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Brazil occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior,[141] sharing land borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest; Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana to the north
The Ministry of External Relations is responsible for managing the foreign relations of Brazil. Brazil is a significant political and economic power in Latin America and a key player on the world stage.[1] Brazil's foreign policy reflects its role as a regional power and a potential world power and is designed to help protect the country's national interests, national security, ideological goals, and economic prosperity.
Between World War II and 1990, both democratic and military governments sought to expand Brazil's influence in the world by pursuing a state-led industrial policy and an independent foreign policy. Brazilian foreign policy has recently aimed to strengthen ties with other South American countries, engage in multilateral diplomacy through the United Nations and the Organization of American States, and act at times as a countervailing force to U.S. political and economic influence in Latin America.
* 1 Overview * 2 Foreign policy * 2.1 Lula da Silva administration * 2.2 Rousseff administration * 3 Regional policy * 4 Diplomatic relations * 5 United Nations politics * 6 Outstanding international issues * 7 Foreign aid * 8 Participation in international organizations * 9 Bilateral relations * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links
Brazil's international relations are based on article 4 of the Federal Constitution, which establishes non-intervention, self-determination, international cooperation and the peaceful settlement of conflicts as the guiding principles of Brazil's relationship with other countries and multilateral organizations.[2] According to the Constitution, the President has ultimate authority over foreign policy, while Congress is tasked with reviewing and considering all diplomatic nominations and international treaties, as well as legislation relating to Brazilian foreign policy.[3]
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, also known as Itamaraty, is the government department responsible for advising the President and conducting Brazil's foreign relations with other countries and international bodies. Itamaraty's scope includes political, commercial, economic, financial, cultural and consular relations, areas in which it performs the classical tasks of diplomacy: represent, inform and negotiate. Foreign policy priorities are established by the President.
Foreign policy

BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) leaders during the 1st BRIC summit in 2009.
Brazil's foreign policy is a by-product of the country's unique position as a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and an emerging world power.[4] Brazilian foreign policy has generally been based on the principles of multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and non-intervention in the affairs of other countries.[5] Brazil engages in multilateral diplomacy through the Organization of American States and the United Nations, and has increased ties with developing countries in Africa and Asia. Brazil is currently commanding a multinational U.N. stabilization force in Haiti, the MINUSTAH. Instead of pursuing unilateral prerogatives, Brazilian foreign policy has tended to emphasize regional integration, first through the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosul) and now the Union of South American Nations. Brazil is also committed to cooperation with other Portuguese-speaking nations[6] through joint-collaborations with the rest of the Portuguese-speaking world, in several domains which include military cooperation, financial aid, and cultural exchange. This is done in the framework of CPLP,[7] for instance. Lula da Silva's recent visit to Africa included State visits to three Portuguese-speaking African nations (Angola, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Mozambique).[8] Finally, Brazil is also strongly committed in the development and restoration of peace in East Timor, where it has a very powerful influence.[9][10]
Brazil's political, business, and military ventures are complemented by the country's trade policy. In Brazil, the Ministry of Foreign Relations continues to dominate trade policy, causing the country's commercial interests to be (at times) subsumed by a larger foreign policy goal, namely, enhancing Brazil's influence in Latin America and the world.[11] For example, while concluding meaningful trade agreements with developed countries (such as the United States and the European Union) would probably be beneficial to Brazil's long-term economic self-interest, the Brazilian government has instead prioritized its leadership role within Mercosul and expanded trade ties with countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East.
Brazil's soft power diplomacy involves institutional strategies such as the formation of diplomatic coalitions to constrain the power of the established great powers.[12] In recent years, it has given high priority in establishing political dialogue with other strategic actors such as India, Russia, China and South Africa through participation in international groupings such as BASIC, IBSA and BRICS. The BRICS states have been amongst the most powerful drivers of incremental change in world diplomacy and they benefit most from the connected global power shifts.[12]
Lula da Silva administration
The Brazilian foreign policy under the Lula da Silva administration had been focused on the following directives: to contribute toward the search for greater equilibrium and attenuate unilateralism; to strengthen bilateral and multilateral relations in order to increase the country's weight in political and economic negotiations on an international level; to deepen relations so as to benefit from greater economical, financial, technological and cultural interchange; to avoid agreements that could jeopardize development in the long term.[13]
These directives implied precise emphasis on: the search for political coordination with emerging and developing countries, namely India, South Africa, Russia and China; creation of the Union of South American Nations and its derivative bodies, such as the South American Security Council; strengthening of Mercosul; projection at the Doha Round and WTO; maintenance of relations with developed countries, including the United States; undertaking and narrowing of relations with African countries; campaign for the reform of the United Nations Security Council and for a permanent seat for Brazil; and defense of social objectives allowing for a greater equilibrium between the States and populations.[13]
Rousseff administration

President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos and President of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff.
See also: List of presidential trips made by Dilma Rousseff
The foreign policy under the Rousseff administration has sought to deepen Brazil's regional commercial dominance and diplomacy, expand Brazil's presence in Africa, and play a major role in the G20 on climate change and in other multilateral settings.[14]
At the United Nations, Brazil continues to oppose sanctions and foreign military intervention, while seeking to garner support for a permanent seat at the Security Council.[15] Cooperation with other emerging powers remain a top priority in Brazil's global diplomatic strategy. On the recent airstrike resolution supporting military action in Libya, Brazil joined fellow BRICS in the Council and abstained. On the draft resolution condemning violence in Syria, Brazil worked with India and South Africa to try to bridge the Western powers' divide with Russia and China.[16]
Regional policy

Mercosur, a regional trade bloc between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela.
