Premium Essay

Modern Human Origins

In: Science

Submitted By ricky801
Words 837
Pages 4
Homo sapiens also known as “wise man” in Latin or in other words the binomial nomenclature scientific name for the human species. One of the most hotly debated issues in paleoanthropology focuses on the origins of modern humans, Homo sapiens. Specifically where did we come from or evolve from. There are several ideas of where we originated or came from depending on how you view it such as a religious view or scientific view. For this purpose we will be discussing the scientific view methods which include the regional continuity method and the replacement method.
1.5 to 2 million years ago there was the Homo-habilis species. The earliest form of man. They were the first 'great apes.' 500,000 years ago lived the Homo-erectus species. They lived during the Pleistocene period and are considered the first homo species to walk upright on two legs. Then came the Neanderthal (about 100,000-30,000 years ago). They were very primitive and animalistic, but they lived in groups, wore clothing, used fire and made basic hunting tools. They got their name from Neander Valley, the location in Germany where they were first discovered. Next up in the evolution process was the cro-magnum or early modern humans (40,000-10,000 years ago). There cranial features were elongated to allow for a larger brain, more evolved tools and grinding rocks and the developers of religion.
There are 2 theories for the origin of modern humans. One of them is the replacement theory or “Out of Africa” model by Stringer. According to Stringer a single African origin of Homo sapiens occurred about 200,000 years ago. The most recent wave of African migration, based on mitochondrial DNA analysis, proposes that a small group of modern humans left Africa about 70,000 BP, replacing all earlier populations throughout Eurasia and Australia, and eventually North and South America. Genetic studies and fossil...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

One Word

...Derek Hackney Ms. Rizzo American Lit. Period 9 18 March 2010 Modern Slavery Human trafficking is a worldwide war. It has affected the lives of millions of people worldwide: some positive but mostly negative. The three points that are going to be discussed are the origin, modern day problems, and effects of the trafficking of humans. Slavery has never really ended it has only become more discrete and more organized. Human trafficking is basically modern day slavery. The origin of human trafficking can not be narrowed down to one specific country or continent. Many countries have been trafficking and there is no official place of origin. “Countries high on the list of “origin countries” are Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, China, Lithuania, Nigeria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Thailand and Ukraine, according to the report” (Aita). The main reason that human trafficking began was to generate profits in a quick and easy way. A few countries are places of origin as well as major regions for destination. “Africa, Asia, Central and South Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean are significant regions for both origin and destination” (Aita). There is no set time period for when trafficking began but it seems as if slavery has never ended. Human trafficking has created a global problem that has become more and more troublesome since it first began. The modern day problem of the trafficking of humans has become a global issue that needs to be resolved. UNODC Executive......

Words: 805 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Evolution of Modern Humans

...The Evolution of Modern Humans Two origins are considered when thinking about the evolution of modern humans. There’s the “Multiregional Model” that concentrates on a multiple origins theory in which the different human populations or races had independent origins and evolved in isolation from each other, and there’s the recent single-orgin hypothesis or the “Out of Africa” which holds that anatomically modern humans evolved in Africa between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago. With this theory humans started to leave Africa after evolving. Both theories support that human evolution began in africa, but the “Out of Africa” theory has gotten much more support over the last decade, but there are still many people who support the the multiregional hypothesis. Until the recent years the only way to the only way of learning about ancient ancestors was through old fossils and stone tools. The “Multiregional Model” is the older model that consists of several models of human evolution which all posit that the human races evolved from separate archaic humans over millions of years. The “Multiregional Model” posits that 1.5 million years ago marked the beginning human evolution and that fossil samples represent the the evolving of homo sapiens. According to the theory there is no one place where homo sapiens evolved. They may have developed in Africa and then spreaded, or maybe they started in Europe and Asia and spreaded from there. Support for Multiregional The fossil......

Words: 1035 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Evolution of Language

...THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE Research Report for WR227 Jeremy Byrd Winter Term, 2013 Table of Contents Introduction 3 The Emergence of Language 3 The Theories of Johann Gottfried Herder 4 Pre-Language 4 Sound and Language 5 Theory of Divine Inspiration 5 Criticism of Herder's Work 6 The Gestural Theory 6 Motor Activity and Language 7 The Mirror Neuron System Theory 7 Theory of Sound Symbolism 8 Synesthesia 8 Discontinuity Theories 9 Summary 9 Works Cited 10 Introduction The origin of human language is a mystery which has baffled scholars and scientists for thousands of years. It can only be speculated how language began and evolved; the lack of direct evidence suggesting that it is perhaps a riddle that cannot be solved (Deacon 7). Yet this has not stopped many various theories from emerging over the years, speculations ranging from wild guesses to educated, scientific deductions. According to prominent linguist Eric Heinz Lenneberg, theories surrounding the origin of language are categorized into two main groups: continuity theories and discontinuity theories (Hill 134). Continuity theories hold that language was formed through a long process of evolution. Discontinuity theories are based on the belief that language is too complex to have evolved out of natural systems and is the result of a significant evolutionary jump which took place relatively abruptly. On the side of continuity......

