Free Essay

Mobile Service Provider

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By harmesh
Words 4262
Pages 18
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TERM PAPER

COURSE NAME: CSE

COURSE CODE: CSE101

TOPIC: Mobile service database provider

DOS: 20-11-2010

Submitted To: Submitted By:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am grateful to Almighty for giving me the strength to successfully conduct my term paper and for sustaining my efforts which many a times did oscillate.

I am deeply indebted to mam, our CSE faculty without whose constructive guidance this term paper would not have been a success. Her valuable advice and suggestions for the corrections, modifications and improvement did enhance the perfection in performing my job well.

I am obliged LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY for providing the best of facilities and environment to bring out our innovation and spirit of inquiry through this venture.

I am grateful to My Parents whose blessings and wishes have gone a long way in the completion of this arduous task.

Last but not the least I thank all My Friends and Batch Mates, without their prompt support my efforts would have been in vain.

CONTENTS

1. Introduction of C

2. Mobile services present scenario

3. Model of mobile computing

4. Benefits of the Mobile Web For Mobile Service Provider:

5. Routing and Query Processing

6.Description of mobile service provider

7. Disconnectivity and consistency

8. Coding

9. Snapshot

10. Future Scope

11. Refernces

INTRODUCTION OF C:-

We begin our journey with a little history. C , has become one of the most popular programming languages. Originally designed for systems programming,

C enables programmers to write efficient code and provided close access to the machine. C

compilers, found on practically every Unix system, are now available with most operating

systems. During the 1980s and into the 1990s, an explosive growth in object-oriented

technology began with the introduction of the Smalltalk language. Object-Oriented

Programming (OOP) began to replace the more traditional structured programming

techniques. This explosion led to the development of languages which support programming

with objects. Many new object-oriented programming languages appeared: Object-Pascal,

Modula-2, Mesa, Cedar, Neon, Objective-C, LISP with the Common List Object System

(CLOS), and, of course, C++. Although many of these languages appeared in the 1980s,

many ideas of OOP were taken from Simula-67. Yes! OOP has been around since 1967. C++

originated with Bjarane Stroustrop. In the simplest sense, if not the most accurate, we can

Consider it to be a better C. Although it is not an entirely new language, C represents a

Significant extension of C abilities. We might then consider C to be a subset of C. C

supports essentially every desirable behavior and most of the undesirable ones of its

predecessor, but provides general language improvements as well as adding OOP capability.

Note that using C does not imply that your are doing OOP. C does not force you to use

its OOP features. You can simply create structured code that uses only C's non-OOP

features.

The designers of C++ wanted to add object-oriented mechanisms without compromising the

efficiency and simplicity that made C so popular. One of the driving principles for the

language designers was to hide complexity from the programmer, allowing her to concentrate

on the problem at hand.

Because C++ retains C as a subset, it gains many of the attractive features of the C language,

such as efficiency, closeness to the machine, and a variety of built-in types. A number of new

features were added to C++ to make the language even more robust, many of which are not

used by novice programmers. By introducing these new features here, we hope that you will

begin to use them in your own programs early on and gain their benefits. Some of the features

we will look at are the role of constants, inline expansion, references, declaration statements,

user defined types, overloading, and the free store.

Most of these features can be summarized by two important design goals: strong compiler

type checking and a user-extensible language.

By enforcing stricter type-checking, the C compiler makes us acutely aware of data types

in our expressions. Stronger type checking is provided through several mechanisms,

including: function argument type checking, conversions, and a few other features we will

examine below.

C also enables programmers to incorporate new types into the language, through the use of

classes.