Over the past decade, Brazil has firmly established itself as a regional power.[17] It has traditionally been a leader in the inter-American community and played an important role in collective security efforts, as well as in economic cooperation in the Western Hemisphere.[18] Brazilian foreign policy supports economic and political integration efforts in order to reinforce long-standing relationships with its neighbors.[17] It is a founding member of the Organization of American States (OAS) and the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty).[18] It has given high priority to expanding relations with its South American neighbors and strengthening regional bodies such as the Latin American Integration Association (ALADI), the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and Mercosur.[18] Although integration is the primary purpose of these organizations, they also serve as forums in which Brazil can exercise its leadership and develop consensus around its positions on regional and global issues.[17] By promoting integration through organizations like Mercosur and UNASUR, Brazil has been able to solidify its role as a regional power.[17] In addition to consolidating its power within South America, Brazil has sought to expand its influence in the broader region by increasing its engagement in the Caribbean and Central America.[17]
Brazil regularly extends export credits and university scholarships to its Latin American neighbors.[19] In recent years, the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES) has provided US$5 billion worth of loans to countries in the region.[20] Brazil has also increasingly provided Latin American nations with financial aid and technical assistance.[17] Between 2005 and 2009, Cuba, Haiti, and Honduras were the top three recipients of Brazilian assistance, receiving over $50 million annually.[17][21]
Diplomatic relations
Further information: List of diplomatic missions of Brazil

Diplomatic missions of Brazil Brazil Nations hosting a diplomatic mission of Brazil Nations with a non-resident mission of Brazil
Brazil has a large global network of diplomatic missions, and maintains diplomatic relations with every United Nations member state, in addition to Palestine and the Holy See.[22] As of 2011, Brazil's diplomatic network consisted of 179 overseas posts.[23]
Relations with non-U.N. member states: * Kosovo - Brazil does not recognize Kosovo as an independent state and has announced it has no plans to do so without an agreement with Serbia.[24] * Taiwan - Brazil does not recognize the Republic of China (Taiwan) as it has recognized the People's Republic of China, although it has non-diplomatic relations and maintains a special office in Taipei.[25]
United Nations politics
Main article: Brazil and the United Nations
Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations and participates in all of its specialized agencies. It has participated in 33 United Nations peacekeeping missions and contributed with over 27,000 soldiers.[26] Brazil has been a member of the United Nations Security Council ten times, most recently 2010-2011.[27] Along with Japan, Brazil has been elected more times to the Security Council than any other U.N. member state.[26]
Brazil is currently seeking a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.[28] It is a member of the G4, an alliance among Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan for the purpose of supporting each other's bids for permanent seats on the Security Council.[28] They propose the Security Council be expanded beyond the current 15 members to include 25 members. The G4 countries argue that a reform would render the body "more representative, legitimate, effective and responsive" to the realities of the international community in the 21st century.[28]
Outstanding international issues * Two short sections of the border with Uruguay are in dispute - the Arroio Invernada area of the Quaraí River, and the Brazilian Island at the confluence of the Quaraí River and the Uruguay River.[29] * Brazil declared in 1986 the sector between 28°W to 53°W Brazilian Antarctica (Antártica Brasileira) as its Zone of Interest. It overlaps Argentine and British claims[30] * In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.[31]
Foreign aid
Overseas aid has become an increasingly important tool for Brazil's foreign policy.[32] Brazil provides aid to various countries in Africa and Latin America through the Brazilian Agency of Cooperation (Abbreviation: ABC; Portuguese: Agência Brasileira de Cooperação), in addition to offering scientific, economical, and technical support to programs in various countries. Estimated to be around $1 billion annually, Brazil is on par with China and India and ahead of many more traditional donor countries.[32] The aid tends to consist of technical aid and expertise, alongside a quiet non-confrontational diplomacy to development results.[32] Brazil's aid demonstrates a developing pattern of South-South aid, which has been heralded as a 'global model in waiting'.[33]
Participation in international organizations
ACS(Observer) • ACTO • AfDB • BIS • Cairns Group • CAN(Associate) • CDB • CPLP • FAO • G4 • BASIC countries • G8+5 • G15 • G20 • G20+ • G24 • G77 • IADB • IDB • IAEA • IBRD • IBSA •ICAO • ICC • ICRM • IDA • IFAD • IFC • IFRCS • IHO • ILO • IMF • IMO • Inmarsat •INSARAG • Intelsat • Interpol • IOC • IOM • ISO • ITU • LAES • LAIA • Latin Union • Mercosul • MINUSTAH • NAM(Observer) • NSG • OAS • OEI • OPANAL • OPCW • PCA • Rio Group • Rio Treaty • UN • UNASUR • UNCTAD • UNESCO • UNHCR • UNIDO • UNITAR • UNMIL • UNMIS • UNMOVIC • UNOCI • UNTAET • UNWTO • UPU • WCO • WHO • WIPO • WMO • WTO • ZPCAS
Bilateral relations Country | Formal relations began | Notes | Angola | | See Angola–Brazil relations As of November 2007, "trade between the two countries is booming as never before".[34] | Argentina | | See Argentina–Brazil relations After democratization, a strong integration and partnership began between the two countries. In 1985 they signed the basis for the MERCOSUL, a Regional Trade Agreement. In the field of science, the two regional giants had been rivals since the 1950s when both governments launched parallel nuclear and space programs, however, several agreements were signed since then such as the creation of the Brazilian–Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) to verify both countries' pledges to use nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes. National spaces agencies CONAE and the AEB had also began working together since the 1990s. Brazil's decision to prevent a Royal Navy ship docking in Rio de Janeiro was seen as backing Argentina over the Falklands dispute.[35]Also on the military side there has been greater rapprochement. In accordance with the friendship policy, both armies dissolved or moved major units previously located at their common border (for example, Argentine's 7th Jungle and 3rd Motorized Infantry Brigades). Brazilian soldiers are embedded in the Argentine peacekeeping contingent at UNFICYP in Cyprus and they are working together at MINUSTAH in Haiti and, as another example of collaboration, Argentine Navy aircraft routinely operate from the Brazilian Navy carrier NAe São Paulo. | Australia | | See Australia–Brazil relations Brazil has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate general in Sydney. Australia has an embassy in Brasília and Consulates in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. | Bangladesh | | See Bangladesh-Brazil relations Relations have been good. Brazil has an embassy in Dhaka. While Bangladesh has an embassy in Brasília. In 2013, Bangladesh has sought Brazil's support for its candidature at the Human Rights Council in 2015 and non-permanent seat of the UN Security Council for 2016-17 term.[2] In 2014, Brazil assured its support to Bangladesh for the posts of United Nations Human Rights Commission and CEDAW (The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women). Bangladesh also supported Brazil's candidature for the post of Director General of World Trade Organization. | Barbados | 1971-11-26 | See Barbados–Brazil relations Brazil has an embassy in Hastings, Christ Church. Barbados has an embassy in Brasília. | Bhutan | 2009-09-21 | See Bhutan–Brazil relations Bhutan and Brazil established diplomatic relations in 21 September 2009.[36][37] | Canada | | See Brazil–Canada relations Brazil-Canada relations have been cordial but relatively limited, although the relationship between the two countries has been gradually evolving over time. Canada has an embassy in Brasília, and consulates in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte. Brazil has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. | Chile | | See Brazil–Chile relations Chile and Brazil have acted numerous times as mediators in international conflicts, such as in the 1914 diplomatic impasse between the United States and Mexico, avoiding a possible state of war between those two countries. More recently, since the 2004 Haiti rebellion, Chile and Brazil have actively participated in the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti, which is led by the Brazilian Army. They are also two of the three most important economies in South America along with Argentina. | China | | See Brazil–China relations | Cuba | | See Brazil–Cuba relations Brazilian-Cuban relations were classified as "excellent" in May 2008 following a meeting of foreign ministers.[38] During a January 2008 state visit to Cuba by Brazilian President Lula da Silva, the Brazilian leader expressed desire for his country to be Cuba's "number one partner".[38]Bilateral trade increased by 58% between April 2007 and April 2008.[39] | Czech Republic | | See Czech Brazilians | Denmark | | See Brazil–Denmark relations Brazil has an embassy in Copenhagen and Denmark has an embassy in Brasília and consulates-general in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Embassy of Denmark, Brazil | Finland | April 8, 1929 | Brazil recognised the independence of Finland on December 26, 1919. Brazil has an embassy in Helsinki.[40] Finland has an embassy in Brasília, honorary consulate generals in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo and other honorary consulates in Belém, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Fortaleza, Manaus, Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador and Vitória.[41] | France | | See Brazil–France relations France has recognized Brazil as its special partner in South America and as a global player in international affairs. The two countries are committed to strengthening their bilateral cooperation in the areas for which working groups have been created: nuclear power, renewable energies, defence technologies, technological innovation, joint cooperation in African countries and space technologies, medicines and the environment.