Words: 3620 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Foundations of Mythology

...Foundations of Mythology What are myths? Myths are traditional stories in which may describe the origins of the world and of a people. Myths are an attempt to explain mysteries, supernatural events, and cultural traditions. Sometimes sacred in nature, a myth can involve gods or other creatures. And, a myth represents reality in dramatic ways. Many cultures have their versions of common myths. “Myths... attempt to answer the enduring and fundamental human questions: How did the universe and the world come to be? How did we come to be here? Who are we? What are our proper, necessary, or inescapable roles as we relate to one another and the world at large? What should our values be? How should we behave? How should we not behave? What are the consequences of behaving and not acting in such ways?” (Leonard & McClure, 2004, para 3). The English word “myth” comes from the Greek word mythos and has been esteemed from the Greek word logos, both terms translates into English as word or story (Leonard & McClure, 2004,para 7). People have long wondered how the world came into being. They have answered the question with stories that describe the origin of the universe or the world and usually of human life as well. Myths express people's understanding of the world and their place in it. The world's mythologies and religions offer an immense variety of stories. Scholars have discovered that the different cultures fall into broad categories and contain many shared themes. Myths grant......

Words: 1003 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Capitalism and Society

...its effects on society. Their ideas helped pave the way and expand on theories of previous sociologists. Both men have a deep insight of socioeconomic class in the origins and development of modern capitalism. This paper will analyze the impact of capitalism on society as perceived by both men and the areas in which they agreed, disagreed, and expanded on the ideas of the other. In many ways, the Weberian theory was “rounding out” Marx’s theories, working within the traditions of Marxian (Ritzer, page 26). Weber viewed Marxists as economic determinists who offered single-cause concepts on societal life (27). Marx’s material orientation and its effect on society was something that Weber did agree with completely. Weber had a strong belief that most ideas are what shapes an economy, while Marx believed that it is the economy (and the materials within it, help to define our ideas (27). Weber was said to have taken Marx’s ideas and, “turned Marx on his head” (27). The inverse relationship between Marx and Weber transcends into many tremendous ideas on capitalism and the effects on society. Both sociologists have unique ideas on the driving measures that led to the development and the rise of capitalism. One of Weber’s most famous works called the, Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, dealt with the origins of capitalism and their “ethos”; ideas that are engraved into religious beliefs. Weber believed that some religions were prone to capitalist tendencies that were......

Words: 1583 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Creationism vs. Evolution

...the underlying constructs of psychology – the origins of humanity, human nature, and human purpose – one sees the extensive influence of evolution. When contrasted with the biblical view of creationism, it becomes clear that modern psychology shares little in common with biblical principles. II. Basic Constructs of Human Psychology A. Human 1. What is a human being? 2. How do humans differ from animals? B. Human Behavior 1. Thought, feeling, action 2. Inner and outer worlds of human perception III. Human Origins A. Evolution 1. Life from non-life material/Big Bang Theory 2. Genetic mutation 3. Natural selection a. Competition as the foundation of behavior b. Law of the Jungle B. Creationism 1. God created the universe and all creatures 2. Each species was created separate and distinct 3. God created man special in God’s own image IV. Human Nature A. Evolution 1. Survival of the fittest a. Social behavior b. Mating c. Reproduction 2. Behaviorism a. Behavior is a combination of social learning and genetic influencces b. Effect on antisocial behavior on reproduction 3. Biological determinism a. No real basis for free will B. Creationism 1. Humans were made in God’s image a. God is love, justice, kindness, and joyful 2. The Fall of Man separated humans from God a. ‘War’ between good and evil b. Man’s nature is now sinful 3. Jesus the Son of God redeemed human beings a. Death and resurrection of......

Words: 4365 - Pages: 18

Free Essay


... Neanderthals:An Underlying Secret                                                                                                6    Abstract  When taking a look at our ancestors of the past, Neanderthals being the closest in  relationship to modern humans,I ask myself the simple question: what was the cause of  Neanderthals extinction? Modern scientific technology and the ability to test DNA from our  ancient ancestors bones are helping us get closer to explaining this phenomenon. According to  Charles Q. Choi, a contributor for Live Science states, “about 1.5 to 2.1 percent of anyone  outside Africa is Neanderthal in origin” (Choi, 2014). With roughly 2 percent of Neanderthal  DNA in my genetic makeup, it makes sense that modern humans were involved in the extinction  of the Neanderthal identity.   As stated by many researchers before, neanderthals did not go extinct due to modern  humans. New research is proving this claim false. Recently, researchers from the University of  Cambridge and Oxford have identified the possibility of diseases are older than what we believed  possible. New studies taken from pathogen genomes and DNA of ancient neanderthal bones are  showing that diseases were part of neanderthals extinction (Houldcroft, 2016). With neanderthals  DNA being similar to modern humans, they were susceptible to pass genes and inherit bad  mutations. In the long run these bad mutations caused many problems within their population.   Bad mutations......

