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Mobile Applications in Ghana

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Submitted By winnie2013
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Adoption of Mobile Payment Systems in Ghana
Winfred Ofoe Larkotey#1, Prince Yaw Amoako*2, Ebenezer Afotey Laryea#3 , Ernest Dey#4
#

Institute of Computer Science, Valley View University Box AF 595, Ghana
1

winfred.larkotey@gmail.com 3 afotey@gmail.com
*

Valley View University Institute of Computer Science, Ghana
2 4

papaprince@vvu.edu.gh ernest.dey@gmail.com

Abstract— It may be said that no technology has increasingly

broadened faster around the globe reminiscent of the mobile payment systems. Mobile payment systems are being embraced in many countries but its growth remains slow in most African countries. According to [9], this is mainly due to the lack of legal frameworks, inefficient banking and telecommunication systems, absence of security instruments and high illiteracy levels. Mobile payment systems level the playing field, presenting the opportunity for developing countries to compete equally with developed countries [5]. Hence, there exists a potential impact on socio-economic development if developing countries can harness this technology. However, there is a scarcity of research on the factors that influence mobile phones adoption and usage among micro-enterprises. This research seeks to address this gap by investigating the factors that influence mobile payment systems adoption and usage among in the Ghanaian society. The theoretical model based on the technology acceptance model is used to analyse survey of the adoption and the use of these payment systems. The findings suggest that, first, individual businesses or day-to-day transactions with mobile payment systems, people are adopting this system in order to get their transaction done within a minimum time and also due to their perceived benefits obtained by these mobile payment systems. Second, the amount of benefits obtained tends to be partly prejudiced by the extent of mobile access and usage by these individuals and their friends and their trading cohorts in their value succession.

Keywords— Mobile Payment Systems

I. INTRODUCTION The fast technological development of the internet as well as the declining prices for the use of this technology has led to an increased diffusion of the internet during the last few years. The adoption and usage of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is changing business processes, and the way people live and work. New innovations as a result of ICT are continuing to emerge. ICT is “any technology used to support information gathering, processing, distribution and use”[1]. This definition in the view of [11] classifies ICT into information technologies, telecommunications technologies and networking technologies. This covers all forms of

technologies such as computers, Internet, websites as well as fixed-line telephones, mobile phones and other wireless communications devices, networks, broadband and various specialized devices [8]. Mobile payment systems are being embraced in many countries but its growth remains slow in most African countries. According to [5], this is mainly due to the lack of legal frameworks, inefficient banking and telecommunication systems, absence of security instruments and high illiteracy levels. Mobile payment systems level the playing field, presenting the opportunity for developing countries to compete equally with developed countries [7]. This has been demonstrated in Africa and Asia and is mainly due to the quickness with which mobile phone network infrastructure can be implemented but with less intense capital investment. Furthermore, people are much more willing to adopt mobile phone usage because most mobile phone operators’ offer prepaid services and this eliminates the need for credit or identity checks. In comparison with home computer usage, [6] observe that people in the developing countries prefer using mobile phones perhaps due to the high cost of the computers and the associated Internet connection charges. Like most developing countries in Africa, Malawi is beginning to adopt m-commerce. According to [14], the implementation of m-commerce in Malawi will face a number of issues which can be categorized as technical, business and policy problems. This paper aims to examine these identified issues and propose solutions by drawing from literature and the experiences of other developing and developed countries. Mobile phones can also offer a communications channel for initiating and executing on-line financial transactions. This channel may not only reduce the cost of financial transactions for provider and customer, but also allow new entrants to the financial sector, and new relationships to be formed for distributing services. These changes hold the prospect of accelerating access to financial services on the back of the mobile infrastructure. Most of the countries in the developing world have skipped fixed-line infrastructure and leapfrogged directly into mobile technology. Currently mobile telephony is the predominant mode of communication in the developing world. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the average number of mobile phones per 100 inhabitants in Asia, Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has risen by 100-400% in a span of just five years [12]. In 1995, there were more phone lines in Manhattan than in all of Sub-