[42]Recently, France announced its support to the Brazilian bid for a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.[42] | Greece | | See Brazil–Greece relations The countries have enjoyed "Bilateral relations [that] have always been good and are progressing smoothly," according to the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[43]In addition to its Embassy in Brasília, Greece has two General Consulates in (São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro) and four Honorary Consulates. Brazil has an embassy in Athens. | Guyana | | See Brazil–Guyana relations Brazil–Guyana relations have traditionally been close. Brazil has provided military assistance to Guyana in the form of warfare training and logistics. Bilateral relations between the countries have recently increased, as a result of Brazil's new South-South foreign policy aimed to strengthen South American integration. | Hungary | | Hungary has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate general in São Paulo. Brazil has an embassy in Budapest. The two countries signed the Brazil-Hungary Cultural Agreement in 1992. | India | | See Brazil–India relations The two countries share similar perceptions on issues of interest to developing countries and have cooperated in the multilateral level on issues such as international trade and development, environment, reform of the UN and the UNSC expansion.[44] | Iraq | 1967 | See Brazil–Iraq relations Brazil maintains an embassy in Baghdad and Iraq maintains an embassy in Brasília. Both countries are full members of the Group of 77. Brazil was the first Latin American country to reopen its embassy in Iraq since the 1991 Gulf War.[45] | Israel | 1949-2-7[46] | See Brazil–Israel relations Brazil played a large role in the establishment of the State of Israel. Brazil held the Presidency office of the UN General Assembly in 1947, which proclaimed the Partition Plan for Palestine. The Brazilian delegation to the U.N., supported and heavily lobbied for the partition of Palestine toward the creation of the State of Israel. Brazil was also one of the first countries to recognize the State of Israel, on 7 February 1949, less than one year after Israeli Declaration of Independence.Nowadays, Brazil and Israel maintains close political, economic and military ties. Brazil is a full member state of Israel Allies Caucus,[47] a political advocacy organization that mobilizes pro-Israel parliamentarians in governments worldwide. The two nations enjoy a degree of arms cooperation as Brazil is a key buyer of Israeli weapons and military technology.[48] Also, Brazil is Israel's largest trading partner in Latin America.[49] Israel has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo and Brazil has an embassy in Tel Aviv and an honorary consulate in Haifa.[50]Brazil has the 9th largest Jewish community in the world, about 107,329 by 2010, according to the IBGE census.[51] The Jewish Confederation of Brazil (CONIB) estimates to more than 120,000.[52] | Jamaica | 1962-10-14 | See Brazil–Jamaica relations Both countries are full members of the Group of 15. | Japan | | See Japanese Brazilian, Dekasegi | Malaysia | | See Brazil–Malaysia relations Brazil has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur,[53] and Malaysia has an embassy in Brasilia.[54] | Mexico | 7 August 1824 | See Brazil–Mexico relations Brazil and Mexico have the two largest emerging economies in Latin-America and the global stage. Both nations are considered to be regional powers and highly influential within the American continent. Both nations have historically been friendly and they have both participated in and are members of several multilateral organizations such as the G20, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, Rio Group and the United Nations. Several high-level diplomatic meeting have been held by presidents of both nations to enhance bilateral relations. * Brazil has an embassy in Mexico City.[55] * Mexico has an embassy in Brasilia and consulates-general in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.[56]History of diplomatic relations between Mexico and Brazil (in Spanish only). | Nigeria | | See Brazil–Nigeria relations Bilateral relations between Nigeria and Brazil focus primarily upon trade and culture. The largest country in Latin America by size, and the largest country in Africa by population are remotely bordered across from one another by the Atlantic Ocean. Brazil and Nigeria for centuries, have enjoyed a warmly, friendly, and strong relationship on the bases of culture (many Afro-Brazilians trace their ancestry to Nigeria) and commercial trade. | Pakistan | | See Brazil–Pakistan relations Brazil-Pakistan relations are characterized as friendly and cooperative. Brazil maintains an embassy in Islamabad and Pakistan maintains an embassy in Brasília. In 2008, Brazil approved the sale of 100 MAR-1 anti-radiation missiles to Pakistan despite India's pressure on Brazil to avoid doing so.[57] | Paraguay | | See Brazil–Paraguay relations Paraguay–Brazil relations have improved greatly after Brazilian President Lula's decision in 2009 to triple its payments to Paraguay for energy from a massive hydro-electric dam on their border, ending a long-running dispute. Under the accord, Brazil will pay Paraguay $360m a year for energy from the jointly-operated Itaipu plant. Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva called it a "historic agreement" and the deal slated as a political victory for Paraguayan President Fernando Lugo.[58] | Philippines | | See Brazil–Philippines relations On June 2009, Brazil and the Philippines made their pledges as they signed mutual cooperation agreements in the fields of bio-energy and agriculture.[59] The two countries committed themselves to take the necessary steps to implement the signed Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Agriculture and the Memorandum of Understanding on Bioenergy Cooperation.[60] The Philippines and Brazil signed six memoranda of understanding and agreements on the development and production of renewable energy, and agriculture cooperation.[61] It intends to “facilitate technical cooperation... on the production and use of biofuels, particularly ethanol, and promote the expansion of bilateral trade and investment in biofuel,”[62] | Poland | | See Brazil–Poland relations * Poland has an embassy in Brasília, and Consulates in Curitiba and São Paulo. * Brazil has an embassy in Warsaw. * Polish Brazilians are circa 1% of the Brazilian population. | Portugal | | See Brazil–Portugal relations Portugal and Brazil have countless bilateral agreements in areas such as culture, language, R&D, immigration, defence, tourism, economy, environment, among others.[63][64] Portugal and Brazil hold regular Summits to discuss bilateral and multilateral agreements and current topics (last one in Bahia in 2008, before that one in Porto in 2005).[65] One rather controversial topic was the spelling reform that aims at homogenising spelling in lusophone countries. Both countries share a common heritage and are committed in its preservation, be it through bilateral agreements or involving other nations, such as in the framework of CPLP.[66] Both countries lobby within the UN to upgrade Portuguese to a working language in that Organisation.[67] Portugal has also lobbied for Brazil to become a permanent member of the UN Security Council.[68] Finally, Portugal hosted the 1st EU-Brazil summit, in 2007. | Russia | | See Brazil–Russia relations Brazil–Russia relations have seen a significant improvement in recent years, characterized by an increasing commercial trade and cooperation in military and technology segments. Today, Brazil shares an important alliance with the Russian Federation, with partnerships in areas such as space and military technologies, and telecommunications. | Serbia | 1946 | See Brazil–Serbia relations * Brazil has an embassy in Belgrade. * Serbia has an embassy in Brasília. | South Africa | | See Brazil–South Africa relations Brazil-South Africa relations have traditionally been close. Brazil has provided military assistance to South Africa in the form of warfare training and logistics. Bilateral relations between the countries have recently increased, as a result of Brazil's new South-South foreign policy aimed to strengthen integration between the major powers of the developing world. South Africa is part of the IBSA Dialogue Forum, alongside Brazil and India. | Spain | | Despite cultural similarities between the two countries, diplomatic foreign relations between Brasília and Madrid have not always been excellent. The main reason for this being Brazil's maligning of the Spanish government's little effort to respond to the visa crises involving political refugees from Haiti and the Dominican Republic. | Turkey | | See Brazil–Turkey relations. | United States | | See Brazil–United States relations Brazil-United States relations has a long history, characterized by some moments of remarkable convergence of interests but also by sporadic and critical divergences on sensitive international issues.[69] The United States has increasingly regarded Brazil as a significant power, especially in its role as a stabilizing force and skillful interlocutor in Latin America.[70] As a significant political and economic power, Brazil has traditionally preferred to cooperate with the United States on specific issues rather than seeking to develop an all-encompassing, privileged relationship with the United States.[70] | Uruguay | | See Brazil–Uruguay relations Brazil and Uruguay are neighboring countries that share close historical, cultural and geographical ties. The singularity of the bilateral relationship between the two countries originates from the strong historical connection - marked by important events, such as the establishment of the Colônia do Sacramento in 1680, the annexation by Brazil and the subsequent creation of the Província Cisplatina in 1815, and Uruguay's independence from Brazil in 1828.[71] | Vietnam | 1989-05-08 | Vietnam established a Consulate General in São Paulo in 1998, and upgraded it to Embassy status in 2000. The Brazilian Embassy in Hanoi was opened in 1994, being the first Latin American country to open an Embassy in Hanoi. Vietnamese Presidents Lê Đức Anh and Trần Đức Lương have visited Brazil in October 1995 and November 2004, respectively.[72] |

Argentina–Brazil relations

Relations between the Argentine Republic and the Federative Republic of Brazil are both close and historical, and encompasses all possible dimensions: economy, trade, culture, education and tourism.[1] From war and rivalry to friendship and alliance, this complex relationship has spanned more than two centuries.
