In: Business and Management

Submitted By manly92
Words 20849
Pages 84
Lus10552_ch09_321-355 7/3/06 21:21 Page 321




Motivating Performance


After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Explain the motivation process and the three factors affecting performance.
2. Describe four content motivation theories.
3. Describe two process motivation theories.
4. State how reinforcement is used to increase performance.
5. List the four steps in the model for giving praise.
6. Identify the four parts of the model for writing objectives.
7. Explain the three steps of managing by objectives.
8. State ways to enrich, design, and simplify jobs.
9. Explain possible limitations of using motivation theories outside North America.
10. Define the following 16 key terms (in order of appearance in the chapter):
performance formula
content motivation theories
needs hierarchy
two-factor theory
manifest needs theory
process motivation theories
expectancy theory



The Importance of Motivation
What Is Motivation and Why Is It
How Motivation Affects Behavior, Human
Relations, and Performance
Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

equity theory
reinforcement theory
giving praise
management by objectives (MBO)
job enrichment
job design
job simplification

Content Motivation Theories

Schedules of Reinforcement
Organizational Reinforcement for Getting
Employees to Come to Work and to Be on
Motivation Techniques
Giving Praise

Needs Hierarchy

Objectives and MBO

ERG Theory

Job Enrichment

Two-factor Theory

Job Design

Manifest Needs Theory

Putting the Motivation Theories

How Organizations Meet Employee Needs
Process Motivation Theories

Do Motivation Theories Apply Globally?

Expectancy Theory

Cross-cultural Differences in…...

Similar Documents


...Questions(Tesco) 1. Describe what is meant by motivation. What types of non-financial reward might a company use motivate employees? Many people view motivation as a personal trait that is, some people have it, and others don’t. But motivation is defined giving people the desire and energy to make an effort to attain a goal such as a job, role, or subject. Managers often have difficulty motivating employees. But motivation is really an internal process. Its base on the persons needs, his or her ability to make the choices about how to meet those needs. Motivation is not something that a manager can do to a person. Tesco rewards employees with discount cards, gym membership, holiday discounts, private healthcare, and free phones this motivates them. The non financial only gives a low motivation to the employees because not all of the employees are motivated with these rewards, only a few who get motivated because they have a personal goal in the organization. Today, non financial rewards can be another way to appreciate the employee for their work. 2. Describe the effects of an unmotivated workforce on a company. How does Tesco benefit from ensuring that its workforce is motivated? An unmotivated workforce will be the opposite, being dissatisfied with its role in the work environment. Employees are more likely to spend no effort in their jobs, avoid their workplace as much as possible and show low quality work. Tesco has became the largest British...

Words: 364 - Pages: 2


...School of Management and Economics December 2006 Motivation to work - differences between managers and workers -Bachelor Thesis- Tutor: Pernilla Nilsson Examiner: Pernilla Nilsson Authors: Elna Hägglund 840912 Sofie Palmqvist 830905 Abstract While studying management we realised that most of the already existing theories discuss motivation to work from a general perspective. Therefore we found it interesting to investigate motivation on a deeper level. “Motivation to work – differences between managers and workers” The research questions for our thesis are, is there a difference in motivation between managers and workers? If so, what is the difference between the two? The purpose is to examine if a manager and a worker have shared understandings and common factors of what motivates them, or if certain characteristics can be distinguished. For our research we have chosen to use three companies operating within the financial sector in Sweden. Moreover, the chosen companies are located nearby which gives us the opportunity to visit them and to accomplish face to face conversations. We have interviewed two persons at each company, whereby one has the position of a manager and the other has the position of a worker. Moreover, the method of our interviews are qualitative, mostly due to the fact that we wanted create a comfortable feeling for the interviewee and to so that we could get deep insight of what motivates that person. We have studied old...

Words: 13939 - Pages: 56


...The main aim of the essay is to analyse resources that delineate and criticism on key flexibility in the organisation behaviour that relates to employee productivity and motivation. The essay will study the fundamentals of employee motivation, to accomplish consequential productivity in a workplace. This essay is based on one aspect which is motivation in this case of organisational behaviour. The essay will demonstrate the relevance and significance of motivational aspect of organisational behaviour within the workplace. Lastly, the essay will provide recommendations for organisational effectiveness with concerns to motivation by applying the understanding of hypothetical theory. There are various theories about motivation that will be debated below. Though, it is not possible to identify a precise theory that delivers a single universal realism. Motivation is a compound perception influenced by many individual and situational variables. The basic procedure of motivational procedure is what takes to inspire people to work. According to Hellriegel & Slocum (2007) When deal with there are four different approaches they are as follows meeting the basic need of the employee, designing jobs that motivate people, rewards available when meet the expectation of the organisation and lastly treating people equitably. So, before we analyse the process of motivation it necessary to understand the definition of motivation. Motivation “is a process which starts or improves...

