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A Port is a geographical area where ships are bought alongside land to load and unload cargo – usually a sheltered deep water area such as a bay, or river mouth.

The Port Authority is the organization responsible for providing the various maritime services required to bring ships alongside land.

Terminal is a section of the port consisting of one or more berths devoted to a particular type of cargo handling.

• Infrastructure for ship berth; • Sea/ river and land access; - Road/Rail/IWT access • Industrial area.


Ports - nodes to link with other inland transport modes such as highways, railways, and inland waterway systems.

Ports not only act as gateways for trade, but also attract agents of commercial infrastructure such as banks and insurance agents, as well as industrial activities.

Ideal port or harbor

← Adequate Depth Of Water within the harbour, the approaches, and the entrance channels to accommodate safely the largest vessels expected to use the harbour, at the same time providing adequate protection from the open sea; ← Minimum Interference from tides and currents or, alternatively, structures and facilities designed to compensate for or overcome disadvantageous tides and currents; ← Freedom from fog and ice, or adaptation, such as ice-breaking technology; ← Bottom Characteristics that provide suitable anchorage for vessels within the harbour; ← Adequate Adjacent Land with physical characteristics permitting appropriate development of port terminals, port-oriented industries, and associated facilities and operations


← According to physical condition or geographical position ◦ Natural or Man-made port ◦ Tidal or Non-tidal port ◦ Sea or River port ◦ Ice or Ice free port ◦ Sandy or Rocky or Muddy bottom port ← According to function ◦ Commercial port ◦ Industrial port ◦ Fishing port ◦ Recreation port ◦ Military port ◦ Refuge harbour etc.

Basic port infrastructure

← Maritime access channels; ← Port entrance; ← Protective works, including breakwaters and shore protection; ← Sea locks; ← Access to the port for inland transport (roads and tunnels); ← Rail connection between the hinterland and the port; ← Inland waterways within the port area and connecting port areas with their hinterland.

Operational port infrastructure ← Inner port channels and turning and port basins; ← Revetments and slopes; ← Roads, tunnels, bridges, and locks in the port area; ← Quay walls, jetties, and finger piers; ← Aids to navigation, buoys and beacons; ← Hydro and meteorological systems; ← Specific mooring buoys; ← Vessel traffic management systems; ← Patrol and fire-fighting vessels; ← Docks; ← Port land (excluding superstructure and paving); ← Access roads to general road infrastructure; ← Rail connection to general rail infrastructure, and marshalling yards; ← Dry dock for ship repair.
Port super structure ← Paving and surfacing; ← Terminal lighting; ← Parking areas; ← Sheds, warehouses, and stacking areas; ← Tank farms and silos; ← Offices; ← Repair shops; ← Other buildings required for terminal operations.
Port equipment ← Tugs; ← Line handling vessels; ← Dredging equipments; ← Ship and shore handling equipments; ← Cargo handling equipments (apron and terminal).

Importance of port

Significance of a port in maritime transport ← terminal defined as any facility where cargoes and passengers are assembled or dispersed ← points of interchange involving the same mode of transport ← points of interchange between different modes of transport ← central and intermediate locations in the movements of passengers and cargo ← in order to carry out the transfer and bundling of cargo and passengers, specific equipment and infrastructures are required.

Note: ← Differences in the nature, composition and timing of transfer activities give rise to significant differentiations in the form and function between terminals. ← A major economic multiplier for the nation’s prosperity. Not only is a port a gateway for trade but most ports attract commercial infrastructure in the form of banks, agencies, etc., as well as industrial activities
Port should be considered one of the most important aspect of maritime transport because they are the location: ← Where most maritime accidents happens; ← Where cargo is damaged or stolen; ← Where repairs are carried out; ← Where most cost are incurred; ← Where delays are most likely to occur; ← Where surveys take place; ← Where most shipping services are located, e.g. agents, brokers, etc. ← Where industries are situated; ← Where cargoes come from; ← Where customs and government policies are implemented

← Distribution centre; ← Industrial zone and energy supply base; ← Mercantile trading centre-attracting banks, brokers and traders; ← Urbanisation and city redevelopment centre; ← Life activity base-this is particularly the case for the smaller rural ports; ← Maritime leisure base-yacht marinas, dockside recreation facilities, cruise ship terminal.
Importance of port in intern modality ← Intermodality is an essential component of the total transportation chain. Its objective is to develop a framework for an optimal integration of the different modes and utilisation of their capacities, so as to enable an efficient use of the transport system through seamless, customer-oriented, door-to-door services favouring innovation and competition between transport operators. ← Ports are crucial connecting points in intermodal transport, transferring goods and passengers between maritime and land-based modes. Higher port efficiency thus contributes to the integration of modes in a single system, allowing better use of rail, inland waterways and sea transport; modes that by themselves do not always allow door-to-door delivery as is the case for road transport. ← One of the main requirements of intermodality is that transport modes are physically linked, for example, through better hinterland connections to ports. However, successful intermodality is dependent on a number of equally important factors. ← For example, the use of more than one transport mode results in additional transfer costs, the risk of reduced reliability and more complex administrative procedures. The use of modern information systems is crucial in this respect. Such systems are already in use in the larger European ports but are still important missing links in other parts. ←