Mobile services present scenario:

As mobile networks continue to move toward an open ecosystem model, mobile operators are searching for ways to effectively monetize their networks as they race to roll out increasingly fat “pipes”. The battle is on among the players in the new mobile ecosystem to offer compelling revenue-generating applications and services. Handset and mobile OS vendors have launched application storefronts that aggregate and distribute developers’ innovation in gaming, entertainment, productivity, social media, and other applications. The business models for these initiatives are largely based on a revenue share between the virtual store owner and the developer community, generally leaving out mobile operators, some of whom are launching their own cross-platform application stores.
However – and for how much – they acquire applications, subscribers will likely prefer the internet model of unrestricted usage of their favorite applications. 3G operators are trying to balance the success of flat rate mobile data plans to drive adoption with ways to maximize the revenue potential of available bandwidth across the varying needs of subscribers. As mobile data usage continues its torrid growth rate, subscriber satisfaction and mobile operator monetization expectations may be on a collision course!
The good news is that there are some promising win-win approaches emerging for operators and their subscribers to benefit from the growing abundance of mobile internet applications:
•Pay for what you need – Tiered mobile broadband service plans enable subscribers to self-select the plans that meet their mobile broadband usage needs. Once monthly quotas are reached, operators are employing a range of approaches to notify subscribers and/or restrict services while still maintaining ever-delicate subscriber satisfaction (and retention!). A growing number of operators offer such plans including AT&T, T-Mobile, 3 Sweden, Network Norway, and many more.Table of Contents
Abstract:................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..........3
Introduction:................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .....3
What is theMobi ledata base?................................ ................................ ................................ ............3
Need for Mobile Databases................................ ................................ ................................ ...4
Mobile database System Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Three parties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Some of the Mobile Relational Database Systems:................................ ................................ ................5
Model of Mobile Computing................................ ................................ ................................ ...............6
Routing and Query Processing................................ ................................ ................................ ............7
Broadcast Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Disconnectivity and Consistency................................ ................................ ................................ ..........8
Summary................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..........8
References:................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......8

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Abstract:
Mobile computing is increasingly becoming more and more popular as people need information even on the move in this rapid changing information world. This paper attempts to highlight the concepts and basic issues relating to mobile database.
Introduction:
Traditionally, large-scale commercial databases were developed as centralized database systems. However, this trend changed as more and more distributed applications stated to emerge.
The distributed database applications involved usually a strong central database and powerful network administration. However, the newer technology trends have changed this paradigm because of the following technological trends: y The notebook and laptop Computers are being used increasingly among the Business
Community
y
The development and availability of a relatively low-cost wireless digital communication infrastructure. This infrastructure is based on wireless local-area networks, cellular digital packet networks, and other technologies
The rapid advancements of wireless communication technology and computer miniaturizing technology have enabled users to utilize computing resources anywhere in the computer network.
For example, you can even connect to your Intranet from an aeroplane. Mobile database are the database that allows the development and deployment of database applications for handheld devices, thus, enabling relational database based applications in the hands of mobile workers. The database technology allows employees using handheld to link to their corporate networks, download data, work offline, and then connect to the network again to synchronise with the corporate database. For example, with a mobile database embedded in a handheld device, a package delivery worker can collect signatures after each delivery and send the information to a corporate database at day's end.
What is theM o b iledatabase?
A mobile database is a database than can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. A database is a structured way to organize information. This could be a list of contacts, price information or distance travelled.
The use of laptops, mobiles and PDAs is increasing and likely to increase in the future with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. While those same analyst s can¶t tell us exactly which applications will be the most popular, it is clear that a large percentage will require the use of a database of some sort. Many applications such as databases would require the ability to download information from an information repository and operate on this information even when out of range or disconnected.

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An example of this is a mobile workforce. In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client server systems of today. With the advent of mobile databases, now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange mission-critical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time.
Need for Mobile Databases y Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non- existent connections. y Applications must provide significant interactivity. y Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware, such as printers, bar code scanners, or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). y Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). y Users don't require access to truly live data, only recently modified data.
If your application meets any of those requirements, the chances are good that you will be required to build a mobile database application with synchronization.
Mobile database System Architecture
For any mobile architecture, things to be considered are y Users are not attached to a fixed geographical location y Mobile computing devices: low-power, low-cost, portable y Wireless networks y Mobile computing constraints
Three parties
Fixed hosts: Perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers Mobile units: Portable computers, move around a geographical region that is a collection of mobile cells y
Mobile hosts retains network connection through the support of base stations y Role of mobile hosts depend on the capacity
Base stations: It is a two-way radio installation in a fixed location, used to communicate with one or more mobile or portable radio transceivers. They are typically used by low-power two-way radios such as mobile phones, portable phones and wireless routers