Saharan Africa. Now almost one in five Africans owns a phone. More people in India and China own mobile phones than in North America and Europe combined. While developing countries are still lagging behind high-income countries in overall ICT usage and applications, the mobile phone has been regarded as a more accessible and less expensive means to close the digital divide [17]. There are several reasons why mobile phones are considered as particularly important for development. First, beyond basic connectivity, mobile phones offer benefits such as mobility and security to owners [2]. Second, due to their unique characteristics, the mobile phone is an especially good leapfrogger: it works using the radio spectrum, as such there is no need to rely on physical infrastructure such as roads and phone wires, and base-stations can be powered using their own generators in places where there is no electrical grid [3]. Third, mobile phones only require basic literacy, and therefore are accessible to a large segment of the population. Fourth, mobiles enjoy some technical advantages that make them particularly attractive for development. In addition to voice communication, mobile phones allow for the transfer of data, which can be used in the context of applications for the purposes of health, education, commerce or governance. Finally, due to factors like increased private sector competition and innovative payment methods (e.g. - pre-paid method), mobile phones are increasingly affordable to the lower strata of the population and thereby can be used as a mechanism to ensure greater participation of these groups in the development process. As mobile penetration rates increase rapidly in developing countries, there has also been an increase in the extent of research on mobile phone usage. In general, studies have focused on different aspects of the adoption and use of mobile phones. However, there is still a lack of evidence of usage of mobile phones as a tool to solve development problems, due mainly to the difficulty in measuring their social and economic impacts. Moreover, there is an absence of a thematic approach to analyzing the impact of mobile phones on development. Payment transactions among people and organizations using paper money and coins have been replaced by electronic payment with magnetic cards via phone and Internet. More recently, the telecommunication companies and the financial institutions have integrated the mobile phone as a payment method, known as mobile payment. Mobile payment can be defined as any kind of payment that involves the convergence of a telecommunication network, a bank network, and a credit card [18]. II. PAYMENT CHALLENGES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Several mobile payment trend studies have revealed the potential of mobile network technologies for payment purposes [13]. Most of these studies were conducted in developed countries and thus may not reflect the impact on the success and growth of different business environments and in particular the micro businesses in a developing country like Kenya. There exists a need therefore, for a substantive

research on the impact of mobile payments on the success and growth of micro-business operators who are among those who employ mobile payments in Ghana. So far there has been no clear insight into the role that micro payments play in the development of micro-business. This implies that technology providers, government agencies and development partners may not address the required interventions and there is therefore a need to examine the contribution of mobile payment technology on micro businesses and the impact on their success and growth. The micro business operator also needs to fully understand the entrepreneurial impact of this new technology on their business so as to cope with the increasing developments in the mobile payment services on one hand, and the challenges of the micro business operating environment, on the other hand. The choice and use of technology in micro business is dependent on how well it is likely to influence greater success in payment systems and growth of the business. III. MOBILE PAYMENT SYSTEMS EXPLAINED According to [15], mobile payment system could be defined as ‘a system for authorizing the transfer of funds between two parties that is confirmed in real time, using at least one portable wireless communications device, through a wireless data network’. This definition fits well with the payment methods that are used to authorize payment for the purchase of digital content from a third party, transfer funds from one person to another through a service such as PayPal Mobile, or as an interface to authorize bill payments to third party payees. Some Scholars also see mobile payment systems as any kind of payment that involves the convergence of a telecommunication network, a bank network, and a credit card [18]. Some also view this payment system as a payment (transfer of funds in return for a good or service) where the mobile phone is involved in the initiation and confirmation of the payment [4]. Mobile payment systems may take so many forms. However, mobile payment systems has been identified or classified in three modes, [16]. The mode or types of mobile payment systems identified mobile web payment (WAP), cash-based mobile payment, mobile phone based payments and mobile wallets. I. Mobile Web Payment (WAP) This is a browser-based mode of mobile payment. You can log on to a particular service provider’s website on your mobile browser and follow the instructions to make the payment. For this you should have a mobile phone with an activated Internet facility. II. Card-based Mobile Payment You can use your credit card to make mobile payments. Enter your PIN on your mobile payment application and follow the instructions regarding the amount to be paid, etc. This mode is useful if you want to pay your bills, book air or movie tickets, shop at a mall, etc. Besides, you can also use smart cards, that come embedded with an

integrated circuit containing microprocessors and memory to store personal data such as the credit card number, driving licence number, bank account numbers, PIN, etc. You can use these at shops, malls, etc, though such facilities are not widely available as yet, within India. Mobile Phone-based Payments To use mobile payment options, you need not buy an expensive handset or a smart phone. Since these services can be easily availed on your basic mobile phone via SMS or IVR, virtually everyone can pay their bills and buy tickets by following a few simple instructions. IV. Mobile Wallets Mobile phone users need to open a mobile wallet account on platforms like M-PESA and deposit cash that can be used in future mobile payments. You are provided with a mobile wallet account number, which you use at the time of making any purchase through the mobile phone. You can’t make payments beyond the amount you have deposited in the wallet. In order to make further payments you have to recharge your wallet again. IV. WHY DO CUSTOMERS ADOPT AND USE MOBILE PAYMENT
SYSTEMS

   

III.

