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Moringa Oleifera

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Introduction
Moringa oleifera is a soft wood small evergreen growing plant that has various uses. It is a vital plant in India, Ethiopia, Sudan, Philippine and Pakistan (Villafuerte & Abonal, 2009). The plant is also grown in East, West and South Africa. All its parts scientifically prove to be edible. The leaves are rich in beta-carotene, vitamins and essential amino acids (Holts, 2011). The leaves also have anti-microbial and antioxidant properties. It also has anti-inflammatory properties, making it good for fever and wounds treatment. Its extracts are used to treat oxidative stress-mediated diseases and photo aging. The plant is used in cosmetic industries for its incredible beauty properties. It is used in sunscreen creams and anti-aging products. It also makes the skin glow. Drugs are extracted from the leaves, by grounding them. The drugs are used to treat a broad range of diseases, include HIV, diuretic, diabetes, arthritis, anemia, herpes simplex and bronchitis (Holts, 2011). The powder of Moringa oleifera is used as tea. The powder is filled in tea bags and used for tea. All parts of this plant are useful to the human.
For drugs to be effective, they must reach their targeted organs before they disintegrate. The gastrointestinal tract has different acids and alkaline elements that could disintegrate the drugs before reaching their destination. Most drugs that are colon targeted must be bind by an element that can withstand the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract (Singh, 2003). These majorly covers the peptide and the protein drugs. The colon-targeted drugs delay the absorption of the drugs, which is useful for diseases with peak symptoms, such the early morning asthma, and the late night arthritis. Moringa oleifera is one of the best naturally occurring polysaccharide used for tableting (Singh, 2003). It has numerous nutritional values. Its binding and disintegration properties makes it great for making colon-targeted drugs. The leaves are extracted and used in making of certain drugs. They can be coated with the leaves powder of mixed entirely. The colon has microbial enzymes that disintegrate the gum of Moringa oleifera. The disintegration does not affect the drug composition and its effects. Once the drug is released, it is transported to the target organs, from the colon. It is because of this ability that Moringa is used in pharmaceutical industries in binding drugs and making Moringa oleifera tablets (Dorries, 2005). Such tablets include the paracetamol 500grams. Moringa drugs can cause certain biological reaction in some people. Before taking any of the Moringa tablets, ensure you get a prescription from a qualified physician.