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Capturing mobility by hand-off processes y When a mobile unit leaves a mobile cell serviced by a base station, transfer the responsibility for mobile transaction and data support to the new base station y Transparent processes
Some of the Mobile Relational Database Systems:
The current database systems do not provide special facilities for specific update operations in a mobile computing environment. Some of the commercially available Mobile relational
Database systems are:
IBM's DB2 Everywhere 1.0
Oracle Lite
Sybase's SQL
These databases work on Palm top and hand held devices (Windows CE devices) providing a local data store for the relational data acquired from enterprise SQL databases. The main constraints for such databases are relating to the size of the program as the handheld devices haveRAM oriented constraints. The commercially available mobile database systems allow wide variety of platforms and data sources. They also allows users with handheld to synchronise with Open Database
Connectivity (ODBC) database content, and personal information management data and email from

Lotus Development's Notes or Microsoft's Exchange. These database technologies support either query-by-example (QBE) or SQL statements.
Mobile computing has proved useful in many applications. Many business travelers are using laptop computers to enable them to work and to access data while traveling. Delivery services may use/ are using mobile computers to assist in tracking of delivery of goods. Emergency response services may use/ are using mobile computers at the disasters sites, medical emergencies, etc. to access information and to provide data pertaining to the situation. Newer applications of mobile computers are also emerging.
One of the issue relating to wireless computing is that creates a situation where machines no longer have fixed locations and network addresses. This may complicate query processing for the cases where location plays a key role, since it becomes difficult to determine the optimal location at which to materialize the result of a query. This may happen only for the cases where the location of the user is a parameter of the query. For example, If a traveler information system provides data on hotels, roadside services, etc. to motorists; queries about services that are ahead on the current route must be processed based on knowledge of the user's location, direction of motion, and speed.
Another issue relating to mobile computing is the energy (battery power). It is a scarce resource for mobile computers. This limitation influences many aspects of system design. Can we reduce the requirements of data transfer for the sake of energy efficiency? Yes, by doing scheduled data broadcasts, we may reduce the need for mobile systems to transmit queries.
But on the other side it will increase the amount of data residing on machines administered by users, rather than by database administrators. In addition, these machines may, at times, be disconnected from the network; thus, raising the question about the consistency of data

Model of Mobile Computing :

The mobile-computing environment consists of mobile computers, which are referred to as mobile hosts, and a wired network of computers. The communication between the Mobile hosts and the wired network takes place through the computers referred to as mobile support stations. A mobile support station manages the mobile hosts within its cell. But what is a cell? A cell is defined as the geographical area covered by a mobile support station. Mobile hosts may move between cells, thus, necessitating a transfer of control from one mobile support station to another. Since mobile hosts may, at times, be powered down, a host may leave one cell and re-materialize later at some distant cell. Therefore, moves between cells are not necessarily between adjacent cells. Within a small area, such as a building, Mobile hosts may be connected by a wireless local-area network within a small area, which may provide lower-cost connectivity than a wide-area cellular network.
This will also reduce the overhead of transfer of control.
It is possible for mobile hosts to communicate directly without the intervention of a mobile support station. However, such communication can occur only between the nearby hosts.
The size and power limitations of many mobile computers have led to alterative memory hierarchies. Flash memories may be used in such systems to save power. If the mobile host includes a hard disk, the disk may be allowed to spin down when it is not in use, to save energy. The Benefits of the Mobile Web For Mobile Service Provider:

• It can enable access to information, any time and anywhere there is cell phone coverage. By freeing information from the restrictions of a desk or search for a nearby WiFi hotspot, people can quickly retrieve and exchange information.