Payment instruments used to initiate and direct funds transfer Network arrangements for transacting and clearing payment instruments Institutional players in the system Market conventions and regulations Legal and regulatory framework

According to Bank of Ghana, the stakeholders of Ghana’s payment system are the central bank; the commercial banks, service providers and users of the system. The central bank occupies an important and unique position in the payment system. It is an overseer, operator and a participant of the payment system. The commercial banks participate in the system by making and receiving payments on their own behalf or their customers’. The service providers are the printers of payment instruments and telecommunication companies who provide the infrastructural arrangements for the payment system. Notwithstanding the unique role of each stakeholder, all of them are users of the payment system with. The major players in the mobile payment industry include MTN, Tigo, Airtel and Bank of Ghana’s introduction of e-zwich. VI. MTN MOBILE MONEY Ghana’s leading telecommunications provider, MTN, launched MTN Mobile Money in partnership with some banks to allow Ghanaians to perform a range of basic financial transactions using their mobile handsets. MTN Mobile Money is a cash management service available on the mobile phone or internet. Subscribers can use this service without the need to open or have bank account and these subscribers can have access to their money beyond banking hours or at any time. According to Mr. Brett Goshen, MTN Ghana CEO, MTN Mobile Money gives cash management freedom, convenience, security and ease of use to subscribers in line with MTN’s pay off line for as long as users can access MTN’s network. He further added that the Mobile Money platform allows MTN customers and those who do not own a cell phone to transfer or receive money by using the services of the authorized MTN Mobile Money Merchants (MTN Ghana website). VII.
HOW MTN MOBILE MONEY OPERATES

The introduction of mobile payment systems especially in developing countries has affected many activities and people in diverse areas of life. he increased proliferation of mobile handsets among poorer communities in developing countries has shown the potentials of empowering the adoption and usage of mobile payment systems through nuanced picture of benefits of mobile phones [14]. The current prevailing means of transacting or paying with the assistant of mobile payment systems has several ways of doing that. The three main means identified by [10] are:  M-Commerce: Mobile phones linked to credit/debit cards can be used to make payments typically for transportation, vending machines etc.  E-Money: Cash loaded in the mobile phones at service provider outlets. Consumers use this virtual cash as real value for all types of transactions.  Banking Channel: Mobile phone used for accessing the bank accounts. All payments are routed through the bank. V. MOBILE PAYMENTS IN GHANA Ghana’s payment system had improved a lot in the past few years, and continues to evolve to meet the developmental needs of the country. A payment system is the entire matrix of institutional infrastructure arrangements and processes in a country for initiating and transferring monetary claims in the form of commercial and central bank liabilities, (Bank of Ghana website). The concept, mobile payments, covers the following:

It is mainly about facilitating money transfer for the Ghanaian market. The service can also be used for reloading of MTN airtime units and for payment, of utility bills, goods & services. MTN Mobile Money comprises of individual (subscriber) and merchant wallets. Wallets (individual & merchant) are created after the registration process is completed on the phone with the selection of a four digit MTN Mobile Money PIN. All transactions are PIN based. You choose your own MTN Mobile Money PIN (during registration) which you need to enter every time you make a transaction on your Mobile Money wallet. The MTN Mobile Money PIN is required to authorize all MTN Mobile Money