After achieving independence from the Iberian crowns in the early nineteenth century, Argentina and Brazil inherited a series of unresolved territorial disputes from their colonial powers. The most serious breach in the relationship was the Cisplatine War (1825–1828), led by the Brazilian invasion and annexation of the Banda Oriental. Despite the numerous periods of muted hostility, the Argentine–Brazilian relationship was not defined by open hostility for most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. There was competition on many levels, and their respective defense policies reflected mutual suspicion, but their bilateral relationship was not adversarial.
With the creation of the Brazilian–Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials in 1991, the two countries turned their nuclear competition into cooperation through mutual confidence.[2] A high volume of trade and migration between Argentina and Brazil has generated closer ties, especially after the implementation of Mercosur in 1991.[3] Today, the strategic relationship between Argentina and Brazil is considered to be "at the highest point in history".[4] Argentine foreign policy has given special emphasis in "deepening the strategic alliance with Brazil in all its aspects".[5] Likewise, Argentina has been "an absolute priority" for Brazilian foreign policy.[6]
Military cooperation

Armored version of the "Gaucho" vehicle
Brazil and Argentina are engaged in several joint venture projects in the military field, such as the Gaucho armored vehicle and the Embraer KC-390 military transport aircraft
Scientific cooperation

The SABIA-Mar, scheduled to be launched in 2017, is a Brazilian–Argentine earth observation satellite.
Argentina and Brazil have close cooperation in the field of space science – the National Space Activities Commission of Argentina and the Brazilian Space Agency have been working together since the 1990s. In 2007, Brazil and Argentina successfully launched a rocket into space, in the first joint space mission by the two countries
India’s links with Brazil go back five centuries. Portugal’s Pedro Alvares Cabral is officially recognised as the first European to “discover” Brazil in 1500. Cabral was sent to India by the King of Portugal after the return of Vasco da Gama from his pioneering journey to India. Cabral is reported to have been blown-off course on his way to India. Brazil became an important Portuguese colony and stop-over in the long journey to Goa. This Portuguese connexion led to the exchange of several agricultural crops between India and Brazil in the colonial days. Indian cattle was also imported to Brazil. Most of the cattle in Brazil is of Indian origin.
Diplomatic relations between India and Brazil were established in 1948. The Indian Embassy opened in Rio de Janeiro on May 3, 1948, moving to Brasília on August 1, 1971.
One of the major sources of tension between the two nations was the decolonisation process of the Portuguese enclaves in India, principally Goa. Despite pressure from India on Portugal to retreat from the subcontinent, Brazil supported Portugal’s claim for Goa. Brazil only changed course in 1961, when it became increasingly clear that India would succeed is taking control of Goa by force from an increasingly feeble Portugal, which faced too many internal problems to pose a potent military threat to India. Still, when Nehru’s armies overwhelmed Portuguese resistance and occupied Goa, the Brazilian government criticised India sharply for violating international law. While Brazil tried to explain to India that its position was to be understood in the context of a long tradition of friendship between Brazil and Portugal, the Indian government was deeply disappointed that Brazil, a democratic and a former colony, would support a non-democratic Portugal against democratic and recently independent India.[5]
During the Portuguese Empire, chillis were traded from the New World to India and cows were sent the other way, amongst other trades. brazil-india relations
Cultural relations | This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2013) |
A successful Festival of India was organised during the visit of President K.R. Narayanan to Brazil in May 1998. There is also a presence of ISKCON, Satya Sai Baba, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, Bhakti Vedanta Foundation and other Indian spiritual gurus and organisations have chapters in Brazil.
A statue of Mohandas Gandhi is located near the Parque Iberapuera at São Paulo and another statue is also at Rio de Janeiro. A group called the Filhos de Gandhi (Sons of Gandhi) participates regularly in the carnival in Salvador. Private Brazilian organisations occasionally invite Indian cultural troupes.
Caminho das Índias, a popular telenovela in Brazil aired in 2009, popularised Indian culture in Brazil. Books about India started to pop up on the best-selling list, the number of travels to India by Brazilians tourists increased dramatically and restaurants and even nightclubs with Indian themes starting to open.[original research?]
Economic relations
In recent years, relations between Brazil and India have grown considerably and co-operation between the two countries has been extended to such diverse areas as science and technology, pharmaceuticals and space. The two-way trade in 2007 nearly tripled to US$ 3.12 billion from US$ 1.2 billion in 2004.[6]
Global software giant, Wipro Technologies, also set up a business process outsourcing centre in Curitiba to provide shared services to AmBev, the largest brewery in Latin America. AmBev's zonal vice president, Renato Nahas Batista, said "We are honoured to be a part of Wipro's expansion plans in Brazil and Latin America." AmBev's portfolio includes leading brands like Brahma, Becks, Stella and Antarctica.[citation needed]
21st century relations

Former President of India, Pratibha Patil with Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in April 2008. India and Brazil enjoy strong bilateral relations which is clearly reflected in various international forums such as IBSA.[7]
UNSC reform
Both countries want the participation of developing countries in the UNSC permanent membership since the underlying philosophy for both of them are: UNSC should be more democratic, legitimate and representative - the G4 is a novel grouping for this realisation.[8]
South-South cooperation
Brazil and India are involved in the IBSA initiative.
The first ever IBSA Summit was held in Brasília in September 2006, followed by the Second IBSA Summit held in Pretoria in October 2007, with the third one held in New Delhi in October 2008. The fourth IBSA meet was again hosted in Brasília, just before the second BRIC summit. Four IBSA Trilateral Commission meetings were already held till 2007 since the first one was held in 2004 and had covered many areas such as science, technology, education, agriculture, energy, culture, health, social issues, public administration and revenue administration. The target of US$10 billion in trade was already achieved by 2007.
Both countries view this[clarification needed] as a tool of transformation diplomacy to bring economic growth, sustainable development, poverty reduction and regional prosperity in the vast regions of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The IBSA Fund for Alleviation of Poverty and Hunger has already provided funds for capacity building in East Timor and for the fight against HIV/AIDS in Burundi and has won the South-South Partnership Award at the 2006 UN Day event held in New York City on 19 December 2006.[9]
THEY are the biggest and third-biggest countries by population in Latin America. They share a border of almost 2,000km (1,250 miles). But Colombia and Brazil get along badly. In 2009 mistrust burst into the open, when Brazil's then president, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, grumbled in public about an agreement negotiated by Colombia's Álvaro Uribe to update the terms under which American forces could use seven military bases for joint action against drug-trafficking and guerrillas.
Now there is a concerted effort to improve ties. On August 4th Lula led a group of Brazilian business moguls to Bogotá, invited by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) to discuss ways of boosting trade between the two countries. This has quadrupled since 2004, but at some $3 billion last year amounts to less than 1% of the two countries' total trade.
The Amazon basin is a huge barrier to commerce. There is no road between Colombia and Brazil. According to the IDB, it costs a Colombian exporter slightly more than a Canadian to ship goods to Brazil. The bank reckons that trade could double in five years with lower import tariffs, better customs procedures and improved transport links.
In this section * The balancing act * City limits * We want the world * Less far apart
Related topics * Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) * Alvaro Uribe * Government and politics * South America * Politics
Political ties are warming, too. Lula's government disliked American military aid to Colombia. Colombian officials complained that Brazil showed little solidarity with their democracy's fight against the narco-guerrillas of the FARC. Brazil seemed tacitly to side with Venezuela's Hugo Chávez in his frequent clashes with Mr Uribe.