• It provides vast connectivity. One-third of humankind currently has access to the Internet through a mobile device. This number is twice as many as the number of Internet-connected personal computers (PCs). By 2010, it’s expected that half of the planet’s population will have access to the Internet through a mobile device.2

• It enables services to take advantage of mobile device capabilities such as clicking on a phone number to call it or add it to the device address book.

• It can provide location-sensitive content. Location technologies can enable location-sensitive information be provided to a user. This can reduce the steps required for the user to reach useful content, and so makes it accessible with the least amount of effort.

Routing and Query Processing:
The mobile computing poses typical problems from the point of view of routing and query processing. For example, as per the mobile-computing model, the route between a pair of hosts may change over time, if one of the two hosts is mobile. This simple fact may have a dramatic effect at the network level, since location-based network addresses are no longer constants within the system. However, these networking issues are beyond the scope of this course.
The mobile-computing model also directly affects database query processing. In the case of distributed query processing, the communication costs play important role in query optimization process while selecting the best method of query evaluation strategy. Mobility results in dynamically changing communication costs, therefore, complicate the optimization process.
Some of the anomalous factors, which need to be considered for mobile computing, are:
User time is a highly valuable commodity in most of the business applications

Connection time is the unit of monetary charges is assigned in most cellular systems, therefore, should be minimum.

Number of bytes, or packets, transferred is the unit of charges is computed in digital cellular systems Time-of-day based charges may vary based on whether communication occurs during peak or off-peak periods

Energy is limited. Often, battery power is a scarce resource and should be optimized.
One of the basic principles of radio communication is that it requires less energy to receive than to transmit radio signals. Thus, transmission and reception of data impose different power demands on the mobile host.
Broadcast Data
It is often desirable for frequently requested data to be broadcast in a continuous cycle by mobile support stations, rather than transmitted to mobile hosts on demand. A typical application of broadcast data is stock-market price information. There are two reasons for using broadcast data:

The mobile host does not have to invest on the energy cost for transmitting data requests

The broadcast data can be received by a large number of mobile hosts in a single transmission, at no extra cost, thus, ensures effective utilization of the available transmission bandwidth. Thus, the mobile hosts need to only receive data as and when those data are transmitted, rather than consuming energy by transmitting a request. The mobile host may also have the local nonvolatile storage for storing (cache) the broadcast data as and when received, for possible later use. The mobile host may optimize energy costs by determining whether a given query may be processed using only cached data. In case, the cached data is not found to be appropriate for the query, then the mobile host may either may wait for the data to be broadcast, or transmit a request for data. However, in order to make this decision, the mobile host must know when the relevant data will be

broadcast.

The broadcasting of data may be made according to a fixed schedule or a changeable schedule. If the schedule of data transmission is fixed then the mobile host uses the known fixed schedule to

determine when the relevant data will be transmitted. In the data transmission schedule is changeable then even the broadcast schedule may itself be broadcast at a well-known frequency and time intervals.
In effect, the broadcast medium can be thought of as a disk with a high latencyRequests for data can be thought of as being serviced when the requested data are broadcast. The transmission schedules behave like indices on the disk. This area is still evolving and research is still being conducted on broadcast data issues.

DESCRIPTION OF MOBILE SERVICE PROVIDER:
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Disconnectivityand Consistency

As one of the major cost involved in wireless communication, the connectivity cost, is paid for on the basis of connection time, there is an incentive for certain mobile hosts to be disconnected for substantial periods. However, during the time of disconnection, the user may still be working on the host machine and may issue queries and updates on data on locally cached data. This situation creates several problems of the following types:
Recoverability:Updates entered at the mobile host machine which is not connected may be lost if the machine undergoes a major failure. This problem will result from the fact that only copy of information is kept at local host and simulation of storage that takes care of failure will be difficult to do.
Consistency:The locally cached data may become inconsistent, but the mobile host can discover this fact only when it is reconnected. Similarly, the updates occurring in the mobile host cannot be propagated until reconnection occurs. However, such updates must be propagated as and when the mobile host reconnects. However, if the mobile host caches read-only copies of data, which is being updated by other computers, the cached data may become inconsistent once a different machine updates the value. In such cases on reconnection, the mobile host may be sent with invalidation reports that may inform it about inconsistent cache entries. In case updates can occur at both the mobile host and elsewhere, detecting conflicting updates become even more difficult. Details on these issues are beyond the scope of this text.