transactions. No single transaction can be completed without the MTN Mobile Money PIN. Wallet transactions for MTN Mobile Money are in Ghana cedi. VIII. TIGO CASH Millicom Ghana, operators of Tigo Cellular Network, recently launched its innovative product dubbed Tigo Cash", which would enable Tigo customers to send, receive, top up airtime, pay bills, as well as make purchases, using their mobile phones. Banks partnering Millicom Ghana for the implementation of the service, include, the Agriculture Development Bank (ADB), the United Bank for Africa (UBA), Ecobank and the Fidelity Bank. Mr Kwesi Donkor, Commercial Manager of Tigo said the introduction of the Tigo Cash service was necessitated by the fact that, about eight, out of ten persons, did not have access to bank account in the country, especially those in the rural areas. Mr. Percy Gondi, Head of Innovation, Tigo, said the introduction of the product was a milestone for Tigo, as it blended banking with technology and also deepens financial access to more customers. IX. HOW TIGO CASH OPERATES Tigo Cash is a new mobile financial services product that allows you to use your mobile phone as a mobile account. Tigo Cash provides an affordable, fast, convenient and safe way to send and receive money, buy airtime credit, pay for goods and services using a mobile phone anywhere in Ghana. Customers can deposit and withdraw money from their mobile phone with any of our authorized Tigo Cash Agents. Customers are not required to hold a bank account to use the service. There are a few easy steps to begin sending money with Tigo Cash. Customers have to first sign up for the service at a Tigo Cash Agent or a Tigo Service Center. Remember to bring your picture ID. After an account is activated, customers can deposit cash into the account – for free! With money in their account, the customer can use their Tigo mobile phone to send money, buy airtime credit or pay bills at any time, from anywhere and to anyone in Ghana. To withdraw money from the account, the customer visits a Tigo Cash Agent or a Tigo Service Center and withdraws cash from his or her account. X. AIRTEL ZAP GHANA Airtel Zap is an innovative mobile payment service from Airtel which allows one to send and receive airtime without the need to carry cash or cards, send and receive money and make purchases and so much more. This service is provided to consumers by Airtel Ghana in partnership with Ecobank, UBA Ghana and Standard Chartered Bank. According to Phillip Sowah, Managing Director, Airtel Ghana, all that one need to enjoy this service is to have Airtel Ghana SIM card in a mobile phone, ID document (passport/voter identification card/driver’s license/National ID/NHIS), and a filled out application form (one can ask any Airtel Ghana Zap Agent for assistance). The Airtel Ghana agent will review your

application, verify your ID and electronically (via fully encrypted SMS) submit your application details to Airtel Ghana’s Mobile Commerce platform for account activation. XI. HOW AIRTEL ZAP OPERATES With Airtel Zap mobile transactions you can send airtime to friends and to family members, send money from one’s Zap account, receive money on your Zap account, perform Cash-in and Cash-out activities i.e. Buy or Sell Zap and pay for goods and services with Zap and much more. Upon successful registration, you will receive a confirmation SMS. For one to transact business using Airtel Zap services, it requires a default password i.e. 1234. For security purposes, you will not be able to conduct any further activity unless you change the default password to 4 digits of your choice. How to convert cash into Zap - Cash-in:    You have to go to an authorized Zain Ghana Zap agent Provide the agent with your phone number or nickname The agent will transfer the requested amount to your Zap account. Cash-in is free. Once the transaction is complete, both you and the agent will receive SMS confirmation.

How to convert Airtel Zap into cash - Cash-out:    You have to go to an authorized Airtel Ghana Zap Agent Ask the Agent for his/her phone number or Nickname which will also be clearly displayed Send Zap to the Agent in the amount you want to cash out. The cash-out fee will be charged on your Zap account. Once the transaction is complete, both you and the Agent will receive SMS confirmation and the Agent will give you the cash you requested.

XII. LESSONS DRAWN FROM THIS RESEARCH The following below were found to be the lessons out this research:  The creative use of MPS in micro-trading and personal transactions is swayed by the preknowledge of the both the user and the potential user of MPS which may have advanced through trial demo and perceived benefits of the services, and above all the perceived positive perception that MPS has been giving to its customers.  The pioneering use of MPS in micro-trading and personal transactions is persuaded by the preknowledge of the both the user and the potential user of MPS which may have evolved through perceived information and payment of the services that MPS

has been giving to its customers. Since transacting a business is basically about information, developing information management through MPS can direct and indirectly enhances and encourages decision making, control and income generation, and this can contribute to the economic empowerment environs of the MPS consumers. One can say that the usage of the MPS would go a long way to impact significantly in the activities of MPS users in many diverse areas of life. The use of MPS in daily transactions and the benefits obtained by the consumers of mobile payment services therefore tend to partly influence the extent to which MPS will survive and improve mobile payment services. It can be found out that even though the mobile payment system in the Ghanaian economy has not reach its peak, the satisfaction and the benefits it has been receiving my the consumers of this service, there is a consensus form the majority users that they will continue to use MPS and also recommend this service to others who are not using or benefiting from what they are receiving from these mobile money operators.

