Free Essay


In: Science

Submitted By lrheart31
Words 1653
Pages 7
Communicable Disease Chain: Mononucleosis/ Epstein Barr Virus
LaTasha R. Uszakiewicz
Grand Canyon University
Author Note
[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]
Communicable Disease Chain: Mononucleosis/ Epstein Barr Virus
Mononucleosis is a contagious disease caused by a virus. The most common virus causing mononucleosis is the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), but it can be caused by others. The Epstein-Barr virus or (EBV) is also known as human herpesvirus 4, is categorized as a gamma herpes virus that occurs only in humans. Infectious mononucleosis is also called “Mono” or “the kissing disease” because it is most often seen among teenagers or young adults between the ages of 15 to 17.” EBV infectious mononucleosis has also been linked to the cause of viral pharyngitis. According to the CDC, “at least 25% of teenagers and young adults who get infected with EBV will develop infectious mononucleosis” with approximately 12% of susceptible college-aged young adults converting each year and half of whom will develop acute infectious mononucleosis.
Mononucleosis/EBV Pathophysiology
There are more than 3 million US cases per year of mononucleosis. The virus is most often spread by saliva or close intimate contact, semen during sexual contact, in some rare cases via blood transfusion and is linked to the Epstein-Barr virus. It is rare that mononucleosis will be caused by any other virus such as the cytomegalovirus (CMV), Hepatitis A, B, or C, HIV, Toxoplasmosis Streptococcal pharyngitis or Rubella. EBV infects the B cells in the oropharyngeal epithelium and also from the uterine cervix, which has implicated the role of genital transmission in some cases. B cells are a type of white blood cell or lymphocyte that mature into either plasma cells or memory cells, it is the plasma cells that produce antibodies that are needed by the body to fight off infections. These circulating B cells will spread the infection throughout the entire reticular endothelial system, i.e., the liver, spleen, and peripheral lymph nodes. Via the B lymphocytes, the EBV will spread and this will result in a humoral and cellular response to the virus from the body.
With the incubation period of EBV infectious mononucleosis being around 30 to 60 days with any symptoms of the disease appearing within 4 to 6 weeks after the patient has been infected with the Epstein-Barr virus. The first most common symptom of mononucleosis being fatigue, “which may be profound initially but usually resolves gradually in 3 months.”(2015, Medscape). Some patients will experience a prolonged episode of fatigue, after initial recovery, then exhibit a state of prolonged fatigue without the following symptoms of infectious mononucleosis. These symptoms will include, but are not excluded to headache, sore throat, drowsiness, fever is usually low grade, cough, nosebleed, sensitivity to light, shortness of breath, loss of appetite, muscle aches or neck stiffness, swollen tonsils with development of a whitish-yellow covering upon assessment and a pink, measles-like rash. The Wholistic Therapy Centre states “A skin rash in the early, acute stage of mono can be a viral rash which normally resolves itself within a couple of days.” This skin rash is commonly seen in children. This measles-like skin rash can appear anywhere on the face or body and is more commonly related to taking amoxicillin for the treatment of the sore throat pain or discomfort.
Complications. Patients with a compromised immune systems are more prone to the development of symptoms from the EBV infection and with more severity than healthier individuals. The nervous system may effected via the nerves, brain and spinal cord and cause conditions such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, encephalitis, viral meningitis, hemiplegia, facial nerve paralysis, psychosis, and difficulties in sleep. The hematological system can be effected from the EBV by way of the blood and bone marrow. The EBV can cause the body to overproduce the number of white blood cells and it can also suppress the immune system, which would make the patient more susceptible to infections such as pneumonia or interstitial lung disease, peritonsillar abscesses, acute bacterial sinusitis and mastoiditis.
Assessment and Laboratory Testing. Upon assessment by a health care provider, swollen lymph nodes will be detected with palpation in the front and back of the neck, swollen tonsils with a whitish-yellowish covering can be observed, skin rash to chest or torso area and swollen liver or spleen. If patient is left untreated from previous assessment findings, possible physical findings could include hepatomegaly, palatal petechiae, jaundice, uvular edema, splenomegaly, and, rarely (1-2%), findings associated with splenic rupture. Laboratory testing is aimed at detecting antibodies to the following EBV-associated antigens. Viral capsid antigen (VCA), the anti-VCA IgM can be detected early in EBV infection and usually disappears within 4 to 6 weeks. Early antigen (EA), the anti-EA IgG can be detected in the acute phase of illness and generally falls to undetectable levels after 3 to 6 months. In many people, detection of antibody to EA is a sign of active infection. However, 20% of healthy people may have antibodies against EA for years. The immunofluorescent test, can detect the antibody to Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen or (EBNA) testing, it is not seen in the acute phase of EBV infection but slowly appears 2 to 4 months after onset of symptoms and persists for the rest of a person’s life. The Monospot test is not recommended for general use because the antibodies detected by testing can be caused by conditions other than infectious mononucleosis and have also shown to produce both false positive and false negative results. At best, the Monospot test may indicate that a person has a typical case of infectious mononucleosis, but does not confirm the presence of EBV infection. Complete Blood Count Testing will show that white blood cell count results are higher than normal and Antibody titer will tell the difference between current and past infection.
Mortality and Morbidity. Mortality and morbidity rates related to mononucleosis or Epstein-Barr virus are very low and if death occurs it is most often caused by rare cases of spontaneous splenic rupture, underlying immune disorders or previous underlying conditions.
Treatment, Follow-up care and Prognosis. Nurses can educate the patient about the importance of not kissing, sharing drinks, straws or food, personal items, such as toothbrushes, with people who might possibly have infectious mononucleosis. Patients should be made aware of the avoidance of exposing others to their body secretions because EBV remains viable in patients with EBV infectious mononucleosis for months after the initial infection. There are no known vaccines offered to protect against infectious mononucleosis and antibiotics have shown to have no effect on the EBV, so as a nurse or health care provider, it is our duty to be focused on treatment of infectious mononucleosis as it relates to relieving the symptoms of the disease. Patient should be encouraged to increase fluid intake, educated on the importance of gargling with warm salt water to ease sore throat pain or discomfort, encouraged to rest and decreasing physical activity for 3 about weeks, throat lozenges and taking over-the-counter pain relievers for fever or pain. Steroid therapy has been prescribed for severe symptoms. Emphasis has been placed on monitoring patients with extreme tonsillar enlargement closely for airway obstruction and the use of steroids for impending or established airway obstruction. Follow-up care should include referrals for the appropriate consultation for indicated specialists such as an infectious disease specialist, a hematologist, neurologist, cardiologist, and or gastroenterologist. Patients that have suffered from a splenic rupture that was recognized in time and expeditiously treated surgically, the prognosis is good. Most people get better in 2 to 4 weeks; however, some people may feel fatigued for several more weeks. Occasionally, the symptoms of infectious mononucleosis can last for 6 months or longer.
National Agency/ Organizations for Mononucleosis:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30329-4027 USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636), TTY: 888-232-6348
The CDC (the national public health institute of the United States) promotes health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability. CDC works 24/7 to protect America from health, safety and security threats, both foreign and in the U.S. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are chronic or acute, curable or preventable, human error or deliberate attack, CDC fights disease and supports communities and citizens to do the same.

