, as well as yourself, could be beneficial to future negotiations since demonstrating a willingness to compromise when necessary helps build goodwill for the future. The labor issues in MLB are unique and the contentious past history influences negotiations. However, acknowledging and understanding each other’s positions and maintaining a professional, positive tone during the negotiations can lead to a mutually beneficial agreement without the hostility and work stoppages that occurred in the past....

Words: 1045 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Stat 4220

...STAT 4220 Homework 2 Report Problem 1.22: a) Yˆ = 168.6 + 2.03X b) Yˆh = 168.6 + 2.03(40) = 168.6 + 81.2 = 249.8 c) 2.03 The population study is plastic hardness. The X is the elapsed time in hours and the Y is the hardness in Brinell units. The minimum unit was 196 with maximum to 253. The hours were 16 minimum and 40 maximum. The mean (average) was 225.6 for units and 28 for hours. The median was 226.5 units and 28 hours. The standard deviation of units with hour was 173.6. There was small variance large bias. Problem 1.28: a) a)Yˆ = 20517.6 + (-170.58)X No this equation does not fit well because there is not a line. b) 1)-170.58 2) Yˆh = 6871.2 3) ε10 = 1401.57 4) MSE= 5552112 The population was crime rates. The x is the percentage of the individuals in the county having at least high-school diploma and Y is the crime rate. The maximum percentage was 91 with the lowest 61. The crime rate was the maximum 14016 with the lowest 2105. The mean (average) was 7111 crime rate and 78.6 percent. The median was 79 percent and 6930 crime rate. The standard deviation of crime rate and percent was -6601.54. There was a Large variance small bias. Problem 1.31: In this problem the error will not include batch to batch variability and there will be a smaller variance from the original experiment. When you are going to use different batches there will not be a way to evaluate your results from the original experiment and the results there......

Words: 337 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mlb Playoffs Change

...My persuasive essay is on the MLB ( Major League Baseball ) adding more teams to the playoffs. The reason I am writing my persuasive essay on this topic is because I am a baseball fan myself, and would like to get the message across to all of you on expanding the MLB playoffs. Over the past several decades, there has been four teams from each league to make the playoffs. The Detroit Tigers are my favorite team and they are often one of the team that gets barely eliminated from getting into the playoffs. They're often the fifth best team, but only four teams make it. There is another reason why I feel that the playoffs should expand to five, six, or eight teams as people often express their frustration over peaking teams facing early elimination. I always feel bad when I see those teams who had an amazing year but still don't make it because one other team was only one win better than them. Or even a team with a worse record makes it just because they were the division winners, but in a weak division. That is why I have chosen this as my essay topic. The way the MLB playoffs work can be complicated but I won't get in to that. What I will get in to is why there should be more teams that make the playoffs. There are many reasons why the postseason (playoffs) should be expanded but here are some of the most important. Income: According to TG Sports almost everyone involved in the MLB would earn more money. This would include the MLB, the owners, the players, and even the......

Words: 818 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Stats 300

...83/84: STAT, TESTS, 1-PropZTest Po: assumed proportion (0.21) x: number of successes (732) n: total number of candies (3500) In the next line, select the correct alternative hypothesis/test, then Calculate, Enter. On the next screen, the second line shows the test. The next line has the test statistic. The next line has the p-value of the test (if less than significance level, reject null) The next two lines have and n. IF using StatCrunch, you will want Stat > Proportions > One Sample > with summary. In the first window, you will enter the same information as for part 3: number of the color (number of successes) and total number of candies (number of observations). Then click Next, and in the following window, enter the claimed proportion as a decimal in the box next to “null”, select the inequality that matches the alternative hypothesis and then click Calculate. The output will include the test statistic (Z-Stat) and the p-value. Hypothesis test results: p : proportion of successes for population H0 : p = 0.21 HA : p ≠ 0.21 Proportion Count Total Sample Prop. Std. Err. Z-Stat P-value p 732 3500 0.20914286 0.006884766 -0.12449848 0.9009 Mean When you test for the mean number of candies per bag, you will need (sample mean), s (sample standard deviation) and n (total number of bags) as before. The test statistic is a z, because we have a large sample. Test statistic: IF using the TI 83/84: STAT, TESTS, Z-Test Input: Stats 0: ......