Relations between Brazil And Peru the idea behind the alliance is simple: Brazil provides technology and investment. Some $15bn of Brazilian investment is pouring in, compared with the $10bn that China is due to invest, although that is still less than total US or Spanish investment.
In return, Peru can offer labour and market access. The early results have been startling: bilateral trade has increased sevenfold in just six years to $3.4bn.
Nonetheless, Brazil’s growing presence worries many Peruvians. Brazil may enjoy a cuddly image in Lima, thanks to its football and carnival, and its social-democratic economic model, now apparently being copied by Mr Humala, is seductive in a country where more than a third of the population lives in poverty.
Yet many Peruvians are asking whether they really want their country to be “Brazilianised” – and not without reason: in the past 10 years, Peru’s economic growth has been higher and poverty has fallen faster than in Brazil.
The strategic alliance has a 24-point agenda, notable among which is the two countries' physical and economic integration through infrastructure projects for roads, electric power and ports.
Among the completed projects, Rousseff acknowledged the "enormous benefits of the Interoceanic Highway, which has brought trade, tourism and development to the states of Acre, Rondonia and Mato Grosso in Brazil, and to Arequipa, Cuzco and Madre de Dios in Peru."

Brazil–South Africa relations have traditionally been close. Brazil has provided military assistance to South Africa in the form of warfare training and logistics. Bilateral relations between the countries have recently increased, as a result of Brazil's new South-South foreign policy aimed to strengthen integration between the major powers of the developing world.
South Africa is part of the IBSA Dialogue Forum, alongside Brazil and India.
During the latter years of the apartheid era, South African companies made several investments in Brazil. However, while Brazil developed relations with the former Portuguese colonies of Africa, it didn't cultivate a strong relationship with the apartheid-era government, and instead developed ties with the allies of such anti-apartheid organizations such as ANC and SWAPO.
After South Africa held its first multiracial elections in 1994, president Fernando Henrique Cardoso became the first Brazilian head of state to visit South Africa in 1996. Relations developed quickly between the two countries, especially after the election of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva as president in 2002. Lula's government has developed strong ties with Thabo Mbeki's government in South Africa, particular in the areas of AIDS/HIV, fair trade, reform in the United Nations Security Council, land reform, and other socio-economic issues. Relations got a further boost with the creation of the IBSA Dialogue Forum. The second forum was held in South Africa, while the first and fourth summit were in Brazil. Brazil And the UK
British and Brazilian ministers and officials share expertise on a wide range of global issues through forums such as the annual High Level Economic Talks and the High Level Energy Dialogue.
The British Mission in Brazil is working with the Brazilian government on issues such as the Doha Round, G20 Summit, the World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund and other multilateral economic forums to reduce barriers to international free trade.
The UK has been working to improve relations with Brazil through international energy forums. A partnership between both countries on energy cooperation was formalised through a fully functioning High Level Energy Dialogue.The UK has been working with the Brazilian government on multilateral forums for an ambitious international climate change treaty.
In addition, we are working with Brazil on projects to improve the science base on climate change. We are working with both Brazilian and international institutions to improve and protect human rights in Brazil.
India-Brazil Relations
India Brazil relationship is extensive and comprehensive covering every important segment of interaction, seen at all three levels: bilateral, plurilateral in forum such as IBSA, BRICS, BASIC, G-20, G-4 and in the larger multilateral arena such as the UN, WTO, UNESCO, WIPO, etc. Bilateral relations between India and
Brazil have acquired the dimension of a strategic partnership in the last decade under the leadership of former Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. His successor President Dilma Rousseff’s first ever visit to India in March 2012 provided greater commitment and content to this relationship. During the visit, she interacted with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and held detailed discussions on bilateral, regional and multilateral issues including inter alia trade and commerce, science and technology, cultural exchange, UNSC reforms, terrorism, WTO and climate change.
The two leaders renewed their commitment to strengthen the India-Brazil Strategic
Partnership. President Dilma Rousseff also met Prime Minister Manmohan Singh during the BRICS Summit in Durban in March 2013, Rio+20 Sustainable
Development Summit in June 2012, BRICS Summit in China in April 2011, IBSA
Summit in South Africa and during the G-20 Summit in Cannes in Nov 2011.
Historical Background:
Deep-rooted historical ties between India and Brazil can possibly be traced back to the Asian migration to South America, which contributed to the evolution of the indigenous people of Americas. Between the 16th-18th centuries, Brazil and Goa, both outposts of the Portuguese imperialist outreach, had bilateral exchanges, which found reflection in the flora and fauna, food and dress as well as folk traditions of
Brazil. The interesting similarities between folk traditions of Boi Bumba in the north of Brazil and the Poikam Kudharai of South India, for instance, draw attention to the strong under currents of cultural and popular exchanges that have taken place in the centuries by-gone. The telecasting of tele-novella called ‘Caminho das Indias’
(Paths to India) made a great impact in enhancing the consciousness of India in the
Brazilian public mind. India’s contribution to farming in Brazil is remarkable, though relatively a lesser known facet of our bilateral relationship. The bulk of Brazilian cattle livestock is of Indian origin. The ‘Ongole’ strain from Andhra Pradesh led to the production of the zebu variety known in Brazil as ‘Nelore’. Brazil still imports fresh embryos from India to rejuvenate its cattle breed. India opened its diplomatic mission in Rio de Janeiro on May 3, 1948, which later moved to Brasilia on August 1,
1971. The Indian Consulate General in Sao Paulo, the industrial and commercial hub of Brazil, was opened in 1996. The Brazilian Embassy has been functional in
India since 1949 and has Consulate General in Mumbai.
Important Bilateral Visits:
Regular high level bilateral visits have provided a sustained impetus to the growing relationship. From the Indian side Vice President S. Radhakrishnan (1954),
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi (1968), Prime Minister Narasimha Rao (1992 - for Earth
Summit), President K.R. Narayan (1998), Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh
(2006, April 2010 and June 2012) and President Pratibha Patil (2008) have visited
Brazil while President Fernando Henrique Cardoso (1996), President Lula (2004,
2007 & 2008) and President Dilma Rousseff (March 2012) reciprocated from the
Brazilian side.
Recent Ministerial visits have been: Shri P. Chidambaram, Finance Minister
(Nov 2008), Shri S.M. Krishna, Minister of External Affairs (August-September 2009),
Smt. Preneet Kaur, Minister of State for External Affairs (May 2010), Shri Jairam
Ramesh, Environment Minister (July 2010), Shri Jyotiraditya Scindia (September
2010, April 2011), Shri Sharad Pawar, Agriculture Minister (September 2010), Shri
Anand Sharma, Commerce, Industry and Textile Minister (June 2012), Smt Jayanthi
Natarajan, Minister of state for Environment and Forests (June 2012), Shri Beni
Prasad Verma, Steel Minister (February 2013), Shri Ajay Maken, Minister of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (February 2013) from India and those of Celso
Amorim as Foreign Minister (April and July 2007 and again in September 2009 for
Ministerial meeting in WTO-Doha Round and as Defence Minister in February 2012),
Minister of Health, Jose Temporao (July, 2008), Minister of Industry and Foreign
Trade Mr. Miguel Jorge (March and October 2008), Minister of Defence Nelson
Jobin (March 2010), Minister of External Relations Antonio Patriota in March 2011 for IBSA Ministerial and bilateral meetings and in December 2011 for India-Brazil
Joint Commission Meeting.
