Free Essay


In: Other Topics

Submitted By aalsafani1
Words 1032
Pages 5
The specification says ‘explanations’, which means you’ll need to know at least two explanations. 1. The importation model – this explains aggression in prisons. In brief, it says aggression occurs because of characteristics that prisoners bring inside with them. Cheeseman (2003) said that men in prison have a certain way of behaving (probably why they went to prison in the first place!) and they then apply that behaviour to their new institutional setting. Toch (1997) says this: all prisons inherit their subcultural sediments from the street corners that supply them with clients. This suggests that young people can be aggressive both on the street and in prison.

Personal and psychological factors that existed in inmates before being incarcerated can affect the level of aggressive behaviour shown in prison. Mills, Kroner and Weekes (1998) studied prisoners admitted to a Canadian prison using the alcohol dependence scale (ADS). Inmates who had higher levels of dependence were associated with more aggression shown in prison.

Also, inmates who had greater periods of unemployment, lower levels of education, and a more serious criminal record were more likely to be aggressive in prison (Kane and Janus, 1981).

Demographic variables that seem to influence aggression in prisons are race and age. Studies in America have shown that non-whites and younger prisoners are more likely to be aggressive whilst incarcerated. Kane and Janus (1981) say that this is because these groups are more likely to be separated from the mainstream society’s norms which promote pro-social behaviour, and could live in a subculture where aggression is valued, respected an d reinforced – this may have influenced them to be aggressive in many contexts – their home, their neighbourhood, the prison institution... This is called being ‘disenfranchised’.

* Irwin & Cressey (1962) said there were three categories of prisoner subcultures: * THE CRIMINAL OR THIEF SUBCULTURE: Follow the norms associated with being a thief or criminal. Values such as not betraying each other or being trustworthy amongst other criminals are important. Refer to fellow thieves in prison as primary reference group. * THE CONVICT SUBCULTURE: Have been raised in prison system. Look for positions of power or influence within the system. Primary reference system is fellow convicts. This group are most likely to turn to aggression. Influenced by deprivation prior to being imprisoned and bring values of that subculture inside with them. * THE CONVENTIONAL OR 'STRAIGHT' SUBCULTURE: Tend to be one-time offenders. Weren't part of a criminal subculture before going inside. Rejects both other groups within prison and identify more with prison officers and staff. Tend not to be very aggressive whilst in prison.

2. Situational models – these say that the prison environment plays a part in the aggression shown by prisoners. Situational factors can be: * Organisational – leadership, policies and procedures * Physical – security level, available resources * Staff characteristics – gender, level of experience, relationship to and interactions with prisoners.

The DEPRIVATION MODEL is a situational model. Sykes (1958) did a study which looked at the deprivation that prisoners suffered during their incarceration. Sykes thought that prison subculture originates from within the institution, not outside it. Sykes describes five deprivations that arise from ‘the indignities and degradations suffered by becoming an inmate’.

These deprivations lead prisoners to become stressed, and sometimes they act aggressively towards others to release this stress. Aggression in prisons is seen as a way that prisoners can gain some control over the social order imposed on them in prison.
Other situational models: * The Popcorn model (Folger & Skarlicki, 1995) – the first individual to act aggressively is like the first piece of popcorn that explodes in the saucepan. The best thing to study here is what led the ‘heat’ to be applied in the first place. No corn ‘pops’ without heat. If the prison environment is sorted out, then prisoners will not become aggressive. This model suggests that prisoners who don’t bring the values of aggression into prison with them can become aggressive if enough ‘heat’ is applied.

* The Management model (Dilulio 1987) – this says that aggression in prison occurs as a result of failed management, high staff turnover, and lack of discipline amongst staff.

McCorkle et al. (1995) investigated the relative strength of the deprivation and management models to explain prison aggression. They looked at 371 US State prisons and looked at both individual and collective violence. They found that the deprivation model was less useful in explaining rates of violence, but that there was a stronger link between management style and violence.