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) National Headquarters: The American Academy of Pediatrics
141 Northwest Point Boulevard Elk Grove Village, IL 60007-1098
USA 847/434-4000 (tel) 800/433-9016 (toll-free tel) 847/434-8000 (fax)
The AAP is committed to the health and well-being of infants, adolescents, and young adults. The website offers news articles and tips on health for families. The AAP was founded in 1930 by 35 pediatricians to serve as an independent forum to address children’s health needs. At that time, the idea that children had unique developmental and health needs was new. Practices that are now standard preventive care (i.e., immunization, regular health exams) were only just beginning to change the custom of treating children as “miniature adults.” The Academy also maintains the Pediatric History Center, which collects and archives materials related to the history of pediatrics in the United States and Canada and the history of the Academy itself.

Burke A Cunha, M., & Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, M. (2015, October 06). Medscape. Retrieved from
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Noble, E. (2009, June 30). The Mono Blog. Retrieved from

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...July 26, 2014 Epidemiology on Mononucleosis Mononucleosis is a viral disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), that affects people between the ages of ten and thirty-five, but anyone at any age can contract the disease. This disease is found mainly in adolescents. It is also known as “the kissing disease”, and it is indistinguishable from other members of the herpes virus group (123helpme, 2014). The most frequent mode of transmission is intimate salivary contact. It can also be transmitted from shared drinking and eating utensils, toothbrushes, etc. Mono is not likely to spread by sneezing or from hard surface contact. It is also known as Glandular Fever, because it affects the lymph nodes in the neck, arm pits and groin. It may last anywhere from one to eight weeks, and some people suffer from mononucleosis for months at a time. It is all dependent of one’s immune system. Recuperation is a slow process, which can demand twice as much sleep and resting periods. This disease can drain strength and energy and as well muscle loss. Balance is also affected.  Usually exposure to this virus happens at late adolescence for half the population. The peak incidence for girls is 14-16 and boys 16-18. After initial contact with the virus, there is an incubation period of 4-6 weeks and then the symptoms start appearing. Symptoms include fever, sore throat and lymph adenopathy. Fevers may reach as high as 102 degrees Fahrenheit and may remain high for 3-4 weeks. Other......