Literature review
Moringa oleifera is traditionally known as the drumstick. It is an evergreen, deciduous tree with a height of 10- 12metres in height. It spreads like a crown, with feathery foliage whitish bark and fragile branches. The tree has been used for ages, for its tremendous medicinal values. The leaves, barks, flowers and roots are used for the medicines. Its fruits and leaves are edible. It is a native plant to northwestern Himalayas. It was introduced in Africa in the early 20th century (Dorries, 2005). The trees are forest tree. It is used for making hedges and trees in the various countries they are grown in. They from good canopies that are umbrella-like. They can even be used for shades against the sun. The tree is drought and disease resistant. Plant products are used for tableting, as they are eco-friendly, abundant and cheap (Watson, et. al, 2011). As a natural defense mechanism, many plants in the tropical produce an thick aqueous fluid when their backs are injured. The fluid dries into a clear hard and brittle substance when exposed to the used. This is the natural gum. Some plants gum has high medicinal value while others are poisonous. Moringa oleifera gum, isolated from its stems, is used in pharmaceuticals for tableting, because of its binding properties. This not so recent technology has enabled the effective production of the medicinal tablets and capsules. An ordinary tablet is the paracetamol 500mg. M.oleifera increases the disintegration time and hardness of the tablets, while decreasing the percentage fine, cumulative release, and friability. It is among the best tableting agent that is cheap and abundant in nature.
Moringa oleifera is known for its great medicinal significance. It is drought resistant and grows in tropical and subtropical regions. Usually, it grows best with rainfall if 250- 1500mm, and temperatures ranging from 18.5 – 28.5o C per annum. The bets Moringa are found near streams and rivers. Slightly alkaline and sandy clay are the best soils for its growth. It cannot grow in waterlogged areas, however. It tolerates a broad range of PHs though it resists extremities (Villafuerte & Abonal, 2009). During its early stages, it grows more resistant to saline waters and do so well in such extremes. This plant is grown using seed or using stems of about 1-2m long and takes a period of two weeks to start germinating. The seeds and the stem should be 2cm below the ground surface. The seeds should be planted within two months of their harvesting as their viability reduces after this period (Villafuerte & Abonal, 2009). They reproduce both asexually and sexually.
The trees are significantly planted for their edibility in African countries (Duvall, 2005). The pods and the leaves are given to undernourished mothers and children. This is because of their high nutritional benefits in terms of vitamins and minerals (Grubben, 2004). Literature proves that this plant was grown for many centuries in the past by the Indians. In Asia, the trees are used for firewood and pulp production (National Institute of Industrial Research (India), 2006). The bark of Moring oleifera produces fiber that is used for matt production. Moringa flowers once in a year, twice in a year in cold areas and throughout the year in areas with constant rain and temperature (Chauhan, 1998). Moringa propagates at a fast rate and does not require much water or fertilizers during their growth. The plant is also used for biopesticides, green manure, animal fodder, biogas and biomass production (Watson, et. al, 2011). In Ghana, studies show that the Moringa oleifera produces a lot of fodder when planted in 5 by five dimensions. The plant sprouts out widely and is harvested after every 40 days. It has an excellent quality of dry matter. When closely planted, they equally propagate a lot, though they need frequent cutting to give room for expansion. Studies in Tanzania shows that the plant increases in capacity to produce more pods, over time. After some years, as the plant reaches maturity, it produces many seeds. The pods are triangular in cross section and burst open in three parts when they open. They contain about 12-35 seeds inside.
The Moringa fruits, leaves, and the fresh pods contain a high nutritional value. The leaves are rich in crude highly digestible protein and vitamins A and C (Joshi, 2012). Studies reveal that Moringa is capable of combating deficiencies in vitamin A and some macronutrient deficiencies. It is because of this property that it is used in developing countries as food, to the malnourished children and women (Duvall, 2008). Its antioxidant properties are good for health. It can therefore used for thickening and seasoning of foods (Meulenbeld, 2009). Its powder, when applied on wounds, fastens the healing process and lessens the pain, due to its anti- inflammatory properties. The oil in its seeds, popularly known as the Ben Oil, is extracted and used as a lubricant for machines and in perfume industries (Watson, et. al, 2011). The residuals of the seeds after oil extraction can be used for purifying water as they have the purifying agents. Only one seed is required in for 1 liter of slightly contaminated water, and two seed for very contaminated water. This technology was known for centuries in Asia. The colonization of India by Britain gave a platform for the technology to be spread to other parts of the world (Lim, 2011). The seeds clear eutrophication in polluted waters. The content they release reduces the percentage of phosphorus, calcium ad oxygen demand by a high rate. They can also be grounded and used for seasoning sauces (Meulenbeld, 2009). Spraying plants with the extract of the Moringa leaves and roots, makes the plants grow faster. Moringa has plant growth enhancement properties. This makes the plants sprayed with Moringa to have heavier fruits, thicker and heavy roots, more and spreads leaves with an increased life span of the plants. Animals that feed on the Moringa grow fat and faster in a short time. It is widely fed to cows to enhance their growth. The species is attacked by pests like the bark-eating caterpillar, green leaf caterpillar, budworms and the hairy caterpillars (Y, B. H. O. N. N. A. L. I. N. G. A. P. P. A., & Ashok, K. C. T., 2001). The plant is also used to make pesticide and herbicides that are eco-friendly and highly effective. It is evident that this plant is a unique and a miracle plant.
Types of tableting
Working formula for Moringa oleifera tablets using the leaves Binders
Ingredients
Corn Starch (F1) MCC (F2) Gelatin (F3) Control (F4)
Moringa extract (mg) 45.5 45.5 45.5 45.5
Lactose (mg) 86.5 86.5 89.7 94.5
Corn Starch (mg) 12.5 11.5 11.5 11.5
Binder (mg) 7.5 7.0 3.8 0
Talc (mg) 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7
Mg Stearate (mg) 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Theoretical Weight (mg) 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 a A sample of the M.oleifera leaves