mass of users on which the market can build upon because in micro-trading activities, the extent of benefits obtained tends to be partly influenced by the extent of mobile payment systems access and usage by consumers of mobile payment systems. Policy – there is positive perception, hence policies to facilitate the introduction of more services tied to payment will help. Concerning implications to policy, our attention is drawn to the complex interrelationships between mobile phone adoption and insertion in the information market. Small enterprises and micro-trading activities play a central role in economic activities in developing countries. XIV.
RECOMMENDATIONS

From this research it can be recommended that it is essential to increase access to mobile phones, not only for the wealthiest in society but also for the poor since accessibility to mobile payment systems are partly influenced by income levels of consumers of mobile payment systems and availability of supporting telecommunication infrastructure. We believe it is time the mobile network operators, banks and XIII. CONCLUSIONS content providers to identify what they are currently giving to The mobile network operators, banks and content their consumers with regards to the MPS and what the providers as well as the consumers of MPS are the major consumers want so to attain the objectives of mobile payment players in the mobile payment industry. However, it is systems in the Ghanaian economy. When this is done important to know the factors that influence the adoption of efficiently the gap that exists between the services that the MPS. The factors which influence the adoption are the mobile network operators and content providers are giving the benefits and the positive perceptions (PU and PEOU) by the public now and what the consumers want, and what the user which influence the attitude of the individual (BI) operators want to achieve will be bridged. Unless there is a towards the use of technology, while BI and perceived relevant uptake in the number of users, its use remains usefulness of the technology predict the individual’s irrelevant. Thus the adoption of mobile payment systems will behaviour to use the technology, the intention to use MPS and be more successful if network coverage can be further awareness creation of these payment systems and the impact expanded sufficiently to maximize service delivery. The MPS will have on the trading or commercial transactions. In challenge, therefore, is to obtain a critical mass of users on relation to PEOU and PU, the knowledge of MPS user, as an which the market can build upon because in micro-trading adopter, can influence the actual use of MPS. However, in the activities, the extent of benefits obtained tends to be partly daily transactions of the consumer of mobile payment services, influenced by the extent of mobile payment systems access MPS are adopted by these users because of the perceived and usage by consumers of mobile payment systems. We also benefits obtained by these users of MPS through their believe it is high time now the banks, in particular, to relationships in the social network. The benefits and impacts encourage MPS users who do have bank account to benefit of MPS adoption and usage: the introduction of MPS in the their services through MPS. Individuals who because of the economy of Ghana has influenced and affected business long queues and time they waste in the banks do not want to activities both individually and at the corporate level go there to transact business can be encourage by these banks significantly. The degree of benefits and the impact obtained to take an advantage of the MPS in order to enhance their tends to be partly if not wholly, influenced and affected by daily transactions and in micro-businesses. MPS usage and adoption positively in the transactions of With consistent vision, the government of Ghana and the businesses in the Ghanaian society. The readiness of the MPS National Telecommunication Authority (NCA) and other industry in order to access and afford mobile payment services stakeholders should provide MPS consumers with high has also influenced the adoption and the usage of MPS by its quality and affordable access to information, communication consumers. From the discussions in the above, one would services, and mobile payment systems in order to transform realize that accessibility and affordability to MPS is partly Ghana into a knowledge-based society and technology-driven influenced by availability of mobile payment merchants and economy. The primacy objective is to recognize the telecommunication infrastructure. Thus the adoption of integrating and growing wealth of indigenous social and mobile payment systems will be more successful if network technical knowledge to inform and enhance and sustain the coverage can be further expanded sufficiently to maximize development of a Ghana as a distinct and productive player in service delivery. There is therefore the need to obtain a critical the global information society.