Words: 1346 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Epidemiology of Mononucleosis

...Epidemiology of Mononucleosis Lori Lindner Grand Canyon University: 427V March 14, 2015 Epidemiology of Mononucleosis Infectious mononucleosis is a common clinical syndrome associated with Epstein-Barr virus (Singer-Leshinsky, 2012). Individuals infected with the Epstein-Barr virus can be asymptomatic or develop one of several infections which include infectious mononucleosis. A person with mononucleosis can be asymptomatic or symptomatic. Infectious mononucleosis is an acute and self limiting virus which is usually has no lasting side effects (Morris and Edmunds, 2002). However in some uncommon cases, infectious mononucleosis has caused neurologic and malignant complications (Marshall and Foxworth, 2012). Description of Mononucleosis Infectious mononucleosis, also known as the “kissing disease” is a highly infectious viral disease that most commonly occurs in adolescents and young adults in North America (Ilardi, 2009). Mononucleosis is transmitted by oral secretions and blood from one person to another. This is the reason for the nickname “kissing disease”. Symptoms of mononucleosis usually appear four to seven weeks after an individual has been infected. The symptoms include: constant fatigue, fever, sore throat, loss of appetite, swollen lymph nodes, headaches, sore muscles, swollen liver or spleen, skin rash and abdominal pain. Patients can present with all or a combination of these symptoms and the severity varies from no symptoms at all to......

Words: 1402 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Epidemiology Paper: Mononucleosis

...Epidemiology Paper: Mononucleosis Naomi R. Walsh Grand Canyon University: NRS-427V January 25, 2014 Epidemiology Paper: Mononucleosis Mononucleosis (mono) is most commonly known as the kissing disease. Mono usually occurs in adolescents and young adults. The virus that causes mono is carried in saliva and passed though such activities as kissing, coughing, sneezing, and sharing of cups and eating utensils. Mono is not a fatal disease, but it can cause weeks of uncomfortable symptoms. Although there is no cure for mono, there are many type of therapies that can help to alleviate some of the symptoms. (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012) Description and Demographic Mononucleosis is a disease caused by one of the most common human viruses in the world, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, “mono effects about 45 of 100,000 people, mostly teens and young adults” (University of Maryland Medical Center, 2013). A person with mono is contagious for several days before symptoms begin to appear and for some time after. The virus is spread through saliva by kissing, sharing drinks and food, sharing cups and utensils, sharing toothbrushes, and sharing toys that have drool on them. Many people are infected with the virus and have no symptoms; those that do suffer symptoms are usually teens and young adults. Once the virus is picked up it has an incubation period of four to six weeks (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012) . The most common......

Words: 1296 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...The Kiss Of Death Everyone has shared a kiss with either their parents, significant other, or their children. Imagine if that kiss could potentially lead to the rupture of the liver or spleen from something appearing so harmless. Mononucleosis (mono) is a contagious disease spread through saliva, kissing, cough or sneeze, or sharing food or drinks (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research [MFMER], 2016). In order to fully understand how Mono affects a person, one needs to look at the causes, symptoms, how it is transmitted, what complications come from it, and how it is treated. It will be discussed the mortality rate, morbidities involved, the incidence of obtaining Mono, and how prevalent it is. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014), the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common cause of Mono with symptoms appear four to six weeks after someone gets infected by EBV. The symptoms for Mono include fatigue, a sore throat that may not get better with the use of antibiotics, fever, swollen lymph nodes in the neck or arm pits, swollen tonsils, headache, skin rash, and possibly a soft and swollen spleen (MFMER, 2016). Enlarged spleen or liver are less common but may continue to be enlarged even after the patient has less fatigue (CDC, 2014). Symptoms usually go away roughly around four to six weeks, some people may still have fatigue for several more weeks, and some symptoms can last up to six months or longer (CDC, 2014). ......