Some evaluation points...
IMPORTATION MODEL * The model doesn’t give suggestions for how best to manage aggressive prisoners * DeLisi (2004) looked at records of 831 male inmates sampled from South Western USA to look at the prison violence records of inmates involved in street gangs and prison gangs. There was a small, but significant relationships between gang membership and prison aggression – maybe subcultural values had been imported into prisons by gang members. * Poole and Regoli (1983) looked at juvenile correction facilities and found that inmates who had been violent ‘outside’ were more likely to be violent ‘inside’

SITUATIONAL MODELS * Situational models don’t explain why prison riots can suddenly happen without the environment changing * Findings seem to suggest that there isn’t a link between overcrowding and aggression. Megargee (1976) found that aggressive incidents in prisons were negatively correlated to the amount of living space available for each prisoner. It is suggested that, when a prison is full or overcrowded’, management strategies are put in place to compensate for this – this might mean that inmates have fewer opportunities to interact with each other.

It is possible that both models have something about them, and it could be that violence should be viewed as the product of three interacting sets of variables... 1. The aggressor (personality, needs, concerns, perceptions) 2. The victim (personality, needs, concerns, perceptions) 3. The situation (the human and physical environment in which the incident is taking place)

Racial and ethnic tensions exist in prisons – 50% of US state prison officials reported that racial conflicts were a problem amongst inmates (Knox et al., 1996). Some hold these tensions responsible for creating the racial divides among inmates that have increased inmate assaults ad resulted in full-scale riots in some facilities.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Models and Weight

...thin. So-called “plus-size” models are a growing presence on magazine covers, television and lingerie catalogues but at the Fashion Weeks of New York and London they are still the exception. In a reflection of the expanding market for women who defy the super-slender ideals of the catwalk, leading fashion magazine Elle offered its readers a special issue in March featuring larger than normal models and sales jumped. British designer Mark Fast introduced shows last year in which the models were all above a British size twelve, and American size eight, following criticism that his dresses were too skinny. Despite their trailblazing status in the fashion world, when it comes to bigger models New York and London are slightly out of step. The move towards more generously sized models has accelerated since the death from anorexia in 2006 of Brazilian model Ana Carolina Reston, which shocked the fashion world. Spain and Italy banned models below a certain body mass index after her death, while Britain stopped short; banning only those aged under sixteen from the catwalk. “Sixteen corresponds to a level of maturity,” said Caroline Ruth of the British Fashion Council. When Frederique van der Wal, a former Victoria’s Secret model, attended designers’ shows during New York’s Fashion Week this month, she was “shocked” by the waiflike models who paraded down the catwalk. They seemed even skinnier than in previous years. “We know seeing super-thin models can play a role in......

Words: 1578 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Model as a Muse

...2011 Model as a Muse In my short career as a conscious photographer, which stems back to my junior year of high school, I have noticed a decisive pattern in my selection of models for my photographs, which lend their selves to fashion specifically, or at least attempt to. While I have not yet developed a particular favor for the aesthetic of one model over the next, it is my experience that the best models, the most responsive, self-aware, intelligent models, are the ones in which I was able to fall in love with. My models usually being women, I could not photograph her if I could not establish some relationship with her that transcended the superficial. I had to spend time with my models, grow with them in some way and understand them, and them myself, to the point where I only needed to provide them with the most minimal of direction during the shoot, and the rest they were able to guide independently. More generally speaking, the relationship between a photographer and those models who remain a distinctive presence in front of the camera amid the “make-up, hairstyling, and clothing being documented” (Koda and Kohle), is particularly fascinating in it’s ability to create additional layers of depth both within the assembled image and the ever-evolving idea of feminine beauty. Accordingly, photographers and designers have been able to portray their artistic visions within the framework of a model’s physical and mental intricacies, which, in practice, renders the......

Words: 3133 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Models Not Critics

...First Essay Discovery Draft “Young people need models not critics,” has got to be everything I’ve ever tried to explain to other adults in six simple words. I feel as though it’s in an adult’s nature to judge the younger generation in ways that no one would like to be judged. Although their assumptions could be true some assumptions are literally ridiculous. Some adults criticize our every move, some not as much as others, but for the ones who do there’s a pattern in their behavior. After they point out our flaws and mistakes, adults switch up and do the same thing they never told us to do. Now I completely understand when an adult wants us to do the right thing and not follow in their footsteps, but a lot of the younger generation goes with the slogan “seeing is believing.” In my own opinion talk is cheap, and I would rather see something actually happen in the case of critiquing. Fix yourself before you try and fix somebody else’s mistakes. Being the age that I am, I’m only speaking from the younger generation’s side. I may be wrong but my opinion on “Young people need models not critics” still holds. I do however slightly understand when adults want us to know right from wrong, and know to do the right thing. My problem with this is after or in some occasions before they preach to us about being the best we can be, they demonstrate the total opposite. Being part of the younger generation I’m not sure if I’m speaking for myself when I say we don’t need a how to. What......