SOURCE CODE: #include #include void main() { int d,d1,p,q; int p1=500, p2=200, p3=100, p4=50, p5=20; float amt=0; printf("List of Mobile Service Providers"); printf("\n AIRTEL"); printf("\n HUTCH"); printf("\n RELIANCE"); printf("\n BSNL"); printf("\n IDEA"); printf("\n VODAFONE"); printf("\n Enter your choice"); scanf(" %d", &d); switch(d) { case 1: { printf("\n Facilities Available : "); printf("\n 1. RECHARGE"); printf("\n 2. GPRS"); printf("\n 3. MESSAGE PACK"); printf("\n 4. CALL RATES"); printf("\n Enter your choice"); scanf(" %d", &d1); switch(d1) { case 1: { printf("\n Types of recharge coupons available are : "); int p, p1=500, p2=200, p3=100, p4=50, p5=20; printf("\n 1. Rs. 500 recharge : Talktime Rs. 488"); printf("\n 2. Rs. 200 recharge : Talktime Rs. 188"); printf("\n 3. Rs. 100 recharge : Talktime Rs. 88"); printf("\n 4. Rs. 50 recharge : Talktime Rs. 44"); printf("\n 5. Rs. 20 recharge : Talktime Rs. 14"); printf("\n Enter your choice of coupon"); scanf(" %d", &p); printf("\n Enter the quantity of recharge coupons to be bought"); scanf(" %d", &q); printf("\n Total amount to be paid is : "); if(p==1) amt = (float)(p1*q); if(p==2) amt = (float)(p2*q); if(p==3) amt = (float)(p3*q); if(p==4) amt = (float)(p4*q); if(p==5) amt = (float)(p5*q); printf(" %f", amt); } } } } getch(); }

SNAPSHOT
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FUTURE SCOPE

If you plan to have your site accessed through a mobile service provider portal – often referred to as a carrier deck – then note that creating a click stream is a crucial and often required deliverable.

They usually want to see an early click stream prior to development and may make suggestions to improve usability. Some providers require you to submit a click stream or site map when requesting consideration for the provider’s portal or better deck placement.

Designing for the Right Device:

When designing for mobile, think about the different classes of devices. The line between devices is not well defined, making designing for mobile more challenging. Instead, the boundaries shift constantly. Despite this, some simple guidelines exist to help you determine what device class to target. The mobile devices available today can be broken down in to a few broad classes:

1. Feature Phones: These are the most common device type. Feature phones usually come in candy bar, clamshell or slider form. They have a 12-key layout and typically come with voice, messaging and data capabilities. Most feature phones sold in the past three years also come with built-in digital cameras and media players. Companies typically target these phones to the general consumer.

2. PDAs: These devices — evolved from the PDAs of the ‘90s — now often include voice, messaging, and data capabilities. PDAs have much in common with the smart phone but differ in that much of their functionality is primarily oriented towards organizational tasks rather then voice communications. Another difference is that PDAs often include QWERTY keyboard and stylus in place of the 12-key layout on normal phones. They also feature a larger screen that can often switch between portrait and landscape mode.

3. Voice-Only Phones: These devices are typically extremely low-cost phones aimed at developing markets and are not relevant in the context of the Mobile Web.

Feature Phones lead the market by a large margin but bear in mind that the borderline between the Feature Phones and Smart Phones is constantly shifting towards the Smart Phone category – the newest Feature Phones are often equal in functionality to yesterday’s Smart Phones.

References:

1. http://www.ignou.ac.in/virtualcampus/adit/course/cst302/block2/cst302-bl2-u1.htm

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_database

3. Programming with ANSI and Turbo C by Ashok N. Kamthane

www.sourcecodeworld.com

4.www.ebook.com

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