Words: 1401 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Mononucleosis Essay

...Mononucleosis: The ugly truth about the Epstein-Barr Virus. By Kandice Owens NRS-427V Professor: Misty Stone The Epstein-Barr virus, a virus in the herpes family that is usually responsible for the sometimes chronic symptoms of mononucleosis, is a lifelong viral infection that can lead to major problems down the road. There are no vaccines or known cures to this virus but proper prevention and a healthy immune system are the best defense. While the Epstein-Barr virus causes about 90% of the cases of Mononucleosis, a minority of cases are caused by human cytomegalovirus, another virus in the herpes family. Community health nurses have a responsibility to educate about ways to prevent this infection and manage its ramifications. Mononucleosis is spread via the transfer of bodily fluids infected with the Epstein-Barr virus, especially saliva, from an infected host to another susceptible person. This often occurs during kissing, resulting in the virus's nickname of "Kissing Disease" among patient's. But it can also be transmitted by the sharing of drinks and utensils, via blood or semen during sexual acts or from blood transfusions or organ transplants. By the age of 40, 95% of adults have been exposed to, and carry, this virus forever in their system. Once the virus is acquired, it usually takes four to six weeks for symptoms to appear but children are often asymptomatic. Although the active infection of mononucleosis usually clears up in about 1-2 months,......

Words: 1515 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...MONONUCLEOSIS Also known as “MONO” Mononucleosis is a common illness that can leave you feeling tired and weak for weeks or months. It goes away on its own, but lots of rest and good self-care can help you feel better. Illness usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Often seen in teens and young adults, children can get the virus, but it often goes unnoticed because their symptoms are mild. Mono can be spread through contact with saliva, mucus from the nose, throat and sometimes tears. This is known as the kissing disease. However, Mononucleosis isn’t as contagious as some infections, such as the common cold. If you have mono, it’s important to be careful of certain complications such as an enlarged spleen. Rest and adequate fluids are key to recovery. Epstein-Barr is a very common virus. About 85% to 90% of American adults have developed antibodies by the time they are 40 years old. Which means that they have been infected with the virus at some point in their lives. This Disease is usually diagnosed based on the patient’s symptoms such as: Fever, swollen tonsils, and swollen lymph nodes in your neck and arm pits, skin rash and strep throat that doesn’t get better with antibiotic use. The doctor may order blood tests, particularly the mono spot test. Other blood tests, such as a complete blood count, might be done to see if the number of lymphocytes is higher than normal. Occasionally, titers of antibodies against the viruses that cause mono may need to......

Words: 541 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Mononucleosis: The Kissing Disease

...Who knew that just a quick kiss, a sip from someone’s cup, or being hit by collateral sneeze particles could spell disaster? “Mononucleosis” (mono), more commonly known as the kissing disease, is a disease that affects a person’s liver. Mono is mainly caused by the “Epstein-Barr virus” [EBV] which is a saliva based virus (Mayo Clinic 5). “Dr. E. Pfeiffer” was the first scientist to fully research this disease “in 1889” (Sleepydust 2). It is quite easy to become infected with EBV, which in turn, may result in the contraction of mono. The majority of people will succumb to this disease at some point during their life, and once they have it, it remains in their body forever. For some people, “…it is possible to be exposed to and infected with EBV without becoming sick,” but this is not always the case (Kids Health Organization 4)....

Words: 516 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Fabulous Button Sisters

...The Fabulous Button Sister Write a summary of The Fabulous Button Sisters in about 150 words. Karen is getting ready for Rory’s party, when her friend Michelle calls her. Michelle and Karen are going to the party together and Michelle decides that they should go dressed up as the fabulous button sisters. Karen dressed in brow. Michelle dressed in white. When the girls meet up, Karen, dressed in her moms brown clothes, sees Michelle standing under the street lamp waving an envelope in her face, dressed in green top and denim skirt. Michelle explains that the letter is from her mom, who has made it in Hollywood and finally wants Michelle to join her. At the party Karen stays in the kitchen while Michelle lit up the room, forcing the rest backstage. In the kitchen Karen’s friend before she met Michelle, Connie asked if she was ok. She said yes. The first month Michelle was away she sent postcards, but as soon as Karen stopped answering them, they stopped coming. Characterize Karen. Karen is a teenage girl living with her parents. Her best friend is Connie who's off with glandular fever. Karen is clumsy and that we see in the text when she says “when I found myself knocked into the gutter for the umpteenth time”. Every since Michelle started at school Karen has been in love with her. Karen believes in Michelle and her ideas of being something big someday. Karen gets a bit carried away by all this so she kind of ends her relationship with Connie. Karen comes across as being......