Words: 595 - Pages: 3


... examining types of change within firms. No matter its size, any change has a ripple effect on a firm (Miles, 2001). With that said, managing the complexities of change challenges leaders at all levels of an organization (Biech, 2007). A manager has to research just how the change that the upper level management has require him or her to conduct will affect the livelihood of his or her employees and the mission at hand. Not only that, he or she has to find a way to approach the situation without creating conflict among the employees. According to an article by Sirkin, Keenan, and Jackson (2006), Managing change is tough, but part of the problem is that there is little agreement on what factors most influence transformation initiatives. That is true on the level that most managers looks at an initiative from his or her viewpoint, and focuses on different factors. What are known as soft issue factors that can affect change in any organizations are culture, leadership, and motivation. Other key factors or what are deem hard factors are duration, integrity, commitment, and effort. The manager has to incorporate all major key factors in order for his or her department to accept the change that the upper level management hands down and also to stay afloat for any future changes that may come up. Regardless of what factor a manager has to incorporate to use as a tool for communication, the hardest thing on his or her mind is the possibility of letting an employee go because of...

Words: 1528 - Pages: 7


...What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation? Can you provide an example of each? Intrinsic motivation is being motivated by yourself. You don't need any outside factors to motivate you. You do something because you know you have to do it. Extrinsic motivation is being motivated by something. Students who participate in sports and get a trophy or who get money for getting A's are being extrinsically motivated. Intrinsic: This is motivation for the sake of doing something due to the fact that you like it and nothing else. If you like reading, the thing that makes you read books is intrinsic motivation. For the love of it. Extrinsic: You are undertaking a task due to some other factor. For example, if you undertake to take a drivers ed course at school as you need to get the grades or if you take a computer course to get a pay rise at work. You are doing it not for the love of the activity but because you have to. Intrinsic motivation comes from within you. You are hungry, you eat. Whatever you truly want to do is intrinsic. If you feel acutely drawn to some field that is intrinsic. Extrinsic motivation comes from something outside of you. Teachers or parents desire you to behave a certain way that you may not be innately drawn to. Yet the rewards seem valuable and you go along. "Extrinsic" means "externally" or "from without", "intrinsic" means "internally" or "from within". e.g. If your motivation for becoming a lawyer is that it pays...

Words: 464 - Pages: 2


...Sources of Motivation This document will provide a brief description of what motivation is; it will identify at least two sources of motivation, explain the relationship between motivation and behavior, and will examine how behavior exhibits motivation. How is motivation defined? Motivation is defined as an internal process that makes an individual move toward a goal, and it is what causes an individual to act the way he or she does to accomplish that goal. However, motivation can only be limited by an individual’s behavior (Deckers, 2010). The sources of motivation are able to originate from internal sources that are described as biological and psychological variables, and from external sources, such as incentives and goals (Deckers, 2010). The most important sources of motivation are biological, psychological, emotional, environmental, and evolutionary. Biological and psychological have an immense influence on motivation as well as and these two sources are considered internal variables while environmental is considered an external variable. Biological is emotions or feelings such as appetite and hormones that work in the individual body. Psychological can be described as the “need to feel right” that can motivate the individual to act together with others. Environmental is described as the positive incentives or goals that create a center of attention on an individual whereas the negative consequences are a drive back to the individual. Emotional can be...

Words: 916 - Pages: 4


...GROUP Discussion Herzberg’s motivation hygiene theory state that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction, Herzberg state that the presence of one set of job characteristics or incentives leads to worker satisfaction at work, while another and separate set of job characteristics leads to dissatisfaction at work. Thus, satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on a continuum with one increasing as the other diminishes, but are independent phenomena. Two-factor theory distinguishes between. 1. Motivators (challenging work, recognition, responsibility) that give positive satisfaction, arising from intrinsic conditions of the job itself, such as recognition, achievement, or personal growth. 2. Hygiene factors (status, job security salary, fringe benefits, work conditions, company policies, supervisory practices, or wages/salary) that do not give positive satisfaction, though dissatisfaction results from their absence. Essentially, hygiene factors are needed to ensure an employee is not dissatisfied. Motivation factors are needed to motivate an employee to higher performance. The following are the motivation factors. 1. Achievement. Receive high reviews on completion of task before time so satisfaction and of same person is unable to finish the project in time and is unable to do the job well, the satisfaction level may decrease. 2. Recognition .receives the...