Node: a place(or interface) where a mode of transportation is changed / a place where stockholding, processing, packaging are done / cargo terminal, distribution centre, logistics centre, such as ports, airports.
Mode: Different transport mode, say truck, ship, train, plane etc.
Link: passage or lane which connects nodes say rail, road, IWT, sea, air etc.

Port and intermodalism
Transport Revolution
First generation revolution is Railway, Motor vessel;
Second generation of revolution is Jet Engine, Gasoline Engine; and
Third generation of revolution is Intermodalism or Multimodalism
Main Feature ← Civil Engineering ◦ Sea and land access; ◦ Infrastructure for ship berthing; ◦ Road and rail network; ◦ Industrial area management. ← Administrative ◦ Control of vehicles, all modes, entering and leaving the port; ◦ Environmental control; ◦ Control of dangerous cargo; ◦ Safety and security within the port area; ◦ Immigration, health, customs and commercial documentary control. ← Operational ◦ Pilotage, tugging and mooring activities; ◦ Use of berths, sheds, etc. ◦ Loading, discharging, storage and distribution of cargo.

Port Role and its function

← Functions of a Port can broadly be divided into two categories of services ◦ Navigational Services/ Services to ships; and ◦ Handling Services/ Services to cargo

Services and facilites for ships
•Navigation aids •VTS •Approach channel, breakwater •Pilotage, tugs and mooring gangs •Berths, turning basins, locks(if tidal) •Repairing

Services and facilities for cargo ← Cargo handling services can be divided into four sub-systems ◦ Ship operation ← cargo handling on ship and on quay ◦ Transfer operation ← transport to/from storage ◦ Storage operation ← storage at shed, silo, open space ← tallying, marking, weighing, surveying ← surveillance, protection, sanitary measures ← dangerous cargo segregation ◦ Gate operation ← customs and documentary control ← receiving and delivery
Ports role and functions ← Other than the operational function Port Authority should also fill the following role: ◦ Landlord for private entities offering a variety of services; ◦ Regulator of economic activity and operations; ◦ Regulator of marine safety, security, and environmental control; ◦ Planning for future operations and capital investments; ◦ Marketer and promoter of port services and economic development; ◦ Provider of ancillary activities (police, immigration, health, supply of fresh water, fuel, food, telephone, medical, waste disposal etc.

← additional ‘value-added’ services ◦ repackaging, labeling, sorting, assembling ◦ cleaning and preparing cargo ◦ setting up a logistic network ◦ setting up a marketing package

Port evaluation
A more recent amendment to the Anyport model is focusing on container terminal development. Five alternatives are presented: ← Closure: where the facility is abandoned because of poor site /and or operating conditions (the terminal has lost its market relevance); ← Expansion: where operating conditions require the existing sites to be extended or modified. This mostly involve yard areas and the lengthening of berths; ← Addition: where because of demands of deeper water or operating facilities, new berths are established; ← Consolidation: where several existing berths are combined to provide new expanded facilities; ← Redevelopment: seen as the outcome of functional assessment of existing facilities and the establishment of a super terminal.


Port evaluation
The Fourth-Generation Port ← 3rd generation port cargo handling + other value-added services –warehousing, packaging and distribution ← 4th generation port physically separated but linked through common operators or through a common administration ← CMP (Copenhagen Malmo Port) ◦ founded in 2001, following the merger of the port and terminal activities in Copenhagen and Malmo ◦ the main reason for this merger is the construction of the Öresund bridge , a bridge and tunnel complex will connect the two countries by road and rail. ◦ setting up a Swedish joint venture company to manage the combined terminals, and each authority will have a 50 % share. ◦ competitiveness will be increased by removing duplication
Global operator
Terminals linked through common operators with the expansion of management by international terminal operators and by shipping lines

|Operator |Million TEU |% share |Operator |Million TEU |% share |
|PSA |50.9 |8.2 |Terminal Invst. Ltd. |13.5 |2.2 |
|HPH |44.8 |7.2 |China Shipping Terminal |8.6 |1.4 |
| | | |Dev. | | |
|APMT |33.7 |5.4 |Hanjin |7.8 |1.3 |
|DPW |33.4 |5.4 |Evergreen |7.5 |1.2 |
|COSCO |17 |2.7 |Eurogate |6.5 |1 |


Port organisation and administrative model

A number of factors influence the way ports are organized, structured and managed: ← The socioeconomic structure of the country (market economy, open border); ← Historical development (for example former colonial structure); ← Location of the port (urban area or isolated region); and ← Types of cargo handled (liquid or dry bulk, general or containers).