Words: 957 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...had a tendency to organize itself around a shared identity, nationalism is generally identified as a modern movement. Emergence and Origins Nationalism came into political focus in the 1990s as a consequence of the emergence of striking nationalist movements such as those in Yugoslavia and Rwanda. The conflict that emerges from differing ethic and cultural communities residing under the same political entity has become one of the most pressing issues of modern politics. The notion that nationalism is a recent phenomenon is part of the modernist perspective, while the primordialist perspective recognizes that nationalism has always been a part of human civilization’s need to organize based on shared origin. State vs. Nation Central to the discussion of the various definitions of nationalism is the difference between the concept of state and the concept of a nation. Because the boundaries of a nation are not drawn by state lines, but rather by various factors that form human identity -- culture, language, religion, common origin and ethnicity -- a nation can be defined as a cultural community. This differs from a state that is simply a political entity. In many circumstances, nations are spread over various states as in the example of the Jews, Kurds and Sioux Indians. Meanings of Nationalism Although the concept of nationalism can encompass a range of meanings, the modern political concept of nationalism addresses some fixed notions. Nationalism is as much a process of......

Words: 465 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...Genealogy of Morals sought to locate the origin of human morals and thoughts. However, his text is most effective at criticizing the morals and thoughts of humans. Most important is his criticism towards the human thought of origin and utility. Nietzsche’s work seeks to inform that the utility of an object is a consequence, not a cause, of any origin. What came first, the chicken or the egg? This is a question that is debated by everyone from Harvard scholars to biology experts to children in the school yard. The answer is unclear. Nietzsche asks a question that is quite similar: which came first, the eye or sight? The answer may seem obvious, the eye had to be made before sight could have happened. Nietzsche would agree. However, he would not agree that the eye was made for seeing. Instead he would say that the eye existed and then sight evolved from the already present organ. This statement is the basis of Nietzsche’s argument in the Genealogy: origin is not equal to essence. It Nietzsche’s belief that the origin of something is not related to its purpose/utility or vice-versa. This is the point that he is making in the provided passage. The text states, “…the utility of [anything]…means nothing regarding its origin” (p.77). This statement is put into effect through various ways in the text. To accentuate this point, he uses a relationship between a creditor and a debtor and its relationship to punishment. According to Nietzsche, humans are in a relationship of debt......

Words: 1636 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Creation vs Evolution

...before the six days of creation. When thinking about the integration of evolutionary principles, as far as the scientific laws are concerned, there is no difference between the origin of the earth and all of its life. Could the Big Bang theory have happened? The Gap Theory, everything made out of nothing. Is the Gap Theory real? Luther sided with the Bible and creation, is his blessing relevant today? Was the earth created out of nothing, no previous atoms did God use? God created the heavens and the earth in six days so we had the seventh day for Shabbat. The Progressive Creation explains the Genesis flood and the six days of creation. So the question is could God really have created everything in six literal days? If so, where did the origins of life come from; and what about the Law of Nature, their survival of the fittest? How big is the rift between the evolutionist and the creationist? Can we trust the Bible to tell us the truth? These are the questions that I will be looking for an answer to. In evolution and creation of religious idea about how the Earth came into existence? “In America alone, the conservative number of scientists who believe in creation is more than 10,000.” Both creation and evolution offer a belief system; both use the same information to present their view of the origins of the earth. “Creationists maintained that there is a reasonable and logical belief system, backed up...

Words: 4901 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

History of Psychology

...Modern Psychology reflects the discipline’s diverse history; the formation of psychology differs dramatically from modern-day conceptions of the field of study. To acquire a complete grasp of psychology, it is important to spend more time exploring the history and origins of this particular study in science. In this particular paper, the main concepts that is being explored is philosophers that historically relate to the beginnings of psychology as a formal discipline, major philosophers in the western tradition that were primary contributors to the formation of psychology as a discipline, and the development of the science of psychology during the 19th century. History of Psychology Psychology was not well known as a separate discipline until the late 1800’s, its initial history can be traced back to the era of the early Greeks. All throughout the 17th century, Rena Descartes, a French philosopher, introduced the first idea of dualism, which is the explanation that the mind and body are separate parts that work together to create the human experience. “Many other issues still debated by psychologists today, such as relative contributions of nature vs. nurture are rooted in these early philosophical traditions” (Citizendium, 2010). Psychology has been often mistakenly viewed as a young discipline, in all actuality Psychology has roots extending from ancient Greece. The father of psychology is known as Aristotle, he wrote his thesis “ De Anima, Parva Naturalia......