Words: 1120 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Training an Mlb Catcher

...The early pre-season is used for more general workouts, such as running. These workouts will gradually shift into more intense workouts – the key here is to not start off too intensely, because that will add stress and strain to rested muscles, increasing the chance for injury. You want to get your body back in shape after the off-season before you start pushing it too hard. Read more: Michael Deitsch & Garrett Underwood Sports & Exercise Prof. Ryan Arrowood Training A MLB Catcher Modern day baseball catchers are great athletes. Professional catchers are usually lean and quick. As for strength training, studies have shown that baseball-specific programs can increase batting speed and throwing velocity. Power training through plyometric increases a catchers speed and agility. It may also improve throwing and batting velocity. Shoulder injuries are a large concern in baseball. While strength conditioning can help to prevent injuries, weight lifting exercises may not target the correct muscles or the correct movement patterns. A catcher’s pre-season is used for general workouts, such as running. These workouts will gradually shift into more intense workouts. Catchers do not start off too intensely, because that will increase the chance for injury. It is important for a professional catcher to get their body back in shape before they start pushing it too hard. The core muscles are most...

Words: 904 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...STAT 346/446 - A computer is needed on which the R software environment can be installed (recent Mac, Windows, or Linux computers are sufficient).We will use the R for illustrating concepts. And students will need to use R to complete some of their projects. It can be downloaded at Please come and see me when questions arise. Attendance is mandatory. Topics covered in STAT 346/446, EPBI 482 Chapter 5 – Properties of a Random Sample Order Statistics Distributions of some sample statistics Definitions of chi-square, t and F distributions Large sample methods Convergence in probability Convergence in law Continuity Theorem for mgfs Major Theorems WLLN CLT Continuity Theorem Corollaries Delta Method Chapter 7 – Point Estimation Method of Moments Maximum Likelihood Estimation Transformation Property of MLE Comparing statistical procedures Risk function Inadmissibility and admissibility Mean squared error Properties of Estimators Unbiasedness Consistency Mean-squared error consistency Sufficiency (CH 6) Definition Factorization Theorem Minimal SS Finding a SS in exponential families Search for the MVUE Rao-Blackwell Theorem Completeness Lehmann-Scheffe Location and scale invariance Location and scale parameters Cramer-Rao lower bound Chapter 9 - Interval Estimation Pivotal Method for finding a confidence interval Method for finding the “best” confidence interval Large sample confidence......

Words: 321 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Mlb Research

...elements that could possibly affect the issue and then list them in a Data Set (Illustration A).   The Data Set consists of thirty (30) Major League Baseball (MLB) teams and lists them by names, each team’s salary, annual attendance for each team, winning, and size capacity of each stadium.   The probability sampling design in this research study allows each of the elements to be weighed and ranked to identify the team that leads in a specific area or ranks last in a specific area.   This sampling size is appropriate because it uses the entire attendance population.   The particular design chosen to represent the data is a proportionate stratified random sampling because each team’s characteristics can be evenly used and accurately compared among the other teams; therefore, identifying what segment contributes to the team’s successful winning record To collect accurate data Team A collected data on wins, season attendance, attendance to wins, number of home games, and season attendance to max attendance in the league. Please see below graphical formats. Primary data collection methods in this particular research would be difficult as to collect accurate data we would have to interview teams, attend games, and conduct surveys or questionnaires. Team A has relied on data that has been collected from MLB researchers and the know experts in this field. Most research data that is found today points to the fact that attendance is heavily dependent upon......

Words: 358 - Pages: 2