Words: 441 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Power of Models and Modeling

...comparison between model in the past and the present, and how models become more restraints than before. Also we will talk about the advantage of using models and how they can make our life much easy. Models have evolved since the beginning of the century. There are many kinds of models for almost any system or item that exist. Each model uses short, long, simple or complex mathematics formula it depends of which case the models solve. However the models that are used in these recent years are very complex and have many numerous computations which make the only one that can handle it is the computer. These kinds of models are usually use in a wide variety of tasks, such as prevision of the decision made, and an effective answer to everyday problems. During time, models start to be more restraints than before. These kinds of restraints should have value or weight to make a model compatible with the case that model solve. There are several constraints or restraints in each models, one of the most important one is budget of the project. In other words the more wherewithal, the more model accuracy. Mark P. McDonald  (  December 8, 2010). To use complex mathematical formula in the models it requires an educated staffs with a good knowledge of model branch, which make the model more expensive and take more time to solve it, comparing with computer time and cost. However the need of special educated persons is strictly required to conclude if the models created by......

Words: 824 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Role Model

...ROLE MODEL A role model is generally defined as a person who serves as an example of a positive behavior. The term “role model” was introduced by Robert K. Merton who said that individuals compare themselves with "reference groups" full of people who occupy the social role to which the individual aspires. Adults, parents, people in authority, people of influence, celebrities, are often idolized and looked up to by the people around them. Since by definition a role model has to exhibit positive behavior, only some of these people qualify as role models. Others serve as bad examples, which unfortunately can be just as influencing. It is a daunting responsibility to be viewed as a role model. Regardless of how one reaches the stature of being looked up to, the responsibility is the same. Role models are supposed to walk the talk. As Albert Schweitzer said, “example is not the main thing in influencing others. It is the only thing.” I remember an advocacy campaign that focused on what we as adults show children. We litter and throw garbage even in areas with signs that say otherwise; and on our way to the mall with our family; we jaywalk as we cross the streets; we violate traffic rules, etc. Not unlike Aesop’s fable “the young thief and his mother”, we once saw a father alternating with his son to get packets of sugar and table napkin in a coffee shop. In a span of about half an hour, they must have made ten trips to the condiments station to fill a bag......

Words: 665 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Model Based Testing

...MODEL BASED TESTING Manoj Philip Mathen Abstract: This paper is a quick glance into what is Model Based Testing, its evolution, its current state, who should use it, the techniques and tools involved and what will it mean to the enterprise in terms of the cost incurred. The paper starts with a brief exploration into some of the building blocks of MBT, followed by an attempt to define Model based Testing. This is followed by an argument on the need of Model Based Testing, and a quick overview on Model Based Testing and the approach. Next, we walkthrough 2 example scenarios, where certain models have been exhibited to showcase testing benefits. This also shows the different techniques and methods in MBT. Finally the author describes some common challenges in Model based Testing and some best practices. Introduction Model Based Testing (MBT) is very common in validating embedded systems, phones, switches etc. The model based testing was very successful and has yielded good results in these areas. This could have been the reason why practioners tried exploring the feasibility of the same in other areas of Software validation...

Words: 2784 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Mental Models

...YOUR OWN MENTAL MODELS “Investigating Your Own Mental Models” Running Head: INVESTIGATING YOUR OWN MENTAL MODELS 1. 1. Describe the mental model thoroughly, including its origins, how long it has been established, conversations you have heard about it, etc. According to Hrepic (2011), “wider studies of mental model definitions show that no consensus exists about the definition of the term mental model and “some definitions of the concept are even contradictory.” “Canas and Antol”, believe the main reason for disagreements in the definition of the mental model is that the term has been used by researchers who work in different fields and who focused on its different aspects. However, “Van der Veer” believes that although there is no agreement about the exact definition of the concept, in general, “mental model” refers to the internal representations that people form of the environment through their interaction with it”(p. 1). In other words, mental models are believed to be assumptions, beliefs, generalizations even stereotypes of a person’s belief system that is often generated by their experiences. According to Senge (2006), “our mental models......