Words: 562 - Pages: 3


...Mehmet Tolga Konya 9501144216 Motivation in Workplace Motivation is defined as the duration that invoke, pathfinder and sustain target-based behaviors. It contains biological, emotional, social and cognitive strength that effects behavior. Motivation, constituent in three major terms. Such as direction, persistence and intensity. Terms defined as below; Intensity: How hard a person is trying? Persistence: How long a person keeps on trying? Direction: Invokes the decision to initiate a behavior. Employee and staff motivation is absolutely key structure for organizations, companies and corporations. The staff which cannot be motivated, doesn’t spend much effort to improve the job, avoid the workplace as much as possible, if they find another opportunity they can change their jobs easily. Another side, staff who feels motivated to work are keen on persistence, creative, effective and productive; the rate of turnover is high and the solution will be high quality. Especially after 1980’s; companies and HR staff has become intense to increase the motivation and try to apply new approaches. In 2000’s; even smallest companies has been started to apply this kind of methods to increase the productivity; because they have observed the solutions of this kind of methods in reputable companies and qualified workers are keen on reputable companies. They need to this kind of workers to improve the businesses and if and only if they provide good conditions to work. According to...

Words: 863 - Pages: 4


...[pic] [pic]Motivation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search | |Look up motivation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. | | |This article needs attention from an expert on the subject. See the talk page for details. WikiProject Psychology or the Psychology| | |Portal may be able to help recruit an expert. (February 2010) | Motivation is the driving force which causes us to achieve goals. Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic. The term is generally used for humans but, theoretically, it can also be used to describe the causes for animal behavior as well. This article refers to human motivation. According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in a basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality. Conceptually, motivation should not be confused with either volition or optimism.[1] Motivation is related to, but distinct from, emotion. |Contents | |[hide...

Words: 6166 - Pages: 25


...Motivation. (People in organisation). There is no doubt that everyone has a different set of motives, which relate with personal needs and it manages the human behaviour. Moreover, as Daniel Pink (2009) stressed people also need acceptance, recognition, and self-esteem. In other words, he mentioned three basic human needs: acceptance, mastery, and purpose, which have a powerful influence on individual attitude and performance. What is motivation? Reece (2014) defines motivation as the influences that account for the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behaviour. In addition, psychologists notice four main categories, which include the number of possible motives. Among them are physiological factors/motives (need for food, water, and etc.), emotional factors (love, hate, fear, panic, and etc.), cognitive factors (personal beliefs, perceptions of the world), and finally, social factors (family, friends, media and other social forces). The motivation is two-dimensional; as a result, it could be internal/intrinsic or external/extrinsic. Through motivation I have achieved many different goals in my life, and still continue the developing of this the vital skill. That is to say, motives have been driven constantly my behaviour and a discussing of basic five characteristics of those motives with different theories, and at the same time using my life experience as an example, may be useful for the comprehending the sophisticated nature of motivation. Of...

Words: 1569 - Pages: 7


...Assessment Three Question 1: Motivation Table of Contents Introduction 3 What is Motivation 3 Why is understanding motivation important for mangers 4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 4 Expectancy theory 5 Reinforcement theory 6 In relation to employee performance which theory should a Manager adopt 8 Conclusion 10 References 11 Introduction Motivation is a broad topic and is at times not clearly understood and often poorly practiced. There are many major factors that mangers conveniently use to escape majority or all the blame of their organisational problems. One would be that whenever things go wrong some managers tend to point out that the problem(s) have occurred due to lack of motivation from employees (“Employee-motivation strategies,” 1999). Theodore Roosevelt once said, "the best …[manger] is the one who has sense enough to pick good men to do what he wants done, and self-restraint enough to keep from meddling with them while they do it" (“Employee-motivation strategies,” 1999). Essentially the manager's obligation is to develop employee’s skill and harness their capabilities as much as possible for the development of the organisations they belong to (“Employee-motivation strategies,” 1999). The paper aims to provide an understanding in regards to the importance of human motivation. It will outline and discuss three motivational theories and how mangers may apply these theories to improve employee performance (Halepota, 2005). Having knowledge...