Sixth India- Brazil Joint Commission Meeting:
External Affairs Minister, Shri Salman Khurshid visited Brazil from October 14-
17, 2013. He co- chaired the Sixth India- Brazil JCM with his counterpart Mr Luiz
Alberto Figueiredo in Brasilia. During the JCM, both sides discussed the entire gamut of India-Brazil Strategic Partnership including Political, Economic and
Commercial, Agriculture, Science and Technology, Defence, Cultural, Hydrocarbon, etc. They also exchanged views on regional developments and international issues of common interest. The Foreign Ministers of Brazil and India welcomed the signing of a protocol to the agreement for the avoidance of double taxation. Both sides expect to soon exchange the notes on the ratification of the bilateral Agreement on
Mutual Assistance on Customs Matters, which will strengthen cooperation between customs authorities, in order to enforce customs laws and regulations. Such cooperation will contribute to the expansion of trade flows and will ensure the security of logistic chains. Agreement on the Transfer of Sentenced Persons, which will enhance prospects of a closer cooperation between Brazil and India in legal assistance matters, was also signed during the visit. The two sides also expressed satisfaction with the renewal of the Agreement on Cooperation between their respective diplomatic academies, the Foreign Service Institute and "Instituto Rio
Branco", signed in 2007. Brazil expressed its interest in implementing the new program for the interchange of professors between the two diplomatic academies.
During the meeting, the two sides recalled that the coordination in multilateral fora and the ongoing cooperation in IBSA, BRICS, BASIC, G-4 and G-20 as an extremely important dimension of the Brazil-India Strategic Partnership. The two sides also discussed the need for further intensifying cooperation in the areas of
Science and Technology such as Agricultural research, Space, and Nuclear Energy.
They expressed confidence that the ongoing cooperation in the Agriculture sector would be further deepened through institutional linkages between ICAR and
EMBRAPA. In the Defence sector, the third successful mounting of Indian airborne early warning system on the Brazilian Embraer was considered by the Ministers as an area of vast potential for joint collaboration. The Brazilian side has showed interest in seeking assistance of India in the applications of space technology such
as mapping of mineral resources, study of weather patterns and topographic changes. India also offered to assist Brazil in the development and launching of micro and mini satellites.
The agreed minutes of 6th Meeting of Brazil – India Joint Commission was signed by the two Foreign Ministers on 15th October, 2013 in Brasilia had 92 paras covering a wide range of issues such as Strategic partnership; Economic and Trade relations; Mining and Energy; Agriculture and Food Processing; Science &
Technology; Environment and Sustainable Development; Technical Cooperation;
Social and Health issues; Education; Culture; Tourism; Sports; Consular issues; and
Regional and Multilateral issues. The details of agreed minutes are available at the
MEA website and Brazilian Itamaraty site.
Seminar on "India-Brazil: a partnership for 21st Century″: Embassy of India in
Brasilia in association with the FUNAG, a public foundation associated with the
Brazilian Foreign Ministry, organised a seminar on 3 October 2013 on the topic
“India and Brazil: a partnership for the XXI Century" in Brasilia. The speakers discussed about the role of the two countries on the challenges and opportunities of global governance, strategic partnership and the evolution of the relationship between Brazil and India.
Visit of ISRO Scientists to Brazil: Three Scientists have been deputed by
ISTRAC/ISRO to Brazil (Cuiaba & Alcantara) from October 2013 to December 2013 in connection with India’s Mars Orbiter Mission spacecraft tracking activities.
ISTRAC/ ISRO had entered into an agreement with INPE, Brazil for providing
Tracking services through their ground stations located in Cuiaba MT and Alcantara.
India- Brazil Bilateral Trade:
Brazil is one of the most important trading partners of India in the entire LAC
(Latin America and Caribbean) region. India Brazil bilateral trade has increased substantially in the last two decades. However, India's total bilateral trade (in goods) with Brazil fell to 9.5 billion dollars in 2013 decreasing by 10.7% from 10.6 billion in
2012 (Trade in goods and services, though, surged to an estimated US$12 billion).
Imports from Brazil to India that had grown sharply in 2012 from 3.2 billion USD to
5.6 billion USD fell back as sharply over in 2013 due mainly to reduction in crude oil exports of Brazil. Crude-Diesel forming a huge share in our bilateral trade, close to
50%, is bound to cause such drastic swings depending on performance of this sub sector in a particular year. Indian exports to Brazil that had seen in a dip in 2012 grew back again past the 6 billion USD mark mainly owing to rise in the diesel exports this year, result of continued robust domestic demand and decrease in its own production in 2013 in Brazil. Brazil's share in Indian export market was about
2.6% whereas Brazil's share in Indian imports is about 1.3%. Major portion of Indian exports to Brazil comprises of manufactured products, followed by commodities and then semi manufactured goods. Whereas, Brazil's exports to India are dominated by commodities, mainly crude oil. Diesel exports by Reliance itself account for more than 52% of India's exports to Brazil, up from the forty one percent of India's exports in 2012. Other top Indian products exported to Brazil are: Polyester Yarn, Chemical
Products, Drugs and Cotton Yarn. Most of these products have registered growth in
2013. Top products imported by India from Brazil include crude oil (imported by
Reliance, accounting for, in 2013, 51% of total Indian imports or US$1.6 billion);
sugar (imported by Renuka Sugar India from Renuka do Brazil, at US$ 435 million, accounting for almost 14% of total imports); soy oil imports (US$233 million) and copper (US$240 million). Like Petroleum, the top 5 Brazilian exports to India viz. sugar, Soybean oil crude, Sulphide copper ores and other Copper ores and concentrates, all showed a negative growth in 2013 over the year 2012.
India – Brazil bilateral trade 2008-2014 (US$ million)
of Trade for India
Total trade Growth
2008 3,564 1,102 2,461 4,666 49.23
2009 2,191 3,415 -1,224 5,605 20.12
2010 4,242 3,492 750 7,734 37.97
2011 6,081 3,201 2,880 9,282 20.00
2012 5,043 5,577 -544 10,620 14.41
2013 6,357 3,130 3,227 9,487 -10.67
2014 (Jan-
2,260 1,141 1,119 3,401
India- Brazil Bilateral Two-way Investments:
There have been two way investments between India and Brazil. While the
Brazilian companies have invested in automobiles, IT, mining, energy, biofuels, footwear sectors in India, the Indian companies have invested in such sectors as IT,
Pharmaceutical, Energy, agri-business, mining, engineering/auto sectors. Indian companies such as TCS, Wipro, Infosys, Cadilla, Mahindra, L&T, Renuka Sugars,
United Phosphorus, Polaris are present in Brazil. The Brazilian companies present in India include Marco Polo (automobiles), Vale (biggest mining company), Stefanini
(IT), Gerdau (Steel). A separate note on investments and joint ventures is attached.
According to Reserve bank of India statistics, total foreign direct investments
(FDI) by Indian companies in Brazil from July 2007 to December 2013 is US$ 103.25
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Brazil´s Exports to
Brazil´s Imports from
5 million. The FDI during 2013 was US$ 37 million and included from Infosys (7),
Pidilite (7), RSB (5), Fomento (3), Inox (1.5), Unichem (1.4) etc. The RBI figures only cover the overseas FDIs and miss to capture the real picture. What remain unaccounted for in RBI data are Indian investments made through holding companies abroad, through loans raised from financial institutions outside India, reinvestments by their Brazilian subsidiaries etc. Further, many of the big ticket Indian investments are part of global acquisitions though with significant assets in Brazil.
Total estimated investments by Indian companies in Brazil reach close to US$ 5 billion. As per DIPP statistics dated October 2013 on FDI, cumulative equity inflows from Brazil into India during the period Apr 2000- Oct 2013 have been US$ 23 million representing 0.01 % of the total equity inflows of US$206 billion (this itself is part of the overall FDI inflows into India of US$ 306 billion which covers equity inflows, reinvested earnings and other capital).