Words: 1783 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Bsc, Business Score Model

...superior performance in a given job, role, or situation.Competency modeling is the activity of determining the specific competencies that are characteristic of high performance and success in a given job. Competency modeling can be applied to a variety of human resource activities. This research paper will describe how organizations identify their core competencies and how they are applying this competency data to improve performance. It will also explain some emerging trends in competency modeling. Developing Competency Models Competencies enable employees to achieve results, thereby creating value. It follows that competencies aligned with business objectives help foster an organization's success. Organizations must understand their core competency needs - the skills, knowledge, behaviors, and abilities that are necessary for people in key roles to deliver business results.According to Boulter, et al (1998), there are six stages involved in defining a competency model for a given job role. These stages are: 1. Performance criteria - Defining the criteria for superior performance in the role. 2. Criterion sample - Choosing a sample of people performing the role for data collection. 3. Data collection - Collecting sample data about behaviors that lead to success. 4. Data analysis - Developing hypotheses about the competencies of outstanding performers and how these competencies work together to produce desired...

Words: 1154 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Leadership Model, Model

...Leadership Models Leadership styles cannot be fully explained by behavioural models. The situation in which the group is operating also determines the style of leadership which is adopted. Several models exist which attempt to understand the relationship between style and situation, four of which are described here: • Fiedler's Contingency Model. • Hersey-Blanchard Situational Theory. • Path-Goal Theory. • Vroom-Yetton Leadership Model The models described have limited validity, but are still widely used. [pic] Fiedler's Contingency model Fiedler's model assumes that group performance depends on: • Leadership style, described in terms of task motivation and relationship motivation. To determine one’s basic style, Fiedler created the least preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire-containing 16 contrasting adjectives. • Situational favourableness, determined by three factors: 1. Leader-member relations - Degree to which a leader is accepted and supported by the group members. 2. Task structure - Extent to which the task is structured and defined, with clear goals and procedures. 3. Position power - The ability of a leader to control subordinates through reward and punishment. High levels of these three factors give the most favourable situation, low levels, the least favourable. Relationship-motivated leaders are most effective in moderately favourable situations. Task-motivated leaders are most effective at either end of...

Words: 939 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Osi Model

...OSI MODEL Joseph Lucero College America Abstract In this paper it is going to explain the OSI model and all the layers. There are 7 layers in total: the layers are Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link and Physical. It is going to explain what all the layers are and how they work in the OSI Model, it is also going to explain what every layer is. It is also going to explain why it was created and what the use for the OSI model is for today. You are going to know why we need the OSI model and how it evolved from the first time. You are also going to find out about the past history about the model and the other name is what called before. OSI Model The OSI model has been used for a long time. Why do we use it? OSI, formally known as the ISO OSI model, is the most standard model for networking communication. The ISO formed the OSI or Open System Interconnection, so that you can communicate and connect with another system over the network without having system specific configuration. The OSI model consists of 7 different layers: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Sessions, Presentation, and Application. One reason why the OSI model was created, is so that the process of communication that were between two end points in a telecommunication network can be split into layers. The main reason why the OSI Model was created was to standardize the networking rules so that all the systems can communicate over the OSI reference model, which was a...

Words: 954 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Waterfall Model

...WATERFALL MODEL Waterfall Model is use for designing hospital management system. In a waterfall model, each phase must be completed before the next phase can begin and there is no overlapping in the phases. The waterfall Model illustrates the software development process in a linear sequential flow; hence it is also referred to as a linear-sequential life cycle model. This means that any phase in the development process begins only if the previous phase is complete. In waterfall model phases do not overlap. Following is a diagrammatic representation of different phases of waterfall model. . Phase I: Requirements The first phase involves understanding what you need to design and what is its function, purpose etc. Unless you know what you want to design, you cannot proceed with the project. Even a small code such as adding two integer numbers, needs to be written with the output in mind. Here, in this stage, the requirements which the software is going to satisfy are listed and detailed. These requirements are then presented to the team of programmers. If this phase is completed successfully, it ensures a smooth working of the remaining phases, as the programmer is not burdened to make changes at later stages because of changes in requirements. Phase II: Analysis As per the requirements, the software and hardware needed for the proper completion of the project is analyzed in this phase. Right from deciding which computer language should be used for designing...