Words: 347 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Data Interp Blood Science

...woman, patient M, has been diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis an infectious viral disease characterized by swelling of the lymph glands and prolonged lassitude by her GP. The diagnosis was confirmed by blood tests. Three weeks later she returned to her GP feeling very unwell. When examined she presented with symptoms of mild jaundice yellow discoloration of the skin caused by increase levels of billirubin. On examination there was tenderness in the right upper abdominal quadrant but the liver was not palpable. The GP took some blood and sent it for testing. Question 1 Discuss the typical laboratory results expected for haematological investigations in a case of infectiousHow is it used? The Monospot test is used to determine whether you have infectious mononucleosis. This test is rapid and easy to perform, but it is not 100% specific. More testing may be needed to confirm that the disease is mononucleosis and not another illness. ^ Back to top When is it requested? The Monospot test is requested if your doctor suspects that you have infectious mononucleosis, which causes fever, headache, swollen glands, tiredness, and malaise. Your healthcare professional may detect that you have an enlarged spleen or liver. The test will not be positive until you have been infected for about two weeks. Other tests may need to be requested if the heterophil antibodies are negative, but your doctor still suspects mononucleosis as the cause of your symptoms. Other blood......

Words: 1230 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...Epidemiology: Mononucleosis Tina Taber Grand Canyon University: 8 October 2014 Epidemiology is a science that uses quantitative, scientific, and research methods to study the causes of disease, how it is transmitted and preventive measures that can be taken to stop the transmission. Healthcare officials then use the information to help guide the public to optimal health. This paper will take a look at the disease Infectious Mononucleosis and how the community nurse can help fight against it and other infectious diseases. Mononucleosis, also known as the “kissing disease”, is an infectious disease that is mainly found in young adult college students or teen-agers from ages 15-17. Older adults can also get it but it is usually not found in them unless they are immunocompromised. According to the CDC, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis, but other viruses can also cause this disease. (CDC, 2014) It is transmitted through the infected person’s salvia, mucous from the nose and throat and sometimes tears, close contact, and sharing drinks and utensils can spread the disease. Mononucleosis can have an incubation period anywhere from 33-49 days, and then symptoms appear around 4-6 weeks. It usually begins slowly with fatigue, a general ill feeling and sore throat. Other symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, fever, muscle aches, and loss of appetite, and possibly a swollen spleen. The treatment for Mononucleosis is usually plenty of...

Words: 1268 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Todd's Syndrome Analysis

...conditions such as Infectious Mononucleosis and Migraines. Once the athlete is able to recover from the primary condition, Todd’s Syndrome seems to disappear as well, however, some people are born with this condition. With all of the signs and symptoms of this condition, should an athlete be able to play sports knowing that a condition such as this can distort there visual perception and potentially be fatal? Todd’s Syndrome is confused with many other conditions due to its signs and symptoms. An individual that is effected with this condition will have episodes that can include a number of symptoms such as Macropsia and Micropsia. Macropsia is when an individual perceives objects within their visual field to be bigger than they actually are causing the individual to feel smaller than they actually are. The opposite of this is micropsia in which they perceive objects to be smaller than they actually are causing the person to feel big. Two other symptoms that may indicate that an individual has Todd’s Syndrome is Teleopsia and Pelopsia. Teleopsia is when you perceive object within your visual field to be closer to you and Pelopsia is when you perceive objects within your visual field to be farther from you. A person suffering from Todd’s Syndrome also experiences several episodes a day. Often Todd’s Syndrome is differently diagnosed as Schizophrenia, Migraines, Infectious Mononucleosis and Hallucinogenic Drugs. With Migraines and Infectious Mononucleosis, these......