The batches of small tablets are produced. The entire components are mixed thoroughly. A binder solution is prepared and mixed with Cornstarch and distilled water (Lim, 2011). After the mixture, hot water is poured to make a thick paste. The paste is added to the Moringa oleifera powder, the powder is collected from the leaves of the tree. The thickened powder is passed through a 1.7mm sieve and dried in a hot oven. The granules are then characterized into tablets. Moisture content, density and bulk experiments are carried out on the granules. After the experiments, the granules are coated with magnesium and talc. They compressed to form tablets. The tablets are typically compressed into circular shapes. This is the direct compression method. They are kept in airtight containers for 2days. The tablets are then taken through quality control. The thickness and the diameter, uniformity of weight, friability, disintegration, crushing strength and dissolution time tests are carried out on the tablets. This ensures that the tablets are of the best quality. Moringa oleifera can be tableted using different binders cheap (Watson, et. al, 2011), through the direct compression.
Moringa gum can also be used in other drugs, like the leaves by wet granulation. The gum of is isolated from injured areas of the plant. The gum is dried and grounded to produce gum powder. The powder is passed through a sieve, to make sure that the powder is uniform and of the right size. It is then stirred in distilled water for about 6- 8 hours at room temperature. The residue is washed and added to the water again. This is repeated for about five times. The precipitated material is washed and dried at 50-60 degrees Celsius in a vacuum.
The tablets of Aceclofenac and other drugs can be prepared by wet granulation method using Moringa Oleifera leaves. Mixing such drugs with the Moringa powder improves their overall drug quality. The drugs and half quantity of disintegrate are mixed with other ingredients, sufficient amount of starch paste is added to form a coherent mass. The wet mass is passed through a sieve that forms granules. Tiny granules are formed. The granules are blended with disintegrate, purified talc and aerosol. They are then compressed into a tablet forming machine. The tablets are of 10mm. The tablets are then taken through quality tests. The leaves powder binds with the tablets. M.oleifera increases the disintegration time and hardness of the tablets, while decreasing the percentage fine, cumulative release and friability.
The Moringa leaves can also be used to coat various drugs. The leaves are grounded to make a fine powder. Once the powder is formed from the leaves, it is used to form a film around the tablets. This is done using a coating equipment. The oleifera coating protects the drugs against microbial attacks. It also improves the drugs properties in terms of disintegration, wetting and other properties that make a drug quality from external harm. This also protects the particular coated drugs from being acted upon by enzymes in the upper gastrointestinal tract during oral intakes (Singh, 2003).
Moringa tablets could also be prepared using dry compression method. However, this method is not popular as the tablets are usually not well compact compared to wet granulation (Holts, 2011). The powder is put into a high sheer mixer granulator. The powder is mixed and forced into counter rotating rollers or into the compressing tableting machine. The tablets are produced and passed through the quality tests.