Words: 3107 - Pages: 13


...Motivation Motivation is the drive to improve oneself. Motivation is what drives people to improve themselves. Motivation has always been a part of the human behavior. It has been used since the very beginning of human society as a means to develop themselves. The job of a manager in the workplace is to get things done through employees. To do this the manager should be able to motivate employees. However, that’s not always an easy thing to do. Motivation practice and theory are different, some managers know the theory but putting it into practice fails them. To understand motivation one must understand human nature itself which is where the problem lies. Human nature can be very simple, yet very complex too. Understanding this is needed to ensure effective employee motivation in the workplace and therefore effective management and leadership. Another limitation is having a de-motivated working force and not knowing it. According to David Javitch (2005), highly motivated employees are regarded as company assets. They are productive, willing to take responsibilities, and pleasant to work with. But they organization has poor performing, unmotivated employees as well. Therefore, for organizational success, managers need to deal with this obstacle by identifying unmotivated employees and turning them around. However, this isn’t as easy as it seems, because you can’t motivate them if they don’t want to be motivated. Managers should first identify the signs of de-motivated...

Words: 461 - Pages: 2


...Motivation 1 Motivation and Its Role in Language Acquisition Robert A. Cote SLAT 596Y Dr. Linda Waugh December 15, 2004 Motivation 2 “Motivation represents one of the most appealing, yet complex, variables used to explain individual differences in language learning” (MacIntyre et al. 2001, p. 462). These words succinctly describe the multifaceted issue that researchers, classroom instructors and language learners themselves have faced since Gardner and Lambert brought to light the complexities of motivation via their studies in the late 1950’s. The number of factors involved in motivating persons to acquire a foreign language has increased tremendously during the past four decades and attempting to address all of these components in one paper is impractical. The author will therefore attempt to present a limited overview of motivation, supporting research from both inside and outside of the classroom and views challenging its validity. Prior to exploring motivation and its function in language acquisition, one must first understand the term in its general sense. MacIntyre et al. defined motivation as “an attribute of the individual describing the psychological qualities underlying behavior with respect to a particular task” (2001, p. 463). This goal-directed behavior shows itself through distinct actions of the motivated individual. Dörnyei described this explicitly when he wrote the following: The motivated individual expends effort, is...

Words: 7481 - Pages: 30


...Motivation Paper Steve Miksich April 8, 2012 CJA/444 Jon Sowers Motivation Paper The juvenile justice system is a system of justice that is set up to adjudicate juveniles who have been charged with crimes against society. Instead of trying to only punish these individuals for the crime they committed, this system also works toward rehabilitating them to reduce recidivism. The juvenile court system is typically much different than the traditional courts, due to the fact that the processes and procedures are designed to seek an effective practice of providing rehabilitative treatment for the juvenile; instead of an ironclad system of punishing them for the offenses they committed. The juvenile justice system provides an environment that is conducive to uplifting the adolescent. This helps to persuade him or her that delinquency is not the best methodology for achieving their lifetime goals. It inherently seeks to reward any good behavior exhibited by the juvenile in lieu of strictly punishing them for past failures and antisocial behavior. In addition, the juvenile correctional facilities are designed to resemble dormitories more so than prison cellblocks. This benefits the juvenile system since it does not promote an intimidating, archaic atmosphere. Hertzberg's theory of motivation is a theory that encompasses both motivating factors and hygiene factors as the basis for motivating individual actions. This theory is based on the premise that individuals...

Words: 1777 - Pages: 8


...Knowledge sharing in organisational contexts: a motivation-based perspective Alice Lam and Jean-Paul Lambermont-Ford Abstract Purpose – Facilitating knowledge sharing within organisations is a difficult task: the willingness of individuals to share and integrate their knowledge is one of the central barriers. This paper aims to develop a motivation-based perspective to explore how organisations resolve the social dilemma of knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis builds on a three-category taxonomy of motivation, adding ‘‘hedonic’’ motivation to the traditional dichotomy of ‘‘extrinsic’’ and ‘‘intrinsic’’ motivation. It uses case studies gleaned from the literature to explore the interactive effects between the different motivators in two different types of knowledge-intensive organisations: professional bureaucracy and operating adhocracy. Findings – Within a professional bureaucracy, the social dilemma of knowledge sharing may be overcome through normative motivation, with provision of hedonic motivation through extrinsic incentives such as training and career progression. In an operating adhocracy where interdependent teamwork is vital, it may be overcome through normative alignment reinforced by intensive socialisation. Extrinsic motivators that align with hedonic motivation may also reinforce the propensity for knowledge sharing. In both organisational types, financial extrinsic incentives do not appear to be relevant on their own, and may...

Words: 9851 - Pages: 40