Words: 1349 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Outbreak Investigation Summary Report

...Outbreak Investigation Summary Report Case Overview: In the college, the 4 main diseases that began to spread were Bacterial Meningitis, Infectious mononucleosis, Flu, and Strep Throat. One of the diseases that was spreading in college was Meningococcal Meningitis, which is caused by the bacteria Neisseria Meningitidis. This bacteria is very common and likely to spread within young adults. Meningococcal Meningitis is a severe disease in which although many recover, if not treated on time it can lead to serious complications, such as learning disabilities, brain damage, and hearing loss. Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and the spinal cord. This disease develops when bacteria enters the bloodstream making its way towards the brain. It is highly contagious and can be spread through the exchange of respiratory and throat secretions. Meningitis symptoms are easily developed within hours or 2 days. Symptoms include high fever, severe headache, stiff neck, confusion, vomiting, seizures, sleepiness, loss of appetite, and skin rash. The longer the disease goes without being treated, the greater the risk the patient is taking to suffer from permanent neurological damage, which includes: hearing and memory loss, learning disabilities, brain...

Words: 941 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Cytomegalovirus Infection

...My major focus and point of discussion for my report is Cytomegalovirus (CMV). I chose this Contagious Disease because it hits very close to home. This disease is also linked to other members of the herpes virus family that cause chickenpox, infectious mononucleosis, fever blisters (herpes simplex type I) and genital herpes (herpes simplex type II). Like other herpes viruses, CMV infection can become dormant for a while and may reactivate later. The virus is carried by people and is not associated with food, water or animals. The high numbers of multiple people infected with Cytomegalovirus is about 50-80 percent at some time during their lives. In my report I will focus on key pints such as: • What is Cytomegalovirus (CMV)? • How is CMV spread? • What are the symptoms of CMV infection? • How long can a person carry CMV? • How it’s diagnosed and what treatments are available? • Precaution and Prevention of CMV. In a recent article that was brought to my attention by a colleague referencing Cytomegalovirus; it goes on to explain that CMV is associated with cardiovascular diseases, in line with risk factors such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Several viral infections are linked to hypertension, including human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) and HIV-1. By focusing on this subject, I hope to convey to my audience the importance of this topic and also the severity in immune-compromised and pregnant patients. Key Points: • What is Cytomegalovirus......

Words: 1003 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Aplastic Anemia

...Aplastic Anemia Aplastic anemia was discovered in 1888 by the physician Paul Ehrlich. Aplastic anemia is a condition that occurs when the body stops producing enough new blood cells due damaged bone marrow, and  blood stem cells . Thus, "aplastic" refers to inability of the stem cells to generate the mature blood cells. In aplastic anemia, something either destroys the stem cells or drastically changes the environment of the bone marrow so that the stem cells can not develop properly. Some factors which can cause this problem are: exposure to radiation, chemotherapy, environmental toxins, anti-convulsive medications, certain viral infections, including viral hepatitis B, parvovirus B19, HIV and infectious mononucleosis , and autoimmune disease- where the body inappropriately attacks its own blood stem cells. Some people are more likely to develop aplastic anemia because of genetics. For example, Fanconi's anemia is an inherited condition that causes aplastic anemia and also physical abnormalities. Some women develop a mild form of aplastic anemia during pregnancy, but it tends to disappear after delivery. Aplastic anemia affects two to six of every 1 million people each year in the United States and Europe. Symptoms and Signs of aplastic anemia include: pallor, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, lightheadedness, rapid pulse, bruising of the skin, abnormal bleeding from the gums, nose, vagina or gastrointestinal......

Words: 364 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...Herpes Virus The herpes family of viruses includes 8 different viruses that affect human beings. The viruses are known by numbers as human herpes virus 1 through 8 (HHV1 - HHV8). Human herpes virus 1 Human herpes virus 1 (HHV1) is also known as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1). It is typically the cause of cold sores around the mouth. HHV1 can also lead to infection in the genital area causing genital herpes usually through oral-genital contact, such as during oral sex. HHV1 infections are contagious and are usually spread from skin-to-skin contact with an infected person through small breaks in the skin or mucous membrane. The HHV1 virus is more likely to be spread through things like sharing eating utensils, razors, and towels from a person who has an active lesion. Human herpes virus 2 Human herpes virus 2 (HHV2) is also called herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2). It typically causes genital herpes, a sexually transmitted infection. However, it can also cause cold sores in the facial area. Like HHV1, the HHV2 infection is contagious and is spread by skin-to-skin contact. The main route of transmission is through sexual contact, as the virus does not survive very long outside the body. Human herpes virus 3 Human herpes virus 3 (HHV3) is also called varicella-zoster virus. HHV3 causes chickenpox. It can also cause a recurrent virus infection of the skin, which is called herpes zoster or shingles. Shingles occurs when dormant varicella-zoster virus from an initial bout of......

Words: 827 - Pages: 4