The development of telecommunication and mobile services industry in the Ghanaian economy should be based on principle of open market and fair competition. The NCA should encourage growth through the initiative and innovation of the private, competitive market place at all levels, with particular emphasis on promoting local entrepreneurship and socially responsible investments including firms that encourage equal employment opportunities. The regulation and licensing operation in the telecommunication industry in Ghana should be neutral in order to encourage economically efficient and innovative mobile payment market. However, the ultimate interests of MPS consumers in obtaining high quality, accessible and affordable mobile payment services should be the primary goal and objective of all policy and regulatory pronouncement. The private sector plays an important role in the establishment a society. Policies should therefore address how public-private partnership initiatives can be enhanced. It is particularly important for public-private partnership initiatives to provide, support and use the information infrastructure, to encourage the deployment and use of mobile payment systems within the society. The right environment for the private sector should promote fair competition, opening up new markets or expand the mobile telecommunication industry, innovations and upgrading of existing policies and infrastructure, global opportunities and the delivery of high quality mobile payment services to general public. The positive perception of the MPS should be encouraged by policies to facilitate the introduction of more MPS with the necessary infrastructure to enhance the MPS potentials in the Ghanaian economy. REFERENCES [1] Beckinsale M. and Ram M (2006), „Delivering ICT to ethnic minority businesses: an action- researchapproach.‟ Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 24(6), pp847 – 867. [2] Donner, J. (2006). The Social and Economic Implications of Mobile Telephony in Rwanda: An Ownership/Access Typology, Knowledge, Technology, & Policy, 19, 2, 17-28. [3] Economist (2008) The Limits of Leapfrogging. Enhanced Learning Research Centre Paper, Learning and Skills Development Agency, UK. [4] Firpo, J. (2008). Banking the Unbanked: Issues in Designing Technology to Deliver Financial Services Sciences, 7-10 January, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society. to the Poor, in Matthäus-Maier & von Pischke, (eds.), New Partnerships for Innovation in Microfinance. Springer. pp. 195-206. [5] Hu, X., Li, W. & Hu, Q. (2008). Are Mobile Payment and Banking the Killer Apps for Mobile Commerce?.Proceedings of the 41st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 7-10 January, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society. [6] Hu, X., Li, W. & Hu, Q. (2008). Are Mobile Payment and Banking the Killer Apps for Implementation Issues in Malawi. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 14(1), 1-10.

[7] Hu, X., Li, W. & Hu, Q. (2008). Are Mobile Payment and Banking the Killer Apps for Mobile Commerce?. Proceedings of the 41st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 7-10 January, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society. Information and Management, Vol. 44, No 3, pp. 276-286. issues, constraints, opportunities. Information Technology’, MIS Quarterly 13, p. 319–341. issues, constraints, opportunities. Available at: http://www.uneca.org/aisi/docs/PolicyBriefs/Ecommerce%20c hallenges%20in%20Africa.pdf, (Accessed: 2008, June 22). [8] Manueli K, Latu, S and Koh, D. (2007) ‘ICT Adoption Models.’20th Annual Conference of the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ), Nelson, New Zealand. Samuel Mann and Noel Bridgeman (Eds) [9] Mensah, A.O., Bahta, A. & Mhlanga, S. (2005). Ecommerce challenges in Africa: Mobile Commerce?.Proceedings of the 41st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 7-10 January, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society. model: four longitudinal field studies’. Management Science, 2, p. 186-204. [10] Ngalande, E. (2003). The importance of financial system modernisation in Africa. Available at: http://www.bis.org/review/r030620e.pdf, (Accessed: 2008, July 29). [11] Nicol C. (2003) ICT Policy: A Beginner's Handbook. The Association for Progressive Communications(APC). South Africa. Internet and ICT for Social Justice and Development. [12] Orbicom. (2007) Emerging Development Opportunities: The Making of Information Societies and ICT Markets. Ottawa: IDRC [13] Pousttchi, K. (2003). “Conditions for acceptance and usage of mobile payment procedures”. MPRA Paper 2912. [14] Saidi, E. (2009). Mobile Opportunities, Mobile Problems: Assessing Mobile Commerce Issues in Malawi. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, April 2009, vol. 14, no.1 www.arraydev.com/commerce/jibc [15] Stork, C. &Esselaar, S. (2006). Towards an African eIndex - SME e-Access and Usage across 14 African Countries. Research ICT Africa. Studies, 51(2-3), 233–260. Available at: www.researchictafrica.net [16] Tiwari, R. and Buse, S(2007). The Mobile Commerce Prospects: A Strategic Analysis of Opportunities in the Banking Sector, Hamburg: Hamburg University Press, 2007 [17] Wade, R.H. (2004) Bridging the Digital Divide: New Route to Development or New Form of Dependency, In The Social Study of Information and Communication Technology Innovation, Actors, and Contexts, Avgerou, C. Ciborra, C. and Land, F. (eds), 185-206. New York: Oxford University Press. [18] Zhang, M.Y & Dodgson, M. (2007). “A roasted duck can still fly away”: a case study of technology, nationality, culture and the rapid and early internationalization of the firm.

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