Methods
This research will be done using experimental study. The Moringa powder will be collected from the leaves. The leaves will be entirely dried up. Some of the leaves will be crushed and grounded, to give the powder. The preparation of the Moringa granules will be as to the tables provide above. The formulations (F1 to F4) will contain 12 mg Corn starch each as disintegrate. The disintegrates will be incorporated intra-granularly (Grubben, 2004). In addition, Corn starch will be used as a binder in F1. The weight will be measured to accuracy. Moisture content, bulk and density tests will be carried out on the granules. The granules were then mixed with talc and magnesium stearate prior to compression. The granules will be compressed into tablets on single punch tablet press (Manesty F3, England), using die and flat punch set of diameter 8 mm at compressional force of 6 metric tons to produce circular tablets. Vernier Calliper (Moore and Wright, England) will be used to measure the diameter and thickness of the tablets (Joshi, 2012). The mean value of five determinations will be recorded in each case. The experiment will be repeated twice and the average of the three readings taken as the thickness and diameter of the tablets. Twenty tablets will be randomly selected and weighed individually.
The mean weight of the tablets will be then calculated, and the standard deviation determined. The Erweka hardness tester will be used in measuring the hardness of the tablets (Duvall, 2008). Ten tablets will be selected at random. Each of the selected tablets tables will in turn placed between the anvil and the spindle of the hardness tester (Erweka TBH 100, Germany) and subjected to increasing pressure by turning the knurled knob in a clockwise direction at constant rate until the tablet get crushed. The value of the pressure applied (KgF) will taken as the Crushing Strength of the tablet (Joshi, 2012). The mean of the ten determinations will be taken to represent the overall value. Ten tablets will be selected randomly and weighed accurately. The selected tablets will be placed inside the drum of Friabilator (Erweka, Germany) and operated for four minutes at a speed of 25 rpm. The intact tablets that will remain intact will be removed . after dusting and weighing the tablets, loss in weight will be calculated and recorded as friability value of the tablets. Six tablets will be randomly selected and placed individually in the six tubes of the rack of the disintegrating machine (Erweka ZT-71, Germany) (Holts, 2011). The rack will be raised and lowered at a constant rate in distilled water contained in a glass jar suspended in a water bath whose temperature will be thermostatically maintained at 37±1°C. The time taken for the last tablet or its fragment to pass through the 2mm mesh into the disintegrating medium (distilled water) will be recorded as the time of disintegration. The curve will be drawn using the Moringa oleifera extract and 0.1M HCl as the dissolving medium, 10mg of the extract will be weighed and diluted in 150 ml of 0.1M HCl 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5ml of the stock will be re-diluted in 5 ml volumetric flask to give 6.66, 13.33, 20, 26.67, 33.33μg/ml concentrations respectively. The absorbance of the different concentrations will be spectrophotometrically determined at 205.1nm wavelength using a UV spectrophotometer (6405 UV/Vis Barlowond scientific, UK) (Holts, 2011), and a graph of absorbance against concentration will be plotted.
The Dissolution test apparatus (Erweka DT 700, Germany) will be used to determine the dissolution rate of the Moringa tablets (Singh, 2003). The dissolution medium that will be used is 750 ml 0.1M HCL, thermostatically maintained at 37±0.5°C. The paddle will be set to rotate at 50rpm. One tablet is placed into each glass jar. Samples of the dissolution medium (10ml) will be then withdrawn at specified time interval of 15, 30, 45, 60 min respectively and analysed at 205.1nm using UV Spectrophotometer (6405 UV/Vis Barlowond scientific, UK). After each withdrawal of the sample, the same volume of fresh dissolution medium will be replaced.The wetting time of the tablet will be determined by putting a layer of tissue paper in petri dish, of about 5mm of water. The tablets will be placed on the tissue papers. The time taken for the tablets to wet will be averaged to find the overall value (Singh, 2003) . The above methods and procedure will be used in the experiment to determine the various properties of Moringa oleifera.

References
Chauhan, N. S. (1999). Medicinal and aromatic plants of Himachal Pradesh. New Delhi: Indus Publ. Co.
Dörries, S. C. (2005). Coagulants of Moringa Oleifera Lam. seeds: Purification & characterisation. S.l.: s.n.
Duvall, S. E. (2008). The promise of Moringa oleifera for nutritional interventions: A knowledge, attitudes and practices assessment of rural Beninese mothers residing in Guinagourou District, Pèrèrè County, Borgou State, Benin.
Grubben, G. J. H., Denton, O. A., Messiaen, C.-M., Schippers, R. R., Lemmens, R. H. M. J., Oyen, L. P. A., & Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. (2004). Vegetables. Wageningen: Backhuys Publishers.
Holst, S. (2011). Moringa: Nature's medicine cabinet. Los Angeles, Calif: Santorini Books.
Joshi, D. D. (2012). Herbal drugs and fingerprints: Evidence based herbal drugs. New Delhi: Springer.
Lim, T. K. (2011). Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants: Volume 3. Dordrecht: Springer.
Meulenbeld, G. J. (2009). The trees called śigru (Moringa sp.), along with a study of the drugs used in errhines. Eelde: Barkhuis and University of Groningen, University Library.
National Institute of Industrial Research (India). (2006). The complete book on Jatropha (bio-diesel) with ashwagandha, Stevia, brahmi & jatamansi herbs: Cultivation, processing & uses. Delhi, India: Asia Pacific Business Press.
Singh, M. P. (2003). Medicinal herbs with their formulations: Singh, M P. Delhi: Daya Publishing House.
Villafuerte, L. R., & Abonal, L. V. (2009). Moringa: Malunggay Philippines. Manila: Apples of Gold Pub.
Watson, R. R., Patel, V. B., & Preedy, V. R. (2011). Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention. Burlington: Elsevier Science.
Y, B. H. O. N. N. A. L. I. N. G. A. P. P. A., & Ashok, K. C. T. (2001). Insect pests of drumstick (Moringa Oleifera Lank) with special reference to the bioecology and management of leaf eating Caterpillar, Noorda blitealis walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Bangalore: University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK.