India Brazil Trade Monitoring Mechanism and other Institutional arrangements:
India and Brazil have formed a bilateral Trade Monitoring Mechanism (TMM) for periodic consultations. The last meeting of TMM at the level of Commerce
Secretaries of two sides took place in March 2012 in New Delhi. Next meeting would take place in Brazil at a mutually convenient time in coming months.
The second India Brazil Economic and Financial Dialogue was held on June
4, 2013 in New Delhi.
The first meeting of re-launched India-Brazil CEO Forum is yet to take place.
India-Mercosur (Current members: Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Venezuela)
PTA which was signed in 2004 entered into force on 1st June 2009 under which 450 items from each side will have duty reductions of 10% to 100%. New tariff lines have also been proposed under the agreement. Efforts are underway to broaden and deepen the India-Mercosur PTA and to link it, under IBSA to SACU as well.
India-Brazil Chambers of Commerce, based in Sao Paulo and Belo Horizonte work in close cooperation with the Embassy/Consulate.
Cultural Exchanges:
There is enormous Brazilian interest in India’s culture, religion, performing arts and philosophy. The first forms of Indian Culture to reach Brazil were all somehow related to spirituality, philosophy and religion. Folkloric identities and celebrations from India could relate very much to the jolly and colorful nature of the festivities such as the typical dances and parades of north and northeast of Brazil. The first classical art to come to Brazil was Bharatanatyam dance, with Odissi, Kathak and
Kuchipudi to follow later. Not only for their distinct character but also due to the exoticism of costumes, ankle bells and, head dresses, impacting make-up and angular postures are immensely appealing to Brazilian eyes. In classical music,
Brazil has already a share of those who have learnt Sitar, Tabla and other instruments and not only play some of the original ragas and rhythms but go beyond to create fusion music in conjunction with Brazilian artistes. There are numerous
organizations teaching Yoga, all over Brazil. Ramakrishna Mission, ISKCON, Satya
Sai Baba, Maharishi Maharshi Yogi, Bhakti Vedanta Foundation and other spiritual gurus and organizations have chapters in Brazil.
Mahatma Gandhi is highly regarded in Brazil and the government and NGOs are trying to circulate the philosophy of non-violence among students, youth and even police. Statues of Mahatma Gandhi have been installed in Rio de Janeiro, Sao
Paulo and Londrina.
In recent year the cultural exchanges have taken place at increased frequency supported by two governments. The Brazilian cultural troupe had given splendid performances in India in 2008 and a large group of Indian artists gave several popular performances in Brazilian cities in May-June 2011. Flute Maestro Pt.
Hari Prasad Chaurasia gave three performances in July 2012 in Brasilia, Belo
Horizonte and Sao Paulo. The Indian Cultural Centre in Sao Paulo has regular programmes around Indian and Brazilian festivals. India Brazil Chamber of Belo
Horizonte organized a Indian Festival week in cooperation with Indian Embassy in
Brasilia during March 2014.
India cinema is also popular among Brazilian people. Indian Film weeks organized by Embassy and Consulate have always received good responses. We have organized Indian film weeks August-September 2013 celebrating `Hundred years of Indian Cinema´ in seven Brazilian cities. There have been some Indian movies released commercially in Brazil, like Road Side Romeo, an animation movie and Fanaa from Yash Raj Productions. Giselli Monteiro of Brazil got a break in
Indian movie `Love Aaj Kal´ encouraging more and more Brazilian girls to try their talent in Bollywood.
Embassy of India in Brasilia in association with the Public Diplomacy Division of Ministry of External Affairs gifted books to the Indian Studies Program ( PEIND ) at University of the State of Rio de Janeiro( UERJ ) , which aims at contributing to academic integration between India and Brazil .The books were presented by
Hon´ble External Affairs Minister of India, Shri Salman Khurshid. Similarly, Embassy gifted books to the Federal University of Paraiba during a Seminar organised on
Indian Religion and Philosophy on 27-28 March 2014 in Joao Pessoa. Federal
University of Minas Gerais had organized a seminar on Indian themes in February
ITEC Programme:
About 50 Brazilians have gone to India under ITEC programme for training in communications, management, defence and etc. in the last six years.
Indian Community in Brazil:
The Indian community of PIOs/NRIs in Brazil is small, numbering about 2000 persons. A majority of them lives in Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Manuas. The community mainly comprises of professionals and businessmen and some scientists/researchers in agriculture, physics, etc. There is Indian Association in Sao
Visas/Air links/travel:
Under a bilateral agreement, diplomatic and official passport holders are exempted from visa for a stay of maximum of 90 days. There are no direct flights between India and Brazil. Convenient connections are however available via Europe
(London, Frankfurt, Paris, Amsterdam), the US (New York and Chicago) and via
May 2014
Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations and participates in all of its specialized agencies.[1] Brazil is among the twenty top contributors to United Nations peacekeeping operations,[2] and has participated in peacekeeping efforts in the Middle East, the former Belgian Congo, Cyprus, Mozambique, Angola, and more recently East Timor and Haiti.[3] In 2010-2011, Brazil held a non-permanent seat in the Security Council for a two-year mandate. Along with Japan, Brazil has been elected more times to the Council than any other UN Member State.[4]
Brazil has traditionally played a relevant role in the United Nations General Assembly. In 1947, foreign minister Oswaldo Aranha chaired the First Special Session of the General Assembly and the Second Session of the General Assembly. Since 1947, Brazil has been the first country to speak at the General Debate.[5] The opening speeches delivered by the Brazilian representatives often present an assessment of the international situation as a backdrop to express the Brazilian point of view on the main issues.[6] On September 21, 2011, President Rousseff became the first woman to open a General Debate since the United Nations was founded.[7]
Security Council
Brazil has been elected ten times to the United Nations Security Council, and is currently tied with Japan as the country that has served for the most number of years as an elected member.
List of terms as an elected member to the Security Council: * 1946-1947 * 1951-1952 * 1954-1955 | * 1963-1964 * 1967-1968 * 1988-1989 | * 1993-1994 * 1998-1999 * 2004-2005 | * 2010-2011 |
Security Council reform
Brazil is actively engaged in the reform of the United Nations Security Council and has sought to garner support for a permanent seat with veto power.[8] It formed the G4 alliance with Germany, India, and Japan for the purpose of supporting each other’s bids for permanent seats.[8] Their proposal calls for an enlarged Security Council, expanded in both the permanent and non-permanent categories of membership.[8] The initiative has been supported by a wide coalition of Member States, from all regional groups of the United Nations.[8]
The United States sent strong indications to Brazil that it was willing to support its membership; albeit, without a veto.[9] In June 2011, the Council on Foreign Relations recommended that the US government fully endorse the inclusion of Brazil as a permanent member of the Security Council.[10] Brazil has also received backing from other permanent members: Russia,[11] the United Kingdom[12] and France,[13] and from the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP),[14] Chile,[15] Indonesia[citation needed], Finland,[16] Slovenia,[17] Australia,[18] South Africa,[19] Guatemala,[20] Vietnam,[21] the Philippines,[22] amongst others.
Brazilian peacekeeping soldier in Haiti.