Port organisation

Four main categories of ports have emerged over time: ← Service Port ← Tool Port ← Landlord Port ← Fully Privatized Port

Service port ← Service ports have a predominantly public character; ← The port authority offers the complete range of services required for the functioning of the seaport system; ← The port owns, maintains, and operates every available asset (fixed and mobile); and ← Cargo handling activities are executed by labor employed directly by the port authority
Tool port ← The port authority owns, develops, and maintains the port infrastructure as well as the superstructure, including cargo handling equipment such as quay cranes and forklift trucks; ← Port authority staff usually operates all equipment owned by the port authority; ← Other cargo handling on board vessels as well as on the apron and on the quay is usually carried out by private cargo handling firms contracted by the shipping agents or other principals licensed by the port authority. ← The landlord port is characterized by its mixed public-private orientation. ← The port authority acts as regulatory body and as landlord, while port operations (especially cargo handling) are carried out by private companies. ← Infrastructure is leased to private operating companies or to industries such as refineries, tank terminals, and chemical plants. ← The private port operators provide and maintain their own superstructure including buildings (offices, sheds, warehouses, container freight stations, workshops). ← They also purchase and install their own equipment on the terminal grounds as required by their business. ← In landlord ports, dock labor is employed by private terminal operators, although in some ports part of the labor may be provided through a port wide labor pool system.

Privatized port

← Port land is privately owned, unlike the situation in other port management models. ← This requires the transfer of ownership of such land from the public to the private sector. ← Along with the sale of port land to private interests, some governments may simultaneously transfer the regulatory functions to private successor companies. ← Full privatization is considered by many as an extreme form of port reform.
The U.K. decided to move to full privatization for three main reasons: ← To modernize institutions and installations, both of which often dated back to the early years of the industrial revolution, to make them more responsive to the needs and wishes of the users. ← To achieve financial stability and financial targets, with an increasing proportion of the financing coming from private sources. ← To achieve labor stability and a degree of rationalization, followed by a greater degree of labor participation in the new port enterprises
| 䦋㌌㏒㧀좈໱琰茞ᓀ㵂Ü |Strength(s) |Weakness(es) |
|Landlord | A single entity (the private sector) executes cargo handling | Risk of overcapacity |
| |operations and owns and operates cargo handling equipment. |Risk of misjudging the proper timing of |
| |The terminal operators are more loyal to the port and more |capacity additions |
| |likely to make needed investments as a consequence of their | |
| |long-term contracts. | |
| |Private terminal handling companies generally are better able to| |
| |cope with market requirements. | |
|Fully Privatized | Maximum flexibility with respect to investments and port | Government may need to create a port regulator|
| |operations. |to control monopolistic behavior. |
| |No direct government interference. |The government (national, regional, or local) |
| |Ownership of port land enables market-oriented port development |loses its ability to execute a long-term |
| |and tariff policies. |economic development policy with respect to the|
| |In case of redevelopment, private operator probably realizes a |port business. |
| |high price for the sale of port land. |In case the necessity arises to redevelop the |
| |The often strategic location of port land may enable the private|port area, government has to spend considerable|
| |operator to broaden its scope of activities. |amounts of money to buy back the port land. |
| | |There is a serious risk of speculation with |
| | |port land by private owners. |

Port Organisation Model
|Type |Infrastructure |Superstructure |Port Labor |Other Function |
|Service |Public |Public |Public |Majority Public |
|Tool |Public |Public |Private |Public/Private |
|Landlord |Public |Private |Private |Public/Private |
|Fully Privatized |Private |Private |Private |Majority Private |

Unified port model ← The main obstacle of a unified model refers back: ◦ Organizational differences-issue of ownership; ◦ Operational differences-types of cargo handled, ship received, etc.; ◦ Physical and spatial differences-location, access, connectivity, available capacity, etc.; ◦ Legal and regulatory differences-trade and transport policy, administrative procedures, safety and security regulations, environment, etc
Current feature trend in port operation ← In the present context port management is experiencing change along four dimensions: ◦ Extension of the port role; ◦ Strategies of vertical and horizontal integration; ◦ Redefinition of port foreland and hinterland; ◦ Reassessment of the port customer.