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...Acknowledgement We would never have been able to finish our dissertation without the guidance of our neighbors, help from friends, and support from my family. We would like to express my deepest gratitude to my advisor, Mrs. Modie Flores, for her excellent guidance, caring, patience, and providing us with an excellent atmosphere for doing research. We would like to thank our Parents, who let us experience the research of Malunggay Cupcake in the field and practical issues beyond the textbooks, internet, patiently corrected our writing and financially supported our research. We would also like to thank Menchie Hermones, and Ludy Balagosa, for guiding our research for the past several weeks and helping us to develop our background in biochemistry. We would like to thank our Classmates, who as a good friend, was always willing to help and give their best suggestions. It would have been a lonely lab without them. We would also like to thank our parents, two elder sisters, and elder brother. They were always supporting us and encouraging us with their best wishes. We give thanks to God almighty for giving us the understanding, knowledge and wisdom during the course of our study. Finally, we would like to thank our classmate Auntie, Sally Barral. She was always there cheering us up and stood by us through the good times and bad. Dedication ...

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...bleaching freckles and as a cheap remedy for itching acne vulgar and pruritis vulvae. The properties of Calamansi are antiseptic, antichloristic, carminative, deodorant, and refrigerant. Calamansi can also prevent infections to the user’s scalp, it can also prevent a frizzy problem to the hair. It is also a natural way keeping the hair better because when you put any chemicals to your hair you will get bad effects that will eventually harm your hair. It is also convenient to use calamansi and malunggay extracts. It prevents bad toxins and refreshes the scalp. The investigators search about malunggay and the scientific name for it, is moringa. It is best known as an excellence of nutrition and natural energy booster. It is loaded with nutrients, vitamins, and amino acids. It replenishes your body and provides what you need. Each ounce of moringa contains seven times as vitamin C found in oranges four times of vitamin A of carrots calcium as milk and three times as potassium of bananas. 1 The properties of the malunggay are Antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-ulcer, estrogenic,...

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...Malunggay leaves as an anti-bacterial soap.The scientific name of Malunggay is Moringa Oleifera. Moringa, also known as the Miracle Tree, is a multipurpose plant, as the leaves, pods, fruits, flowers, roots and bark of the tree can be utilized. It is also referred to as Drumstick Tree by the Britishers. In the Philippines, they are referred to as Malunggay or Malungay. Others refer to moringa as horseradish tree, benzolive tree, kelor, marango, mlonge, moonga, nébéday, saijhan, sajna or Ben oil tree. Research had shown that ounce for ounce of Moringa leaves contain seven times the Vitamin C found in oranges, four times the Vitamin A found in carrots, four times the calcium found in milk, three times the potassium found in bananas and two times the protein found in yogurt.For this reason, it has putMoringa as the most nutritious vegetable plant around and has been used as fortificant in noodles, bread, biscuits, delicacies, burgers, hot dogs. It is also known to be the best nutritional support for nursing mothers because it is not only rich in nutritional content but for its medicinal properties as well.By making vegetable soup out from fresh Moringa leaves, it has been found to increase the volume of breast milk produced by lactating mothers.Another established medicinal property of Moringa Olfeira is its antibacterial action. French scientists had found that Moringa contains an antibacterial peptide (a molecule composed of two or......

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