Words: 876 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Family

...The precis was written between 1880-81 and contained Marx’s numerous remarks on Morgan as well as passages from other sources. After reading the precis, Engels set out to write a special treatise – which he saw as fulfilling Marx’s will. Working on the book, he used Marx’s precis, and some of Morgan’s factual material and conclusions. He also made use of many and diverse data gleaned in his own studies of the history of Greece, Rome, Old Ireland, and the Ancient Germans. It would, of course, become The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State – the first edition of which was published October 1884 in Hottingen-Zurich. Engels wrote The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State in just two months – beginning toward the end of March 1884 and completing it by the end of May. It focuses on early human history, following the disintegration of the primitive community and the emergence of a class society based on private property. Engels looks into the origin and essence of the state, and concludes it is bound to wither away leaving a classless society. Engels: “Along with [the classes] the state will inevitably fall. Society, which will re-organize production on the basis of a free and equal association of the...

Words: 4244 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Scientific Monogenesis: the Mother Tongue Theory

...Scientific monogenesis: The Mother Tongue theory. Theories of monogenesis do not necessarily derive from religious belief. Many modern scholars believe in a theory of monogenesis that has come to be called the Mother Tongue Theory. This theory holds that one original language spoken by a single group of Homo sapiens perhaps as early as 150 thousand years ago gave rise to all human languages spoken on the Earth today. As humans colonized various continents, this original mother tongue diverged through time to form the numerous languages spoken today. Since many scientists believe that the first fully modern humans appeared in Africa, the mother tongue theory is connected with a more general theory of human origin known as the Out of Africa theory. Currently, the theory of evolutionary monogenesis tends to be favored by a group of linguists working in the United States. Regardless of the origin of language, the fact remains that there are over 5,000 mutually unintelligible forms of human speech used on Earth today. And, although many are radically different from one another in structure--the differences are superficial since each and every one of these languages can be used creatively. Languages do not differ in terms of their creative potential but rather in terms of the level upon which particular distinctions are realized in each particular language. What is expressed concisely in one language requires a phrase in another language. (Examples of aspect......

Words: 520 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Bow-Wow Theory

...The origin of language in the human species has been the topic of scholarly discussions for several centuries. One linguistic theory concerning the origin of language is the "Natural-sound source theory", that hypothesizes that primitive language are imitations of the natural sounds which early human heard from around them. This is also called the "Bow-wow theory". Yet, some argue that the theory does not necessarily offers a scientific explanation of the origin of language, and it still remains controversial. The "Bow-wow theory" states that language began when our ancients imitated the animal sounds. For example, if an animal passed by a human and made a certain sound, the human would try to imitate the sound that which the animal did. In fact, all modern languages have some words which seems to echo naturally occurring sounds. In English for instance, there are onomatopoetic words like meow, hiss, buzz, roar and oink, which phonetically imitates the source of the sound that it describes. Nevertheless, it is somehow difficult to see how most of the soundless and abstract objects in the world could have been given names if language simply echoed natural sounds. The theory fail to explain the presence of abstract words, such as love, kindness, evil and etc., which leads the theory to contradict itself. Another counter argument against this theory is that relatively few words in any language are onomatopoeic, and they are not the same across all language. For example, a......

Words: 368 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...CURRICULUM VITAE CHUAN-CHAO WANG Place of Birth: Liaocheng, Shandong, China; Date of Birth: 1th August, 1987 Nationality: Chinese Email:, Research experience 2015~now: Research Fellow at Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, US; Postdoc at Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Germany. Research Interests Using population genetics, genomics, ancient DNA and computational biology approaches to study genetic structure, origin and migrations, complex diseases and anthropological traits in human populations. Education 2006-2010 2010-2015 BSc in Marine Biology, Ocean University of China PhD in Human Biology, Fudan University, China Intern 2011.7-2011.9 Intern at Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, USA Grants Awarded 2011 Innovation Grant for Excellent Graduate Student (Fudan University), No. EZH1322301. Proposal: Discovery of phylogenetic relevant Y-chromosome variants using targeting sequencing. 2012 Academic Youth Science Grant (Ministry of Education, China), No. JFH1322006. Proposal: Y chromosomal substitution rate estimation in deep-rooting pedigrees. Grants Participated Genographic Project, funded by IBM National Excellent Youth Science Foundation of China (31222030) National Natural Science Foundation of China (31071098, 91131002) Shanghai Rising-Star Program (12QA1400300) Shanghai Commission of Education Research Innovation Key Project......

Words: 2069 - Pages: 9