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Most Pressing Problem in Exporting and Importing

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Corruption: The Most Pressing Problem in Exporting and Importing 2013-2017

1 Corruption: An Overview Corruption exists all over the world, regardless of how social conservative, religious, or developed a nation may be. While some countries have taken an active approach to outlaw the practice, others have embraced the habit as a method in which to conduct business. Because of this disparity there are varying degrees of how prevalent corruption is by country. Transparency International, a global coalition against corruption, defines corruption as “the abuse of entrusted power for private gain” (Transparency International, 2012). As such, corruption is not limited to just one form or one sector of society and is a complex social issue that does not lend itself to an easy solution. Due to the nature of corruption it is difficult to quantify just how much money is lost to the practice each year. It is not until an organization is discovered engaging in corruption that a value can be placed on it. However, those are isolated incidents and the amount of money involved varies from one case to the next. A report in Global Financial Integrity stated that “illicit outflows increased from $1.06 trillion in 2006 to approximately $1.26 trillion in 2008” (Kar & Curcio, 2011). Illicit outflows consist of corruption, tax evasion, theft and embezzlement. Due to “abuse of entrusted power” corruption is difficult to measure and contain because of the human element. Even elected officials of a democracy will not always have a separation of duties, much less in authoritarian regimes. Due to this discrepancy there will typically be individuals that are susceptible to exploitation. In researching bilateral trade and corruption Dutt and Traca (2008) make a distinction between two types of corruption:
...On one hand, bureaucrat’s request bribes to do...

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