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July 26, 2014

Epidemiology on Mononucleosis
Mononucleosis is a viral disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), that affects people between the ages of ten and thirty-five, but anyone at any age can contract the disease. This disease is found mainly in adolescents. It is also known as “the kissing disease”, and it is indistinguishable from other members of the herpes virus group (123helpme, 2014). The most frequent mode of transmission is intimate salivary contact. It can also be transmitted from shared drinking and eating utensils, toothbrushes, etc. Mono is not likely to spread by sneezing or from hard surface contact. It is also known as Glandular Fever, because it affects the lymph nodes in the neck, arm pits and groin. It may last anywhere from one to eight weeks, and some people suffer from mononucleosis for months at a time. It is all dependent of one’s immune system. Recuperation is a slow process, which can demand twice as much sleep and resting periods. This disease can drain strength and energy and as well muscle loss. Balance is also affected. Usually exposure to this virus happens at late adolescence for half the population. The peak incidence for girls is 14-16 and boys 16-18. After initial contact with the virus, there is an incubation period of 4-6 weeks and then the symptoms start appearing. Symptoms include fever, sore throat and lymph adenopathy. Fevers may reach as high as 102 degrees Fahrenheit and may remain high for 3-4 weeks. Other symptoms include enlargement of the spleen and liver, fatigue, loss of appetite, periorbital edema, petechiae, and a fine rash. Clinically white blood cell counts and liver enzymes are elevated, and anemia may occur with low platelet counts. Mono is not a fatal disease, but because it is a virus there is no antivirals to treat this disease. Children are advised to avoid contact sports for 6 weeks after recovery to avoid the risk of spleen rupture (Scottsdale 2014). Mono is a viral infection that has no cure or medicinal treatment or vaccines. To avoid contracting the disease, do not come in direct contact with someone who already has the disease, stay away from people with fevers, as that is always when someone is most infectious regarding any disease. It is possible to have mono for several weeks without awareness. You may take acetaminophen or ibuprofen to control pain, fever and fatigue, but avoid Aspirin, since it has been proven responsible for Rye’s Syndrome in children (Umair106, 2010). Proper nutrition and an active lifestyle is one way to prevent many diseases and infections, except Mono; it can occur anytime there is contact with the virus.
Addressing the determinants of health is the first approach to obtain a healthy community against Mono. Some may be disadvantaged from lack of education, social position or wealth. This is where the community comes together to educate at a young age to our elementary children to our high school children so they are aware of this disease, how it is contracted and who to report to if they feel there is someone they suspect has this disease. This will be up to our teachers, nurses and community programs such as church groups, daycares and community centers. Even some health insurances have education mailing about diseases. As a community we cannot rely on parents to educate children of this disease because they may not be aware of this either. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has made commitments to improve awareness and containment communities in by reducing health inequities. Health organizations, institutions, and education programs are advised to look past behavioral factors and address other factors related to these social health determinants (Center, 2014).
The purpose of epidemiologic triangle is to find the causes of diseases that affect that population of Mono. First is the agent in which it hosts. This is our discussed disease of Mononucleosis. A viral disease. Our host includes our children ages most common from ten to thirty five. Last our environment in which this disease lives. It tends to cling too mucous membranes and therefore is easily transmitted through saliva contact. Although harder to be contracted through coughing and sneezing but yet still possible. Very rarely is it contracted through surface to surface contact. This virus is able to lie dormant in our bodies and become active at any time (Umair106 2010).

Using epidemiologic research methods, accurate data must be recorded and collected, and in relation to mononucleosis routine data is not easy to obtain. Many of our youth that has contracted this disease may not ever end up in the hospital or doctor’s office. Routine data consists collecting information obtained through the national census, birth records as well as physician records that are reported. Although the national census show approximately how many children are within a geographical location, this information does not specify any related health issues that were misdiagnosed. Research data only shows the studies performed as well as having access to medical records. This kind of research is obtained through government agencies such as the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and Centers for Infectious Diseases. Another method of data collection used for epidemiology is with surveys. Surveys can also be conducted through government run agencies or through the private sectors. A community health is allowed access to these record and studies and surveys (123helpme 2014). The nurse will be more aware of preventable diseases prevalent in his/her community. Therefore the data can be collected and will allow to find the geological areas in the community that it presides. This may be a specific school to school district, to church communities, to specific neighborhoods. This will allow which age groups to target and which communities to prepare for education on prevention, transmission and treatment.
Because this disease is so easily contracted and Phoenix has a thriving community for many families, there are many resources for anyone to go to for support. There are minute clinics that offer testing specifically for that virus as well as the Fast-Med Centers. Mayo clinic has an extensive website with resources and support for those who are suffering this disease. It gives treatment ideas on how to recover from this disease from OTC medications to homeopathic ideas for more comfort. The website also has a chat area where one can ask questions to nurses and/or physicians. It also contains chat rooms where you can talk to others about the disease and bounce different ideas off each other on what helps one get through this for a faster recovery and achieve higher comfort levels while down. The clinic provides information pamphlets that take place in the community for education and treatment ideas not only for mononucleosis but other diseases as well.
Without the information obtained through epidemiology research our communities may continue to suffer from many varieties of diseases and ailments that could otherwise be preventable. Mononucleosis has increased in the last five years, which reveals a need for education to our communities to prevent this and decrease our numbers. Only education for this disease as well as preventative measures are the best hope for reversing and eradicating this epidemic. The future of our world depends on this research and the actions of those afflicted with this health disparity.


Center for disease control and prevention. (2014). Social determinants of health. Retrieved from
123helpme. (2014). In mononucleosis. Retrieved from
Umair106. (2010). In mononucleosis. Retreived from
Scottsdale healthcare. (2014). In Mononucleosis. Home wellness health encyclopedia. Retrieved from

Hillemeier, M., Lynch, J., Harper, S., Casper, M. (2004). Data Set Directory of Social Determinants of Health at the Local Level. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Atlanta. Retrieved from

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