Importance port in national economy ← A. Smith (1776) argued: “As by means of water-carriage, a more extensive market is opened to every sort of industry than what land-carriage alone can afford it, so it is upon the sea-coast, and along the banks of navigable rivers, that industry of every kind naturally begins to subdivide and improve itself …” ← A. Weber (1929): "break-in-bulk" locations, i.e. firms look for locations where two or more modes of transportation may connect ← R. Goss (1990) stressed how ports drive the economic development as they increase competition through enlargement of the market areas of firms, thereby reducing prices for consumers ← Gripaios-Gripaios (1995): rent generated by ports spreads through an economic system larger than the one in which the port is embedded ← Musso (1996): ports are more and more necessary for other countries economies while more and more economically less significant for their regions ← OECD (2010): Port-cities score lower on several economic indicators than the national average of their country ← Port development is an essential process for any country wishing to successfully engage in international trade. ← Ports are the gateway to access global trading partners and shipping is one of the most cost-effective means of transport over long distances. ← Historically, ports have been regarded as critical assets as, in addition to being the gateway to a country, they are also where taxes on imports and excise duties are collected. ← However, the port’s role is continuing to evolve and there exists a difference between developing and developed countries. ← The industry has impact on the national economy in ways: ← Direct impact – Service rendering, Direct job creation ← Indirect impact – Industrial development, Bank, Agencies, Broker, Agent, etc. ← Induce Impact - Trade facilitation
Direct impact ← The direct impact is the effect of the port on the firms or organizations directly linked to port operations. ← Running and management of the port (staff management, civil works, building and maintenance, security, safety control, customs, police …) ← Services to the vessels (pilots, tugs, mooring/unmooring, shipping companies and shipping agencies, insurance brokers, ship repairing, container maintenance …) ← The services to the cargos (handling, storage, internal transport, forwarding, custom clearance, inland transport and delivery, insurance brokers, banks…)

← The more important the port to the national economy, the more pressure there will be on port managers to attract and retain valuable customers. ← Some ports can be extremely valuable players in the national economy and the loss of major customers could have a big ripple effect on employment and local income. ◦ e.g. the Port of Rotterdam is a key element in the Dutch economy and development projects undertaken by the port over the past decade have created more than 45,000 man-years in temporary employment and 17,500 man-years in permanent employment in the Netherlands. ← Current and prospective port users can employ the importance of the port to the local economy as a bargaining chip in negotiations over tariffs, service, or facilities. The larger the contribution of the port user to the local economy, the greater the user’s bargaining power with the port.
Rotterdam Port in 2014: ← Port area: 12,500 ha (land and water, of which approx 6,000 ha is business sites). Length of port area: over 40 km. ← Employment: 180,000 jobs. ← Throughput: approx 450 million tons of cargo per year. ← Shipping: approximately 30,000 sea-going vessels and 110,000 inland vessels per year. ← Added value: (direct and indirect) over €21 billion; 3.5% of GNP.

Indirect impact ← The indirect impact is the effect on firms or organizations that have decided to settle inside or close to the port area because they need it. ← Factories importing raw materials and/or exporting finished products overseas (steel mills, refineries…) ← Distribution centres

Induce impact ← The induced impact is the effect of the direct and indirect activities on other sectors of the economy. The inputs of one branch are the outputs of another. ← 92% of total maritime trade of Bangladesh; ← Total throughput 43.37 million tones including 1.47 million TEUs in 2012-13; ← Import 38.31 million and export 5.06 million tones; ← Import container 7,43,547 and Export 7,25166; ← Container throughput growth rate 14%; ← Number of vessels call 21037 nos.

← 92% of total maritime trade of Bangladesh; ← Total throughput 43.37 million tones including 1.47 million TEUs in 2012-13; ← Import 38.31 million and export 5.06 million tones; ← Import container 7,43,547 and Export 7,25166; ← Container throughput growth rate 14%; ← Number of vessels call 21037 nos.

Annual income and expenditure
|Income (in crore Tk.) |1529.92 |
|Expenditure |652.62 |
|Surplus |877.30 |

| 䦋㌌㏒㧀좈໱琰茞ᓀ㵂Ü |2010-11 |2011-12 |
|Total Import &Export Duty, VAT |US$3539.15 million |US$3980.45 million |
|& |(Tk.279592.80 million) |(Tk.314455.60 million) |
|Supplementary Duty | | |
|Revenue Income earned by CHC |US$2578.75million |US$2890.10 million |
| |(Tk.203721.50 million) |(Tk.228318.20million) |

Indirect impact ← Chittagong EPZ, (Contributions of EPZ to total national export around 22%); ← 18 nos. ICDs around Chittagong; ← Ship yards ← Ship breaking industry ← =============== ← Induce impact of CPA

← Drivers of Traffic Growth in Bangladesh (trade growth rate – 14% around) ← Share of Export-Import to GDP is 40% ← Economic Growth - (GDP around 6%); ← Foreign Direct Investment – USD 1086 million in 2008;

Current challenges ← Larger Vessels and Cargo Concentration ◦ ports need larger cranes, traditionally designed crane able to serve 13 containers wide vessels; ◦ post panamax vessels are having a 18 containers wide; ◦ Latest generation of vessels even needs more greater reach up to 22 to 23 containers;

← Environmental Concern

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