A founding member of the United Nations, Brazil, has a long tradition of contributing to peacekeeping operations. Brazil has participated in 33 United Nations peacekeeping operations and contributed with over 27,000 troops. Currently, Brazil contributes with more than 2,200 troops, military observers and police officers in three continents.[4]
Brazil has led the military component of the United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) since its establishment in 2004.[23] The mission's Force Commander is Major General Fernando Rodrigues Goulart of the Brazilian Army.[24] Brazil is the biggest troop contributing country to MINUSTAH, with 2,200 active military personnel.[25]
Brazil also leads the Maritime Task Force (MTF) of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL).[26] Since February 2011, the UNIFIL MTF is under the command of Rear Admiral Luiz Henrique Caroli of the Brazilian Navy.[26] The Brazilian Niteroi class frigate, União, is the flagship of the fleet comprising vessels from three other countries.[26]
Financial contribution
Brazil is the tenth largest contributor to the United Nations regular budget, with a net contribution of US$38 million for the 2012 Assessment.[27]
New York
Brazil maintains a permanent mission to the United Nations in New York, which is headed by Ambassador Antonio Patriota.[28] The mission is responsible for Brazil's participation in all United Nations events that concern the country in meetings of the General Assembly, Security Council, and other U.N. agencies headquartered in New York.[29]
Brazil maintains a permanent mission to the United Nations Office at Geneva, headed by Ambassador Maria Nazareth Farani Azevêdo.[30] The delegation is responsible for representing Brazil at the agencies headquartered in Geneva.[29]
In Rome, Brazil maintains a delegation to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), led by Ambassador Antonino Marques Porto e Santos.[31]
At the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) headquarters in Paris, the Permanent Delegation of Brazil is headed by Ambassador Marcia Donner Abreu.[32] Brazil joined UNESCO in 1946, and has been a member of its Executive Board several times, most recently 2007-2009.[32] he United States and Brazil have traditionally enjoyed cooperative, active relations encompassing a broad political and economic agenda. The United States was the first country to recognize Brazil's independence from Portugal in 1822, and as the two largest democracies and economies in the Western Hemisphere, the United States and Brazil are currently consolidating a foundation for a new partnership for the 21st century with a focus on global issues that affect both countries. Ten bilateral agreements signed in March 2011 and five more signed in April 2012 testify to an intensification of bilateral engagement in a broad range of areas of mutual interest. The United States and Brazil have 22 active dialogues at the assistant secretary-level or above, half led by the Department of State. Four dialogues are presidential level: the Global Partnership Dialogue, the Economic and Financial Dialogue, the Strategic Energy Dialogue, and the Defense Cooperation Dialogue. Formal intergovernmental dialogues engage multiple U.S. and Brazilian agencies on issues including bilateral and multilateral issues, economics, trade, finance, agriculture, energy, aviation, the environment, education, culture, defense, and nonproliferation. These dialogues are the primary vehicles for policy coordination and for defining partnership priorities.
Bilateral relations are complemented by people-to-people initiatives and trilateral and multilateral cooperation. The United States and Brazil’s long history of exchange in education is one example; the bi-national Fulbright Commission was established in 1957, and thousands of scholars have traveled between the two countries. Education cooperation continues to thrive as the 100,000 Strong in the Americas initiative and the Brazil Scientific Mobility Program create opportunities for new academic and research partnerships. EducationUSA centers around helping Brazil advise students on study in the United States and host events to assist U.S. higher education institutions recruit Brazilian students. The United States is also working closely with Brazilian counterparts to expand opportunities for English language learning and professional development for Brazilian teachers. These exchanges strengthen U.S. and Brazilian institutional partnerships, develop a workforce prepared for 21st century opportunities, and contribute to long-term economic growth for both countries.
The United States and Brazil share a commitment to combat discrimination based on race, gender, ethnicity, or lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) status; to advance gender equality; to fight exploitative child and forced labor; and to promote human rights. The U.S.-Brazil Joint Action Plan to Eliminate Racial and Ethnic Discrimination and Promote Equality, the first bilateral instrument that targets racism, and the U.S.-Brazil Memorandum of Understanding on the Advancement of Women provide platforms for cooperation to combat racial discrimination and women’s empowerment broadly, and ways to share best practices in tackling discrimination in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM), education, law enforcement, labor, health, gender-based violence, economic empowerment, and many other areas. Multilateral cooperation and collaboration at the United Nations and Organization of American States has also proven effective in the promotion of LGBT rights.
The United States and Brazil also partner on trilateral cooperation in third countries, particularly in support of biofuels and agricultural development, food security, fiscal transparency, health, and women’s rights. Successful programs include joint technical cooperation and training in support of trilateral development programs in Mozambique in agricultural research and technology and food security, with plans to extend this cooperation to additional countries in Africa, Central America, and the Caribbean. Multilaterally, the power of U.S.-Brazil collaboration is evidenced by the success of the Open Government Partnership, a multi-country initiative to foster transparency launched and co-chaired in its inaugural year by the United States and Brazil.
U.S. Assistance to Brazil
The United States, through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and Brazil are committed to forging a strong partnership that promotes development in other countries, principally in Africa and Latin America. USAID and Brazil have trilateral food security programs to increase agricultural productivity in Haiti, Honduras, and Mozambique. In addition, USAID and Brazil will work together to help improve citizen security in Central America. USAID, in partnership with four Brazilian ministries and the private sector, have also embarked on a new program to improve biodiversity conservation in the Amazon. Finally, through public-private partnerships, USAID is helping develop basic workplace skills and expand access to English language training for disadvantaged youth and increasing the development impact of social investments made by U.S. companies in Brazil through their corporate social responsibility programs.
Bilateral Economic Relations
Economic relations between Brazil and the United States, the two largest economies in the hemisphere, are steadily increasing. Mechanisms that improve the movement of trade, investments, and people between the United States and Brazil, expand jobs and prosperity in both countries, and foster in-depth dialogue on leading bilateral, regional, and global economic and financial issues include:
The Economic Partnership Dialogue, a multi-agency technical consultative mechanism, which addresses bilateral, trilateral, and hemispheric initiatives. * The Commission on Economic and Trade Relations, which explores greater cooperation on a variety of economic and trade issues. * The Economic and Financial Dialogue, which promotes common positions on global economic policy. * The Strategic Energy Dialogue, which aims to strengthen mutual energy security, create new jobs and industries, and reduce carbon pollution. * The Commercial Dialogue, which identifies strategies to eliminate impediments to increased trade and investment. * The Consultative Committee on Agriculture, which seeks to increase agricultural trade and cooperation. * The CEO Forum, which provides U.S. and Brazilian executives the opportunity to advise U.S. and Brazilian policymakers on increasing bilateral commercial ties, improving the business climate, and eliminating impediments to trade and investment. * The “Partnership for the Development of Aviation Biofuels,” which provides a forum for technical exchange on certification and standards for renewable fuels. * The 2011 Air Transport Agreement, which aims to remove limits on flight frequencies between the two countries by October 2015. * Through the Joint Standing Committee on Nuclear Energy Cooperation the United States and Brazil discuss policy and technical aspects related to civil nuclear energy and nuclear nonproliferation.
Brazil is the world’s seventh largest economy and the United States’ eighth-largest merchandise trading partner. Two way trade over the last three years hit record levels. . The United States had a record $16.5 billion trade surplus with Brazil in 2013, representing the eighth highest surplus market for the United States. Brazil’s main imports from the United States are machinery, chemicals, aircraft, electronics, and agricultural products. Brazilian tourism to the United States is at an all-time high, comprising the sixth largest group of visitors to the United States. Nearly 1.8 million Brazilian visitors contributed $9.3 billion to the U.S. economy in 2013, a figure that is expected to grow steadily in coming years.
The United States is Brazil’s second largest export market. The United States is the leading foreign investor in Brazil, with an accumulated foreign direct investment stock in 2013 of $78 billion. Brazilian investment in the United States has grown rapidly. In 2012, Brazil was named one of ten countries for the SelectUSA program to attract foreign investment to the United States. As the world’s largest biofuels producers, the United States and Brazil have worked together to help make sustainable biofuels a global commodity.
Brazil's Membership in International Organizations
Brazil and the United States belong to a number of the same international organizations, including the United Nations, Organization of American States, Inter-American Development Bank, G-20, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and World Trade Organization. Brazil has also traditionally been a leader in the inter-American community, and is a member of the sub-regional Mercosur and UNASUR groups.

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