Words: 685 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Recovery Model

...submitted in each course must be your own original work. This includes all assignments, exams, term papers, and other projects required by your instructor. Knowingly submitting another person’s work as your own, without properly citing the source of the work, is considered plagiarism. This will result in an unsatisfactory grade for the work submitted or for the entire course. It may also result in academic dismissal from the University. MFT5105 | Asha Sutton | | | Recovery-Oriented Care & Postmodern Family Therapy | Recovery Model in MFT | <Add student comments here> ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- Faculty Use Only ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- The definition of the recovery model is not clear in the mental health field. Professionals of the mental health field cannot agreed when it comes to the recovery method. Some...

Words: 1742 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Model

...The Document Object Model (DOM) is an important part of creating animation and making web pages interactive. The Document Object Model is used with Dynamic HTML to help accomplish the interactive web pages that are used today. “Dynamic HTML(DHTML) refers to a combination of technologies that make Web pages dynamic…a combination of JavaScript, XHTML, CSS, and the Document Object Model” (Gosselin, 2008, pg. 485).     The Document object Model is all the HTML that is displayed on a web page from the web browser. Each of the many elements contained in the web page are considered objects and can be controlled and changed by using JavaScript. The Document Object Model gives you the ability to change these elements without the web page needed to be reloaded. The HTML DOM can be used to dynamically change the document object and to change and control elements like images, which can themselves be considered the image object. The Document object and the image object both contain methods and properties that can be used to dynamically change the web page.     The methods used with the document object are close, open, getElementById, getElementsByName, getElementsByTagName, write and writeIn. The open method creates a new window or a frame. The close method closes the document that was opened with the open method. The getElementById method retrieves an element by the specified ID. The getElementsByName method retrieves an array of elements that have a specific name. The......

Words: 286 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Transtheoretical Model

...The Transtheoretical Model I. Introduction A. History of TTM B. Why the TTM is used for health promotion Thesis - The Transtheoretical Model is and will continue to be one of the most popular in the behavior change field due to its uniqueness and effectiveness. II. Transtheoretical Model A. Overview of the TTM B. Constructs of TTM III. Journal Article w| Transtheoretical Model A. How constructs are applied B. Critique on the model Shaquia Lewis UIN: 00965263 CRN: 29315 I pledge to support the Honor System of Old Dominion University. I will refrain from any form of academic dishonesty or deception, such as cheating or plagiarism. I am aware that as a member of the academic community it is my responsibility to turn in all suspected violations of the Honor Code. I will report to a hearing if summoned. The Transtheoretical Model The Transtheoretical Model has tremendously helped the health field progress to more inclusive approaches to research and other practices [2]. In the 1970s, James Prochaska laid the foundations for this model. In the 1990s, two scales were developed using the model [2]. This model is used for health promotion because it enables people to make behavioral changes and improve their health. The Transtheoretical Model is and will continue to be one of the most popular in the behavior change field due to its uniqueness and effectiveness. The Transtheoretical Model has six constructs with two being......

Words: 1013 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Change Model

...Kurt Lewin three step change theory model – unfreeze, change, freeze JANUARY 21, 2010 BY MIKE MORRISON20 COMMENTS Kurt Lewin three step model change theory Introduction The Kurt Lewin change theory model is based around a 3-step process (Unfreeze-Change-Freeze) that provides a high-level approach to change. It gives a manager or other change agent a framework to implement a change effort, which is always very sensitive and must be made as seamless as possible. The Kurt Lewin model can help a leader do the following three steps: * Make a radical change * Minimize the disruption of the structure’s operations * Make sure that the change is adopted permanently Summary of Kurt Lewin’s Change theory This three step model gives a manager or change agent an idea of what implementing change means when dealing with people.  The 3 phases of the Kurt Lewin model provide guidance on how to go about getting people to change: a manager will implement new processes and re-assign tasks, but change will only be effective if the people involved embrace it and help putting it into practice it. Lewin change model – Unfreeze – “ready to change” When a structure has been in place for a while, habits and routine have naturally settled in. The organization as a whole is going in the right direction, but – as shown on the illustration – people or processes may have strayed off course. For example, tasks that are not relevant or useful anymore are still being performed by force of......

Words: 637 - Pages: 3